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Encyclopedia > Geography of India
Geography of India
India
Continent Asia
Region Southern Asia
Indian subcontinent
Coordinates 20°00'N 77°00'E
Area Ranked 7th
3,287,263 km²
1,269,345.60 miles²
90.44% land
9.56% water
Coastline 7,516 km (4,670.23 miles)
Borders Total land borders:
14,103 km (8,763 mi)
Bangladesh:
4,053 km (2,518 mi)
Bhutan:
605 km (376 mi)
Myanmar:
1,463 km (909 mi)
China (PRC):
3,380 km (2,100 mi)
Nepal:
1,690 km (1,050 mi)
Pakistan:
2,912 km (1,809 mi)
Highest point Kangchenjunga[1]
8,598 m (28,209 ft)
Lowest point Kuttanad
-2.2 m (-7.2 ft)
Longest river GangesBrahmaputra
Largest lake Chilka Lake

The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. India comprises most of the Indian subcontinent situated on the Indian Plate, the northerly portion of the Indo-Australian Plate. Having a coastline of over 7,000 kilometres (4,350 mi), most of India lies on a peninsula in Southern Asia that protrudes into the Indian Ocean. India is bounded in the southwest by the Arabian Sea and in the east and southeast by the Bay of Bengal. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x958, 167 KB) India This is a NASA World Wind screenshot. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Countries by area. ... This is a list of land borders between countries Note: Entries which are not sovereign states are italicised. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Kuttanadu in Kerala, India is the lowest region of India, with 500 square kilometres of the region below sea level. ... “Ganga” redirects here. ... Brahmaputra A dugout with pilot in Chitwan. ... Chilka Lake (also Chilika Lake) is a brackish water coastal lake in Indias Orissa state, south of the mouth of the Mahanadi River. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...  The Indian plate, shown in red Due to continental drift, the India Plate split from Madagascar and collided with the Eurasian Plate resulting in the formation of the Himalayas. ...  The Indo-Australian plate, shown in dull orange The Indo-Australian Plate is an overarching name for two tectonic plates that include the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean extending northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters. ... This is a region of the continent of Asia that can have the following interpretations: The Indian Subcontinent and nearby islands in the Indian Ocean; see South Asia India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Maldives, Sri Lanka All of Asia that is considered to be Southwest, South and Southeast Asia. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The fertile Indo-Gangetic Plain occupies most of northern, central, and eastern India, while the Deccan Plateau occupies most of southern India. To the west of the country is the Thar Desert, which consists of a mix of rocky and sandy desert. India's east and northeastern border consists of the high Himalayan range. The highest point in India is disputed due to a territorial dispute with Pakistan; according to India's claim, the highest point (located in the disputed Kashmir region) is K2, at 8,611 metres (28,251 ft). The highest point in undisputed Indian territory is Kangchenjunga, at 8,598 m (28,209 ft). Climate ranges from equatorial in the far south, to Alpine in the upper reaches of the Himalayas. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... Deccan Plateau // Main article: Geography of India So anyway,The Deccan Plateau (Marathi: डेक्कन), also known as The Great Country, is a vast elevated tableland area with widely varying terrain features making up the majority of the southern India located between three ranges and extending over eight states. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the two Union Territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... A NASA satellite image of the Thar Desert, with the India-Pakistan border superimposed is found in canada, united states. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession/control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power. ... This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir. ... K2 is the second-highest mountain on Earth. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see climate) for a region above the tree-line. ...


India is bordered by Pakistan and Afghanistan to the north-west,[2] China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north, Myanmar to the east and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka, the Maldives and Indonesia are island nations to the south of India. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.Politically, India is divided into 28 states, and seven federally administered union territories. The political divisions generally follow linguistic and ethnic boundaries rather than geographic transitions. , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... An island nation is a country that is wholly confined to an island or islands. ... The Palk Strait is a 40-85 mi (64-137 km) wide strait that lies between Indias Tamil Nadu state and the island nation of Sri Lanka. ... The Gulf of Mannar is an arm of the Indian Ocean, lying between the southern tip of India and the west coast of Sri Lanka at a width of between 160 and 200 km (100 to 125 mi). ... A union territory is an administrative division of India. ...

Contents

Location and extent

See also: Extreme points of India
Kanyakumari is the southernmost point in mainland India.
Kanyakumari is the southernmost point in mainland India.

India lies to the north of the equator between 8°4' and 37°6' north latitude and 68°7' and 97°25' east longitude.[3] It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total land area of 3,287,263 square kilometres (1,269,219 sq mi).[4] India measures 3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south and 2,993 km (1,860 mi) from east to west. It has a land frontier of 15,200 km (9,445 mi) and a coastline of 7,517 km (4,671 mi).[5] This is a list of the extreme points of India, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location in the country. ... Image File history File links touched up image image a touched up image of http://commons. ... Image File history File links touched up image image a touched up image of http://commons. ... For other uses, see Kanyakumari (disambiguation). ... Countries by area. ...


India is bounded to the southwest by the Arabian Sea, to the southeast by the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean to the south. To the north, northeast, and northwest are the Himalayas. Cape Comorin constitutes the southern tip of the mainland Indian peninsula, which narrows before ending in the Indian Ocean. The southernmost part of India is Indira Point in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal.[5] The territorial waters of India extend into the sea to a distance of twelve nautical miles measured from the appropriate baseline.[6] Kanyakumari is a town and a cape at the southernmost tip of the Indian peninsula. ... Indira Point formerly (Pygmallion Point) situated in Andaman and Nicobar islands is the southernmost tip of India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of Sealand and the United Kingdom, with territorial water claims of 3nm and 12nm shown. ...


Political geography

India is divided into 28 states (which are further subdivided into districts), seven union territories. States have their own elected government, while union territories are governed by an administrator appointed by the union government. India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... The divisions of a district. ...

Administrative divisions of India, including 28 states and 7 union territories.
Administrative divisions of India, including 28 states and 7 union territories.

States: Image File history File links India-states-numbered. ... Image File history File links India-states-numbered. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ...

  1. Andhra Pradesh
  2. Arunachal Pradesh
  3. Assam
  4. Bihar
  5. Chhattisgarh
  6. Goa
  7. Gujarat
  8. Haryana
  9. Himachal Pradesh
  10. Jammu and Kashmir
  11. Jharkhand
  12. Karnataka
  13. Kerala
  14. Madhya Pradesh
  1. Maharashtra
  2. Manipur
  3. Meghalaya
  4. Mizoram
  5. Nagaland
  6. Orissa
  7. Punjab
  8. Rajasthan
  9. Sikkim
  10. Tamil Nadu
  11. Tripura
  12. Uttar Pradesh
  13. Uttarakhand
  14. West Bengal

Union Territories: “Andhra” redirects here. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi: Aruṇācal PradeÅ›) is the eastern most state on Indias north-east frontier. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Chhattisgarh (Chhattisgarhi/Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़, IPA: )  , a state in central India, formed when the sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on November 1, 2000. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... This article is for the Indian state. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... , Himachal Pradesh   (Panjabi: ਹਿਮਾਚਲ ਪਰਦੇਸ਼,(Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA: ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... This article is about the area controlled by India. ... , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झारखंड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মণিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... , Meghalaya   is a small state in north-eastern India. ... , Mizoram   is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. ... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखंड), known as Uttaranchal from 2000 to 2006, became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ...

  1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  2. Chandigarh
  3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
  4. Daman and Diu
  5. Lakshadweep
  6. National Capital Territory of Delhi
  7. Puducherry

The state of Jammu and Kashmir is claimed by India and Pakistan, and both administer part of the territory. India also claims Aksai Chin, a small barren piece of territory in Ladakh administered by China. The state of Arunachal Pradesh is claimed by China but administered by India. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... , Chandigarh   (Punjabi: , Hindi: , pronunciation: ) also called The City Beautiful , is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states: Punjab and Haryana. ... Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી, Hindi: दादरा और नगर हवेली, Urdu: دادرہ اور نگر حویلی, Portuguese: Dadrá e Nagar-Aveli) is a Union Territory in western India. ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Union Territory. ... China - India western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the juncture of China, Pakistan, and India. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people...


Physiographic regions

India is divided into seven physiographic regions. They are

  1. The northern mountains including the Himalayas, which includes the Kuen Lun and the Karakoram ranges and the northeast mountain ranges.
  2. Indo-Gangetic plains
  3. Thar Desert
  4. Central Highlands and Deccan Plateau
  5. East Coast
  6. West Coast
  7. Bordering seas and islands[5]

For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... Region containing Kunlun Mountains The Kunlun mountain range (Kunlun Shan, 崑崙山) is one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than 3000 km. ... Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A NASA satellite image of the Thar Desert, with the India-Pakistan border superimposed is found in canada, united states. ... Deccan Plateau // Main article: Geography of India So anyway,The Deccan Plateau (Marathi: डेक्कन), also known as The Great Country, is a vast elevated tableland area with widely varying terrain features making up the majority of the southern India located between three ranges and extending over eight states. ...

Mountains

Elevated regions in India
Himalayan peaks in Sikkim.
Himalayan peaks in Sikkim.

A great arc of mountains, composed of the Himalaya, Hindu Kush, and Patkai ranges, define the Indian subcontinent. These mountains were formed by the ongoing tectonic collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate which started some 50 million years ago. These mountain ranges are home to some of the world's tallest mountains and act as a natural barrier to cold polar winds. They also facilitate the monsoons winds drive climate in India. Rivers that originate in these mountains provide water to the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains. These mountains are recognised by biogeographers as the boundary between two of the earth's great ecozones; the temperate Palearctic that covers most of Eurasia, and the tropical and subtropical Indomalaya ecozone that includes the Indian subcontinent extending into Southeast Asia and Indonesia. Historically, these ranges have also served as barriers to invaders. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3042x2933, 2736 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3042x2933, 2736 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1818x1204, 655 KB) Rathong peak, near Kanchenjunga, from the Zemathang Glacier, Western Sikkim. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1818x1204, 655 KB) Rathong peak, near Kanchenjunga, from the Zemathang Glacier, Western Sikkim. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... The Patkai or the Purvachal are the hills on Indias eastern border with Myanmar. ... In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary – also known as a convergent plate boundary or a destructive plate boundary – is an actively deforming region where two (or more) tectonic plates or fragments of lithosphere move towards one another. ...  The Indian plate, shown in red Due to continental drift, the India Plate split from Madagascar and collided with the Eurasian Plate resulting in the formation of the Himalayas. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ... Bold text[[ // [[Image:Media:Example. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ... The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


India has nine major mountain ranges having peaks of over 1,000 m (3,281 ft). The Himalayas are the only mountain ranges to have snow-capped peaks. These ranges are:

  1. Aravalli Range
  2. Eastern Ghats
  3. Himalayas
  4. Patkai
  5. Vindhya Range
  6. Western Ghats (Sahyadri)
  7. Satpura Range
  8. Karakoram
  9. Kunlun

The Himalaya mountain range is the world's highest mountain range.[7] They form India's north-eastern border, separating it from the rest of Asia. The Himalayas are also one of the world's youngest mountain ranges, and extend almost uninterrupted for a distance of 2,500 m (8,202 ft), covering an area of 500,000 km² (193,051 sq mi).[7] The Himalayas extend from the state of Jammu and Kashmir in the west to the state of Arunachal Pradesh in the east. These states along with Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Sikkim lie mostly in the Himalayan region. Some of the Himalayan peaks range over 7,000 m (22,966 ft) and the snow line ranges between 6,000 m (19,685 ft) in Sikkim to around 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in Kashmir. Kangchenjunga, which lies on the SikkimNepal border, is the highest point in the area administered by India. Most peaks in the Himalayas remain snowbound throughout the year. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains, eroded and cut through by the four major rivers of southern India, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... The Patkai or the Purvachal are the hills on Indias eastern border with Myanmar. ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... The Satpura Range is a range of hills in central India. ... Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan. ... Region containing Kunlun Mountains The Kunlun mountain range (崑崙山) is one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than 3000 km. ... The snow line is the point above which, or poleward of which, snow and ice cover the ground throughout the year. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ...


The Shiwalik, or lower Himalaya, consists of smaller hills towards the Indian side. Most of the rock formations are young and highly unstable, with landslides being a regular phenomenon during the rainy season. Many of India's hill stations are located on this range. The climate varies from subtropical in the foothills to alpine at the higher elevations of these mountain ranges. The Siwalik Hills (sometimes spelled Shiwalik, Shivalik, or Sivalik) are a sub-Himalayan mountain range running 1,600 km long from the Tista River, Sikkim, through Nepal and India, into northern Pakistan. ... Kalimpong town as viewed from a distant hill. ...


The mountains on India's eastern border with Myanmar are called as the Patkai or the Purvanchal. They were created by the same tectonic processes that resulted in the formation of the Himalaya. The features of the Patkai ranges are conical peaks, steep slopes and deep valleys. The Patkai ranges are not as rugged or tall as the Himalayas. There are three hill ranges that come under the Patkai: The Patkai-Bum, the GaroKhasiJaintia, and the Lushai hills. The Garo–Khasi range is in the state of Meghalaya. Cherrapunji, which lies on the windward side of these hills, has the distinction of being the wettest place in the world, receiving the highest annual rainfall.[8] The Patkai or the Purvachal are the hills on Indias eastern border with Myanmar. ... The Garo Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in Meghalaya, India. ... The Khasi Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in Meghalaya, India. ... Jaintia Hills is an administrative district in the state of Meghalaya in India. ... Categories: India geography stubs | Mizoram | States and territories of India | Seven Sister States ... Meghalaya Cherrapunji is a town in Meghalaya, India which is credited as being one of the worlds wettest places. ... Windward is the side of a boat into which the wind is blowing. ...

The Vindhyas in central India
The Vindhyas in central India

The Vindhya range runs across most of central India, covering a distance of 1,050 km (652 mi).[7] The average elevation of these hills is 3,000 m (9,843 ft).[7] They are believed to have been formed by the wastes created due to the weathering of the ancient Aravali mountains. It geographically separates northern India from southern India. The western end of the range lies in eastern Gujarat, near its border with the state of Madhya Pradesh, and the range runs east and north almost meeting the Ganges River at Mirzapur. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the two Union Territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... This article is about the river. ... , Mirzapur   is a city in the heart of North India, nearly 650 km between Delhi and Kolkata and also equidistant from Allahabad and Varanasi. ...


The Satpura Range is a range of hills in central India. It begins in eastern Gujarat near the Arabian Sea coast, then runs east across Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and ends in the state of Chhattisgarh. It extends for a distance of 900 km (559 mi) with many of its peaks rising above 1,000 m (3,281 ft).[7] It is triangular in shape, with its apex at Ratnapuri and the two sides being parallel to the Tapti and Narmada rivers.[9] It runs parallel to the Vindhya Range, which lies to the north, and these two east-west ranges divide the Indo-Gangetic plain of northern India from the Deccan Plateau lying in the south. The Narmada runs in the depression between the Satpura and Vindhya ranges, and drains the northern slope of the Satpura range, running west towards the Arabian Sea. The Satpura Range is a range of hills in central India. ... Ratnapuri is a place in Uttar Pradesh, India. ... The Tapti River (also Tapi River) is a river of central India. ... The Narmada River in central India The Narmada (Gujarati: નર્મદા Devanagri: नर्मदा or Nerbudda (Narbada) is a river in central India in Indian subcontinent. ...


The Aravali Range is the oldest mountain range in India, running from northeast to southwest across Rajasthan in western India, extending approximately 500 km (311 mi). The northern end of the range continues as isolated hills and rocky ridges into Haryana, ending near Delhi. The highest peak is Mount Abu, rising to 1,722 m (5,650 ft), lying near the southwestern extremity of the range, close to the border with Gujarat. The Aravali Range is the eroded stub of an ancient folded mountain system that was once snow-capped. The range rose in a Precambrian event called the Aravali-Delhi orogen. The range joins two of the ancient segments that make up the Indian craton, the Marwar segment to the northwest of the range, and the Bundelkhand segment to the southeast. The Aravali Range The Aravali Range is a range of mountains in western India running approximately 300 miles northeast-southwest across Rajasthan state. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Mount Abu is the highest peak in the Aravalli Range of Rajasthan state, in western India. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... In geology, orogeny is the process of mountain building. ... World geologic provinces. ... Marwar (मारवाड़) is a region of southwestern Rajasthan state in western India. ...

Map of the hilly regions in India.
Map of the hilly regions in India.

The Western Ghats or Sahyadri mountains run along the western edge of India's Deccan Plateau, and separate it from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. The range starts south of the Tapti River near the Gujarat–Maharashtra border, and runs approximately 1,600 km (994 mi)[9] across the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, almost to the southern tip of the Indian peninsula. The average elevation is around 1,000 m (3,281 ft).[9] The Anai Mudi in the Cardamom Hills at 2,695 m (8,842 ft)in Kerala is the highest peak in the Western Ghats. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (609x700, 49 KB) Hills and elevated regions of India. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (609x700, 49 KB) Hills and elevated regions of India. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... Deccan Plateau // Main article: Geography of India So anyway,The Deccan Plateau (Marathi: डेक्कन), also known as The Great Country, is a vast elevated tableland area with widely varying terrain features making up the majority of the southern India located between three ranges and extending over eight states. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... The Tapti River (also Tapi River) is a river of central India. ... ... The Cardamom Hills are elevated regions in Kerala, India. ...


The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains, which have been eroded and cut through by the four major rivers of southern India, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. These mountain ranges extend from West Bengal in the north, through Orissa and Andhra Pradesh to Tamil Nadu in the south. They run parallel to the Bay of Bengal. Though not as tall as the Western Ghats, though some of its peaks are over 1,000 m (3,281 ft) in height.[9] The Eastern Ghats meet with the Western Ghats meet at the Nilgiri hills in Tamil Nadu. The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains, eroded and cut through by the four major rivers of southern India, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. ... Godavari river map The Godavari River, adjacent to the town of Kovvur This article is about Godavari River in India. ... The Mahanadi River is a river of eastern India. ... Krishna in Vijayawada in 2007 The River Krishna (meaning dark (feminine) in Sanskrit, also called the Krishnaveni, is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ... This article is about a river. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nilgiri, which literally means Blue Mountain in various Indo-Aryan languages, can refer to: Nilgiris (mountains), a range of mountains panning across the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in Southern India Nilgiri, a mountain located in Balasore District of the state of Orissa in East India Nilgiris (mountains in...


Indo-Gangetic plain

Main article: Indo-Gangetic plain
Extent of the Indo-Gangetic plain across South Asia.
Extent of the Indo-Gangetic plain across South Asia.

The Indo-Gangetic plains are large floodplains of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems. They run parallel to the Himalaya mountains, from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Assam in the east, draining the states of Punjab, Haryana, parts of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. The plains encompass an area of 700,000 km² (270,000 mile²) and vary in width through their length by several hundred kilometres. Major rivers that form a part of this system are the Ganga (Ganges) and Indus River along with their tributaries; Beas, Yamuna, Gomti, Ravi, Chambal, Sutlej and Chenab.
The great plains are sometimes classified into four divisions: This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This picture shows the flood plain following a 1 in 10 year flood on the Isle of Wight. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... This article is about the river. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ... This article is about the area controlled by India. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झारखंड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... This article is about the river. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... The Beas River (Punjabi: ) runs through the Northwestern Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. ... The river Yamuna is a major river of northern India, with a total length of around 1370 km. ... The Gomti River is one of the tributaries of the river Ganga. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Sutlej is a river that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet. ... The Chenab River (Punjabi: , , Urdu: , literally Moon(Chen) River(ab)) is formed by the confluence of the Chandra and Bhaga rivers at Tandi located in the upper Himalayas, in the Lahaul district of Himachal Pradesh, India. ...

  • The Bhabar belt- This is adjacent to the foothills of the Himalayas and consists of boulders and pebbles which have been carried down by the river streams. As the porosity of this belt is very high, the streams flow underground. The bhabar is generally narrow about 7-15 km wide.
  • The Terai belt- This belt lies next to the bhabar region and is composed of newer alluvium. The underground streams re-appear in this region. The region is excessively moist and thickly forested. It also receives heavy rainfall throughout the year and is populated with a variety of wildlife.
  • The Bangar belt- It consists of older alluvium and forms the alluvial terrace of the flood plains. In the Gangetic plains, it has a low upland covered by laterite deposits.
  • The Khadar belt- It lies in lowland areas after the Bangar belt. It is made up of fresh newer alluvium which is deposited by the rivers flowing down the plain.

The Indo-Gangetic belt is the world's most extensive expanse of uninterrupted alluvium formed by the deposition of silt by the numerous rivers. The plains are flat and mostly treeless, making it conducive for irrigation through canals. The area is also rich in ground water sources. Bhabhar is a region in the Lower Himalayas mostly covering the Kumaon and Garhwal divisions in the Indian state of Uttaranchal. ... The Terai, or Tarai (i. ... Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, to wash against) is soil or sediments deposited by a river or other running water. ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... Groundwater is any water found below the land surface. ...


The plains are one of the world's most intensely farmed areas. Crops grown on the Indo-Gangetic Plain are primarily rice and wheat, grown in rotation. Other crops include maize, sugarcane and cotton. Also known as the Great Plains, the Indo-Gangetic plains rank among the world's most densely populated areas. Intensive Farming Intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs as relative to land area (as opposed to extensive farming). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ...


Thar Desert

Main article: Thar Desert
Jaisalmer in Rajasthan is situated in the heart of the Thar Desert. The region is arid and dusty.
Jaisalmer in Rajasthan is situated in the heart of the Thar Desert. The region is arid and dusty.

The Thar Desert (also known as the Great Indian Desert) is a hot desert that forms a significant portion of western India. Spread over four states in IndiaPunjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Gujarat it covers an area of 208,110 km² (80,350 mile²). The desert continues into Pakistan as the Cholistan Desert. Most of the Thar Desert is situated in Rajasthan, covering 61% of its geographic area. Most of the desert is rocky, with a small part of the extreme west of the desert being sandy. A NASA satellite image of the Thar Desert, with the India-Pakistan border superimposed is found in canada, united states. ... Image File history File links Description Architecture à Jaisalmer au Rajasthan en Inde Architecture in Jaisalmer, [[en:Rajasthan|Rajasthan], India Source Serge Duchemin Statut File links The following pages link to this file: Geography of India Jaisalmer ... Image File history File links Description Architecture à Jaisalmer au Rajasthan en Inde Architecture in Jaisalmer, [[en:Rajasthan|Rajasthan], India Source Serge Duchemin Statut File links The following pages link to this file: Geography of India Jaisalmer ... , Jaisalmer   (The Golden City) is a town in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Derawar Fort in Cholistan. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ...


The origin of the Thar Desert is uncertain. Some geologists consider it to be 4,000 to 10,000 years old, whereas others state that aridity began in this region much earlier. The area is characterised by extreme temperatures of above 45 °C (113 °F) in summer to below freezing in winters. Rainfall is precarious and erratic, ranging from below 120 mm (4.72 inches) in the extreme west to 375 mm (14.75 inches) eastward. The lack of rainfall is mainly due to the unique position of the desert with respect to the Aravalli range. The desert lies in the rain shadow area of the Bay of Bengal arm of the southwest monsoon. The parallel nature of the range to the Arabian Sea arm also means that the desert does not receive much rainfall. a term used to define dryness of an environment, [ie, an organic structure (eg plant or animal) will have more of its moisture removed more quickly when in an environment of high aridity. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Freezing point can refer to several things: For the chemistry term, see Melting point. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The soils of the arid region are generally sandy to sandy-loam in texture. The consistency and depth vary according to the topographical features. The low-lying loams are heavier and may have a hard pan of clay, calcium carbonate or gypsum. Due to the low population density, the effect of the population on the environment is relatively less compared to the rest of India. Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ...


Highlands

The Central Highlands are composed of three main plateaus—the Malwa Plateau in the west, the Deccan Plateau in the south, (covering most of the Indian peninsula), and the Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand towards the east. For other uses, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... Deccan Plateau // Main article: Geography of India So anyway,The Deccan Plateau (Marathi: डेक्कन), also known as The Great Country, is a vast elevated tableland area with widely varying terrain features making up the majority of the southern India located between three ranges and extending over eight states. ... The Chota Nagpur Plateau (also Chhota Nagpur) is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Orissa, Bihar, and Chhattisgarh. ... , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झारखंड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ...

Satellite image of the Deccan region of southern India

The Deccan Plateau is a large triangular plateau, bounded by the Vindhyas to the north and flanked by the Eastern and Western Ghats. The Deccan covers a total area of 1.9 million km² (735,000 mile²). It is mostly flat, with elevations ranging from 300 to 600 m (1,000 to 2,000 ft).[10] Download high resolution version (800x1046, 142 KB)URL Source : [1] File links There are no pages that link to this file. ... Download high resolution version (800x1046, 142 KB)URL Source : [1] File links There are no pages that link to this file. ...


The name Deccan comes from the Sanskrit word dakshina, which means "the south". The plateau slopes gently from west to east and gives rise to several peninsular rivers such as the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri and the Narmada. This region is mostly semi-arid as it lies on the leeward side of both Ghats. Much of the Deccan is covered by thorn scrub forest scattered with small regions of deciduous broadleaf forest. Climate ranges from hot summers to mild winters. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... Godavari river map The Godavari River, adjacent to the town of Kovvur This article is about Godavari River in India. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... The Cauvery (sometimes written as Kaveri) is one of the major rivers of southern India. ... The Narmada River in central India The Narmada (Gujarati: નર્મદા Devanagri: नर्मदा or Nerbudda (Narbada) is a river in central India in Indian subcontinent. ... Deciduous forest after leaf fall Like many deciduous plants, Forsythia flowers during the leafless season For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ...


The Chota Nagpur Plateau is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Orissa, Bihar, and Chhattisgarh. The total area of Chota Nagpur Plateau is approximately 65,000 km² (25,000 mile²). The Chota Nagpur Plateau is made up of three smaller plateaus, the Ranchi, Hazaribagh, and Kodarma plateaus. The Ranchi plateau is the largest of the plateaus, with an average elevation of 700 m (2,300 ft). Much of the plateau is forested, covered by the Chota Nagpur dry deciduous forests. The plateau is famous for its vast reserves of ores and coal. , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झारखंड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Chhattisgarh (Chhattisgarhi/Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़, IPA: )  , a state in central India, formed when the sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on November 1, 2000. ... The Chota Nagpur dry deciduous forest is a Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests type ecoregion of India. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ...


Besides the Great Indian peninsula, the Kathiawar Peninsula in Gujarat is another large peninsula of India. Kathiawar in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ...


East coast

The Eastern Coastal Plain is a wide stretch of land lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. It stretches from Tamil Nadu in the south to West Bengal in the north. Deltas of many of India's rivers form a major portion of these plains. The Mahanadi, Godavari, Kaveri and Krishna rivers drain these plains. The region receives both the Northeast and Southwest monsoon rains with its annual rainfall averaging between 1,000 mm (40 in) and 3,000 mm (120 in). The width of the plains varies between 100 to 130 km (62 to 80 miles).[11] Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... The Mahanadi River is a river of eastern India. ... Godavari river map The Godavari River, adjacent to the town of Kovvur This article is about Godavari River in India. ... The Cauvery (sometimes written as Kaveri) is one of the major rivers of southern India. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ...


The plains are divided into six regions: The Mahanadi delta; the southern Andhra Pradesh plain; the Krishna Godavari deltas; the Kanyakumari coast; Coromandel Coast and sandy coastal. Districts along the Coromandel Coast Map of the coast (French) The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. ...


West coast

A view of India's west coast at Goa, near the border with Maharashtra.
A view of India's west coast at Goa, near the border with Maharashtra.

The Western Coastal Plain is a narrow strip of land sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. The strip begins in Gujarat in the north and extends across the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala. The plains are narrow, and range from 50 to 100 km (30 to 60 miles) in width. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...


Small rivers and numerous backwaters inundate the region. The rivers, which originate in the Western Ghats, are fast flowing and are mostly perennial. The fast flowing nature of the rivers results in the formation of estuaries rather than deltas. Major rivers flowing into the sea are the Tapi, Narmada, Mandovi and Zuari. For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Rio de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... The Mandovi River, is described to be the lifeline of the state of Goa, India. ... ...


The coast is divided into three regions. The northern region of Maharashtra and Goa is known as the Konkan Coast, the central region of Karnataka is known as the Kanara Coast and the southern coastline of Kerala is known as the Malabar Coast. Vegetation in this region is mostly deciduous. The Malabar Coast has its own unique ecoregion known as the Malabar Coast moist forests. It has been suggested that History of the Konkan be merged into this article or section. ... The Kanara or Canara (called Kannada in Karnataka) districts comprise three districts of Karnataka - North Kanara (Uttara Kannada) whose administrative headquarters is Karwar, Udupi, and South Kanara (Dakshina Kannada), whose administrative headquarters is Mangalore. ... Malabar Coast, Kerala Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala The Malabar Coast also known as the Malabarian Coast, is a long and narrow south-western shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent. ... The Malabar Coast moist forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of southwestern India. ...


Islands

India has two major offshore island possessions: the Lakshadweep islands and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Both these island groups are administered by the Union government of India as Union Territories. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ...


The Lakshadweep islands lie 200 to 300 km (124 to 186 miles) off the coast of Kerala in the Arabian Sea. It consists of twelve coral atolls, three coral reefs, and five banks. Ten of these islands are inhabited. Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Portion of a Pacific atoll showing two islets on the ribbon or barrier reef separated by a deep pass between the ocean and the lagoon. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ...


The Andaman & Nicobar Islands are located between 6o and 14o North latitude and 92o and 94o East longitude.[12] The Andaman and Nicobar islands consist of 572 isles which lie in the Bay of Bengal, near the Myanmar coast. It is located 1255 km (780 miles) from Kolkata (Calcutta) and 193 km (120 miles) from Cape Negrais in Myanmar.[12] The territory consists of two island groups, the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands. The Andaman islands consist of 204 islands having a total length of 352 km (220 miles). The Nicobar Islands, which lie south of the Andamans, consists of twenty-two islands with a total area of 1,841 km² (710 mile²). The highest point is Mount Thullier at 642 m (2,140 ft). Indira Point, India's southernmost land point is situated in the Nicobar islands, and lies just 189 km (117 miles) from the Indonesian island of Sumatra to the southeast. , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... Cape Negrais is a cape in Myanmar (Burma), 93 kilometres from the Indian union territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. ... Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. ... Map of Nicobar Islands The Nicobar Islands are an island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean, and are part of the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. ... Mount Thullier is the highest point in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a Union Territory of India at 642 metres. ... Indira Point formerly (Pygmallion Point) situated in Andaman and Nicobar islands is the southernmost tip of India. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ...


Significant islands just off the Indian coast include Diu, a former Portuguese exclave; Majuli, Asia's largest freshwater island; Salcette Island, India's most populous island, on which Mumbai (Bombay) city is located; Elephanta in Bombay Harbour; and Sriharikota barrier island in Andhra Pradesh. Diu is a city in Diu district in the state of Daman & Diu, India. ... Majuli or Majoli is a river island in the Brahmaputra river, in the Indian state of Assam. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... The island as seen from the sky Salcette Island is a large island off the coast of Maharashtra, India in the Arabian Sea. ... , “Bombay” redirects here. ... Picture of a cave Elephanta Caves are located one and one-half hours (by boat) out of Mumbai on Elephanta Island in the Bombay Harbour. ... The estuary of the Ulhas river, the northern (and narrower) part of which is called the Thane Creek. ... Sriharikota (also Sriharikote) is a barrier island off the coast of Andhra Pradesh in India. ... In geography, a bar is a linear shoaling landform feature within a body of water. ...


Rivers

Main article: Rivers of India
Rivers in India.
Rivers in India.
The Narmada River in central India.
The Narmada River in central India.

All major rivers of India originate from one of the three main watersheds. They are:[9] The rivers of India play an important role in the lives of the Indian people. ... Image File history File links Rivers of India map Map made by me, Nichalp File links The following pages link to this file: Geography of India ... Image File history File links Rivers of India map Map made by me, Nichalp File links The following pages link to this file: Geography of India ... Image File history File links Description La Narmadâ à Jabalpurthis photograph shows the backwaters of the narmada Source http://perso. ... Image File history File links Description La Narmadâ à Jabalpurthis photograph shows the backwaters of the narmada Source http://perso. ... The Narmada River in central India The Narmada (Gujarati: નર્મદા Devanagri: नर्मदा or Nerbudda (Narbada) is a river in central India in Indian subcontinent. ... For the Second World War frigate class, see River class frigate The Murray River in Australia A waterfall on the Ova da Fedoz, Switzerland A river is a large natural waterway. ... River Wey near its source at Farringdon, Hampshire Headstream is the origin of water flow that initiates the subject watercourse. ... Main European water divides (red lines) separating catchments (gray regions). ...

  1. The Himalaya and the Karakoram ranges
  2. Vindhya and Satpura range in central India
  3. Sahyadri or Western Ghats in western India

The Himalayan river networks are snow-fed and have a continuous flow throughout the year. The other two networks are dependent on the monsoons and shrink into rivulets during the dry season.


Twelve of India's rivers are classified as major, with the total catchment area exceeding 2,528,000 km² (976,000 mile²).[9]

The Teesta River, a tributary of the Brahmaputra in northern West Bengal.
The Teesta River, a tributary of the Brahmaputra in northern West Bengal.

Himalayan rivers or the northern rivers that flow westward into Pakistan are the Indus, Beas, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Jhelum.[13] Image File history File links The Teesta River, which begins in the Himalayas, is the lifeline of the Indian state of Sikkim, almost bisecting the state before merging with the mighty Brahmaputra. ... Image File history File links The Teesta River, which begins in the Himalayas, is the lifeline of the Indian state of Sikkim, almost bisecting the state before merging with the mighty Brahmaputra. ... The Teesta River is one of the most scenic rivers in Eastern India. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... The Beas River (Punjabi: ) runs through the Northwestern Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. ... The Chenab River rises in the Himalayan ranges of Kashmir and flows through the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between the Rechna and the Jech Doabs. ... The Ravi River (Punjabi: , Urdu: ) is a river in India and Pakistan. ... The Sutlej, also known as Satluj, is the longest of the five rivers of Punjab (five waters) that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet near Mount Kailash. ... The Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and passes through Jhelum City. ...


The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghana system has the largest catchment area of 1,100,000 km² (424,700 mile²).[9] The river Ganga originates at the Gangotri Glacier in Uttarakhand.[13] It flows in a south easterly direction, draining into Bangladesh.[9] The Yamuna and Gomti rivers also arise in the Western Himalayas and join the Ganga river in the plains.[9] The Brahmaputra, another tributary of the Ganga originates in Tibet and enters India in the far eastern state of Arunachal Pradesh. It then proceeds westwards, unifying with the Ganga in Bangladesh.[9] The Ganga basin is a part of the composite Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin, which drains an area of 1,086,000 square kilometres. ... Goumukh, terminus of the Gangotri glacier (lower right in image, behind prayer flag) Gangotri Glacier is located in Uttarakhand, India in a region bordering China. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखंड), known as Uttaranchal from 2000 to 2006, became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ... Not to be confused with the nearby Jamuna River a tributary of the Meghna River, which is sometimes confused both in older historical literature, and by translations of the local dialects. ... The Gomti River is one of the tributaries of the river Ganga. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi: Aruṇācal PradeÅ›) is the eastern most state on Indias north-east frontier. ...


The Chambal, another tributary of the Ganga originates from the Vindhya-Satpura watershed. The river flows eastward. Westward flowing rivers from this watershed are the Narmada (also called Nerbudda) and Tapti (also spelled Tapi) rivers which drain into the Arabian Sea in Gujarat. The river network that flows from east to west constitutes 10% of the total outflow. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Narmada River in central India The Narmada (Gujarati: નર્મદા Devanagri: नर्मदा or Nerbudda (Narbada) is a river in central India in Indian subcontinent. ... The Tapti River is a river of central India. ...


The Western Ghats are the source of all Deccan rivers. Major rivers in the Deccan include the Mahanadi River through the Mahanadi River Delta, Godavari River, Krishna River, and Kaveri River (also spelled Cauvery), all draining into the Bay of Bengal. These rivers constitute 20% of India's total outflow.[13]
The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... The Mahanadi River is a river of eastern India. ... Mahanadi River Delta in India is a basin of deposit that drains a large land mass of the Indian subcontinent into the South China Sea. ... Godavari river map The Godavari River, adjacent to the town of Kovvur This article is about Godavari River in India. ... Krishna in Vijayawada in 2007 The River Krishna (meaning dark (feminine) in Sanskrit, also called the Krishnaveni, is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ... This article is about a river. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Bodies of water

Major gulfs include the Gulf of Cambay, Gulf of Kutch and the Gulf of Mannar. Straits include the Palk Strait which separates India from Sri Lanka and the Ten Degree Channel, separating the Andamans from the Nicobar Islands and the Eight Degree Channel separating the Laccadive and Amindivi Islands from Minicoy Island towards the south. Important capes include the Cape Comorin, the southern tip of mainland India, Indira Point, the southernmost location of India, Rama's Bridge and Point Calimere. Arabian Sea is to the west of India. Bay of Bengal is to the eastern side of India while India Ocean is to the South of India. The Gulf of Cambay (also the Gulf of Khambat) is an inlet of the Arabian Sea along the west coast of India, in the state of Gujarat. ... Gulf of Kutch on the left. ... The Gulf of Mannar is an arm of the Indian Ocean, lying between the southern tip of India and the west coast of Sri Lanka at a width of between 160 and 200 km (100 to 125 mi). ... The Palk Strait is a 40-85 mi (64-137 km) wide strait that lies between Indias Tamil Nadu state and the island nation of Sri Lanka. ... The Ten Degree Channel is a channel (strait) that separates the Andaman Islands from the Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal. ... Kanyakumari is a town and a cape at the southernmost tip of the Indian peninsula. ... Indira Point formerly (Pygmallion Point) situated in Andaman and Nicobar islands is the southernmost tip of India. ... Ramas Bridge, also called Nalas Bridge and Adams Bridge is a chain of limestone shoals, between the islands of Mannar, near northwestern Sri Lanka, and Rameswaram, off the southeastern coast of India. ... Point Calimere, also called Cape Calimere and Kodikkarai, is a low headland on the Coromandel Coast, in Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu state, India. ...


Smaller seas include the Laccadive Sea and the Andaman Sea. There are four coral reefs in India and are located in; the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Gulf of Mannar, Lakshadweep and Gulf of Kutch.[14] The Laccadive Sea encirces the Lakshadweep Islands belonging to India. ... The Andaman Sea (Burmese: ; IPA: ) is a body of water to the southeast of the Bay of Bengal, south of Myanmar, west of Thailand and east of the Andaman Islands; it is part of the Indian Ocean. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... The Gulf of Mannar is an arm of the Indian Ocean, lying between the southern tip of India and the west coast of Sri Lanka at a width of between 160 and 200 km (100 to 125 mi). ... Gulf of Kutch on the left. ...


Important lakes include Chilka Lake, the country's largest salt-water lake in Orissa; Kolleru Lake in Andhra Pradesh; Loktak Lake in Manipur, Dal Lake in Kashmir, Sambhar Lake in Rajasthan, and the Sasthamkotta Lake in Kerala. Chilka Lake (also Chilika Lake) is a brackish water coastal lake in Indias Orissa state, south of the mouth of the Mahanadi River. ... The endangered Kolleru Lake at dusk. ... Loktak Lake is the largest freshwater lake in northeastern India. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মণিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... sab bakwas hai Categories: India geography stubs | Jammu and Kashmir | Kashmir ... Sambhar Lake Sambhar Salt Lake is an India’s largest salt lake, sits west of the Indian city of Jaipur (Rajasthan, Northwest India). ... Sasthamkotta Lake, is a large freshwater lake in Kerala state of southern India. ...


Wetlands

Wetlands are lands transtional between aquatic and territorial system where water table is usually or near the water surface and land is covered by shallow water.[15] They also act as a buffer against the devastationg effect of hurricanes and cyclones, thereby stabilizing the shore-line. It also helps in keeping a check on sea and soil erosion. India's wetland ecosystem is widely distributed from the cold and arid; from ones in the Ladakh regional in the state of Jammu and Kashmir to the ones in the wet and humid climate of peninsula India. Most of the wetlands are directly or indirectly linked to India's river networks. In 1987, National Wetland Conservation Programme was initiated by the government for wetland conservation. Under this programme, the Indian government has identified a total of 71 wetlands for conservation.[15] , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... This article is about the area controlled by India. ...


Mangrove forests occur all along the Indian coastline, in sheltered estuaries, creeks, backwaters, salt marshes and mud flats. The mangrove area covers a total of 4,461 km² (1,722 mile²)[16] which comprises 7% of the world's total mangrove cover. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands; the Sundarbans; Gulf of Kutch; deltas of the Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna; and parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala have large mangrove covers.[14] Most of the identified wetlands adjoin or are parts of sanctuaries, national parks and are thus protected. Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world. ... Gulf of Kutch on the left. ...


The Sundarbans

Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India
Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India
Main article: Sundarbans

The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world. It lies at the mouth of the Ganges and is spread across areas of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. The Bangladeshi and Indian portions of the jungle are listed in the UNESCO world heritage list separately as the Sundarbans and Sundarbans National Park respectively, though they are parts of the same forest. The Sundarbans are intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests, and presents an excellent example of ongoing ecological processes. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1370, 804 KB) GANGES RIVER DELTA, BANGLADESH, INDIA (STS066-92-013). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1370, 804 KB) GANGES RIVER DELTA, BANGLADESH, INDIA (STS066-92-013). ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... This article is about the river. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... The Sundarbans National Park (Bengali: সুন্দরবন জাতীয় উদ্দ্যান) is a National Park, Tiger Reserve, UNESCO World Heritage Site and a Biosphere Reserve located in the Sundarbans delta in Indian state of West Bengal. ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ... Mudflats in Brewster, Massachusetts extending hundreds of yards offshore at the low tide. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ...


The area is known for its wide range of fauna. The most famous among these is the Bengal Tiger, but numerous species of birds, spotted deer, crocodiles and snakes also inhabit it. It is estimated that there are now 400 Bengal tigers and about 30,000 spotted deer in the area. Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bengal Tiger or Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a subspecies of tiger primarily found in India, Bangladesh and also in Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and in southern Tibet. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... Genera Mecistops Crocodylus Osteolaemus See full taxonomy. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ...


Rann of Kutch

Main article: Rann of Kutch

The Rann of Kutch is a marshy region located in the Gujarat state of India, which borders the Sindh region of Pakistan. The name Rann comes from the Hindi word ran meaning "salt marsh." It occupies a total area of 27,900 km² (10,800 mile²).[17] Rann of Kutch on the Top Left. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the two central official languages of India, the other being English. ...


The region was originally a part of the Arabian Sea. Geologic forces, most likely by earthquakes, resulted in the damming up of the region, turning it into a large salt-water lagoon. This area gradually filled with silt thus turning it into a seasonal salt marsh. During the monsoons, the area turns into a shallow marsh, often flooding to knee-depth height. After the monsoons, the region turns dry and becomes parched. This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ...


Soil

Soils in India can be classified into 8 categories namely, alluvial soil, black soil, red soil, laterite soil, forest soil, arid & desert soil, saline & alkaline soil, and finally peaty & organic soil.[18][19] Of the above eight varieties, the first 4 constitute nearly 80% of total land surface. Alluvial soil constitute the largest soil group in India.[19] It is derived from deposition of silt carried by numerous rivers.[19] Alluvial soils are generally fertile but they lack humus and nitrogen.[19] These are found in the Great Northern plains from Punjab to Assam valley.


Black soil are well developed in the Deccan lava region of Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh.[20] These contain high percentage of clay and are thus moisture retentive.[19] Because of these properties they are preferred for dry farming and growing cotton, linseed etc.


Red soil have a wide diffusion of iron content and are found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka plateau, and Andhra plateau.[20] The central highlands from Aravallis to Chota Nagpur plateau also have significant tracts of red soil. These are deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and humus.[19][20]


Laterite soils are formed in tropical regions with heavy rainfall. Heavy rainfall results in leaching out all soluble material of top layer of soil. These are generally found in Western ghats, Eastern ghats and hilly areas of North-Eastern states which receive very heavy rainfall.


Forest soils occur on the slopes of mountains and hills in Himalayas, Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats. These generally consist of large amounts of dead leaves and other organic matter called humus. These soils are used for tea and coffee plantations.


Climate

Main article: Climate of India
See also: Climatic Regions of India

The climate of India is comprised of a wide range of weather conditions across a vast geographic scale and varied topography, making generalisations difficult. Based on the Köppen system, India hosts six major climatic subtypes, ranging from arid desert in the west, alpine tundra and glaciers in the north, and humid tropical regions supporting rainforests in the southwest and the island territories. Many regions have starkly different microclimates. The nation has four seasons: winter (January–February), summer (March–May), a monsoon (rainy) season (June–September), and a post-monsoon period (October–December).[13] A semi-arid wasteland near Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. ... India has a large variation in climate from region to region, due to its vast size. ... The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... Tree ferns thrive in a protected dell at Heligan Gardens, in Cornwall, England, latitude 50° 15N A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area. ... Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... Bold text[[ // [[Image:Media:Example. ...


India's unique geography and geology strongly influence its climate; this is particularly true of the Himalayas in the north and the Thar Desert in the northwest. The Himalayas act as a barrier to the frigid katabatic winds flowing down from Central Asia. Thus, North India is kept warm or only mildly cooled during winter; in summer, the same phenomenon makes India relatively hot. Although the Tropic of Cancer—the boundary between the tropics and subtropics—passes through the middle of India, the whole country is considered to be tropical. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... A NASA satellite image of the Thar Desert, with the India-Pakistan border superimposed is found in canada, united states. ... A katabatic wind, from the Greek word katabatikos meaning going downhill, is a wind that blows down a topographic incline such as a hill, mountain, or glacier. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... For the novel by Henry Miller, see Tropic of Cancer (novel). ...

Temperature averages in India; units are in degree Celsius.
Temperature averages in India; units are in degree Celsius.

Summer lasts between March and June in most parts of India. Temperatures exceed 40 °C (104 °F) during the day. The coastal regions exceed 30 °C (86 °F) coupled with high levels of humidity. In the Thar desert area temperatures can exceed 45 °C (113 °F). Image File history File links Temperature zones of India map; All units in degree celcius. ... Image File history File links Temperature zones of India map; All units in degree celcius. ... Humidity is the amount of water vapor in air. ...


Summer is followed by the southwest monsoon rains that provide most of India with its rainfall. The rain-bearing clouds are attracted to the low-pressure system created by the Thar Desert. The official date for the arrival of the monsoon is 1 June, when the monsoon crosses the Kerala coast. The southwest monsoon splits into two arms, the Bay of Bengal arm and the Arabian Sea arm. The Bay of Bengal arm moves northwards crossing northeast India in early June. It then progresses eastwards, crossing Delhi by June 29. The Arabian Sea arm moves north-wards and deposits much of its rain on the windward side of Western Ghats. By early July, most of India receives rain from the monsoons. Bold text[[ // [[Image:Media:Example. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The monsoons start retreating by August from northern India and by October from Kerala. This short period after the retreat is known as the retreat of the monsoons and is characterised by still weather. By November, winter starts setting in the northern areas.


Winters start in November in northern India and late December in southern India. Winters in peninsula India see mild to warm days and cool nights. Further north the temperature is cooler. Temperatures in some parts of the Indian plains sometimes fall below freezing. Most of northern India is plagued by fog during this season. For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ...


The highest temperature recoded in India was 50.6 °C (123.08 °F) in Alwar in 1955. The lowest was −45 °C (−49 °F) in Kashmir. Recent claims of temperatures touching 55 °C (131 °F) in Orissa have been met with some scepticism by the Indian Meteorological Department, largely on the method of recording of such data. Alwar is famous for its scenic landscape Alwar is a city in the Rajasthan state of western India. ... IMD logo The India Meteorological Department is a government of India organisation that is responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasts, detecting earthquakes etc. ...


Geology

Main article: Geology of India
Geological regions of India
Geological regions of India

India has a varied geology spanning the entire spectrum of the geological time period. India's geological features are classified based on their era of formation.[21] This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Image File history File links Geology of India map Map made by me, Nichalp File links The following pages link to this file: Geography of India ... Image File history File links Geology of India map Map made by me, Nichalp File links The following pages link to this file: Geography of India ...


The Precambrian formations of Cudappah and Vindhyan systems are spread out over the eastern and southern states. A small part of this period is spread over western and central India.[21] The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ...


The Paleozoic formations from the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian system are found in the Western Himalaya region in Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.[21] The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ...


The Mesozoic Deccan Traps formation is seen over most of the northern Deccan. Geologists believe that the Deccan Traps were the result of sub-aerial volcanic activity.[21] The Trap soil is black in colour and conducive to agriculture. The Carboniferous system, Permian System, Triassic and Jurassic systems are seen in the western Himalayas. The Jurassic system is also seen in Rajasthan. The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Deccan Traps is a large igneous province located in west-central India and is one of the largest volcanic features on Earth. ...


Tertiary imprints are seen in parts of Manipur, Nagaland, parts of Arunachal Pradesh and along the Himalayan belt. The Cretaceous system is seen in central India in the Vindhyas and part of the Indo-Gangetic plains.[21] Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ...


The Gondowana system is also seen in the Narmada River area in the Vindhyas and Satpuras. The Eocene system is seen in the western Himalayas and Assam. Oligocene formations are seen in Kutch and in Assam.[21]


The Pleistocene system is found over central India. It is rich in minerals such as lignite, iron ore, manganese, and aluminium. The Andaman and Nicobar Island groups are thought to have been formed in this era by volcanoes.[21] The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Coal Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by mining. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Aluminum redirects here. ...


The Himalayas are a result of the convergence and deformation of the Indo-Australian and Eurasian Plates. Their continued convergence raises the height of the Himalayas by 1 cm each year.


Natural resources

India is particularly rich in a variety of natural resources. Along with 56% arable land, it has significant sources of coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone.[22] India is self-sufficient in thorium, mined along shores of Kerala, possessing 24% of the world's known and economically available thorium.[23] Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Rock with mica Mica sheet Mica flakes The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. ... Bauxite with penny Bauxite with core of unweathered rock Bauxite is an aluminium ore. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... Chromite, iron magnesium chromium oxide: (Fe,Mg)Cr2O4, is an oxide mineral belonging to the spinel group. ... This article is about the fossil fuel. ... This article is about the mineral. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ...


Petroleum is found off the coast of Maharashtra, Gujarat and in Assam, but meets only 40% of India's demand. Increasing amounts of natural gas are being discovered regularly especially off the coast of Andhra Pradesh. Uranium is mined in Andhra Pradesh and gold in the Kolar gold mine in Karnataka. General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... , Kolar Gold Fields (KGF) was one of the major gold mines in India and is located in the Kolar district in Karnataka, close to the city of Bangalore. ...


Natural disasters

See also: Drought in India
Disaster-prone regions in India.
Disaster-prone regions in India.

Natural disasters cause massive losses of Indian life and property. Droughts, flash floods, cyclones, avalanches, landslides brought on by torrential rains, and snowstorms pose the greatest threats. Other dangers include frequent summer dust storms, which usually track from north to south; they cause extensive property damage in North India[24] and deposit large amounts of dust from arid regions. Hail is also common in parts of India, causing severe damage to standing crops such as rice and wheat. Natural disasters in India, many of them related to the climate of India, cause massive losses of Indian life and property. ... The dry bed of the Niranjana River, Bihar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


In the Lower Himalaya, landslides are common. The young age of the region's hills result in labile rock formations, which are susceptible to slippages. Parts of the Western Ghats also suffer from low-intensity landslides. Avalanches occur in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Sikkim. Floods are the most common natural disaster in India. The heavy southwest monsoon rains cause the Brahmaputra and other rivers to distend their banks, often flooding surrounding areas. Though they provide rice paddy farmers with a largely dependable source of natural irrigation and fertilisation, the floods can kill thousands and displace millions. Excess, erratic, or untimely monsoon rainfall may also wash away or otherwise ruin crops.[25][26] Almost all of India is flood-prone, and extreme precipitation events, such as flash floods and torrential rains, have become increasingly common in central India over the past several decades, coinciding with rising temperatures. Mean annual precipitation totals have remained steady due to the declining frequency of weather systems that generate moderate amounts of rain.[27] Lability is constantly undergoing change or something that is likely to undergo change. ... Brahmaputra A dugout with pilot in Chitwan. ...


Indian agriculture is heavily dependent on the monsoon as a source of water. In some parts of India, the failure of the monsoons result in water shortages, resulting in below-average crop yields. This is particularly true of major drought-prone regions such as southern and eastern Maharashtra, northern Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. In the past, droughts have periodically led to major Indian famines, including the Bengal famine of 1770, in which up to one third of the population in affected areas died; the 1876–1877 famine, in which over five million people died; the 1899 famine, in which over 4.5 million died; and the Bengal famine of 1943, in which over five million died from starvation and famine-related illnesses.[28][29] In the past, droughts have periodically led to major Indian famines [1] . The prospect of a devastating famine every few years was inherent in Indias ecology [2] From the earliest endeavours of the British East India Company on the Subcontinent but especially since 1857—the year of the first... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Bengal famine of 1943 is one amongst the several Famines that occurred in British administered undivided Bengal (now independent Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal) in 1943. ...


According to earthquake hazard zoning of India, tectonic plates beneath the earth's surface are responsible for yearly earthquakes along the Himalayan belt and in northeast India. This region is classified as a Zone V, indicating that it is a very high-risk area. Parts of western India, around the Kutch region in Gujarat and Koyna in Maharashtra, are classified as a Zone IV region (high risk). Other areas have a moderate to low risk chance of an earthquake occurring.[14] The Indian subcontinent has had a history of devastating earthquakes. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Kutch (Kuchchh) District, State of Gujarat Kutch (also spelled Cutch, Kachh, Kachch and even Kachchh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India. ... Koyna may refer to: Koyna River — A river that originates in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra Koyna Nagar — A town at the site of Koyna Dam Koyna Dam — hydoelectric project providing 2250 MW of electricity Categories: Disambiguation | Stub ...


Tropical cyclones, which are severe storms spun off from the Intertropical Convergence Zone, may affect thousands of Indians living in coastal regions. Cyclones bring with them heavy rains, storm surges, and winds that often cut affected areas off from relief and supplies. In the North Indian Ocean Basin, the cyclone season runs from April to December, with peak activity between May and November.[30] Each year, an average of eight storms with sustained wind speeds greater than 63 kilometre per hour (39 mph) form; of these, two strengthen into true tropical cyclones, which have sustained gusts greater than 117 kilometres per hour (73 mph). On average, a major (Category 3 or higher) cyclone develops every other year.[30][31] In terms of damage and loss of life, Cyclone 05B, a supercyclone that struck Orissa on 29 October 1999, was the worst in more than a quarter-century. Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... The thunderstorms of the Intertropical Convergence Zone form a line across the eastern Pacific Ocean. ... ... Kilometres per hour (American spelling: kilometers per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms, and thereby become hurricanes. ... Lowest pressure < 912 hPa (mbar) Fatalities 10,000+ direct Damages $4. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


A tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake struck the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and India's east coast resulting in the deaths of an estimated 10,000. Until then India was thought to have negligible activity related to tsunamis, though there is historical anecdotal evidence of its occurrence in the past. For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake,[1] was a great undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004 with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ...


India has one active volcano: the Barren Island volcano which last erupted in May 2005. There is also a dormant volcano called the Narcondum and a mud volcano at Baratang. All these volcanoes lie in the Andaman Islands. Active volcanoes are volcanoes constantly erupting, including Pompeii and Krakatoa. ... For other areas bearing the same name, see Barren Island (disambiguation) An eruption column rises over Barren Island in 1991. ... Towering over the city of Naples, Vesuvius is dormant but certainly not extinct A dormant volcano is a volcano which is not currently erupting, but is believed to still be capable of erupting in the future. ... Narcondum is a volcano in the Andaman Islands. ... A gaseous mud volcano The term mud volcano or mud dome is used to refer to formations created by geologically excreted liquids and gases, although there are several different processes which may cause such activity. ... Outline map of the Andaman Islands, with the location of Baratang highlighted (in red). ... Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. ...


International agreements

India is a party to several International agreements related to environment and climate, the most prominent among them are:

Treaties and Agreements
Specific Regions and Seas The Antarctic Treaty, Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution (MARPOL 73/78), Whaling
Atmosphere and Climate Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol, Ozone Layer Protection, Nuclear Test Ban
Biodiversity, Environment and Forests Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Tropical Timber 83 and Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
Wastes Hazardous Wastes
Rivers Indus Waters Treaty

This article is about the body of water. ... Political map and research stations (2002) Antarctica has no government. ... Admiralty law (usually referred to as simply admiralty and also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ... Ship Pollution is an abbreviated form of the Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973. ... The International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling is an international agreement (see environmental agreement) signed in 1946 designed to make whaling sustainable. ... “Air” redirects here. ... UNFCCC logo. ... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2000 For other similarly-named agreements, see Montreal Protocol (disambiguation). ... The Treaty Banning poop, in Outer Space, and Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), although the former also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a treaty intended to obtain an agreement... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa is an agreement to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements. ... The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). ... note - abbreviated as Environmental Modification opened for signature - December 10, 1976 entered into force - October 5, 1978 objective - to prohibit the military or other hostile use of environmental modification techniques in order to further world peace and trust among nations parties - (66) Afghanistan, Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria... note - abbreviated as Tropical Timber 83 opened for signature - November 18, 1983 entered into force - April 1, 1985; this agreement expired when the International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994, went into force. ... note - abbreviated as Tropical Timber 94 opened for signature - January 26, 1994 entered into force - January 1, 1997 objective - to ensure that by the year 2000 exports of tropical timber originate from sustainably managed sources; to establish a fund to assist tropical timber producers in obtaining the resources necessary to... The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i. ... This article is about waste matter. ... The Basel Convention (verbose: Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal) is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent dumping of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). ... For the Second World War frigate class, see River class frigate The Murray River in Australia A waterfall on the Ova da Fedoz, Switzerland A river is a large natural waterway. ... The Indus Waters Treaty is a water-sharing treaty between India and Pakistan. ...

See also

This is a list of the extreme points of India, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location in the country. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A semi-arid wasteland near Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Andaman Islands rain forests (India) Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests (India) Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests (India, Myanmar) Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests (India) Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests (Bhutan, India, Nepal) Malabar Coast moist forests (India) Maldives-Lakshadweep-Chagos Archipelago tropical moist forests... This is a list of all national parks of India. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... European Digital Archive on Soil Maps (EuDASM) is a digital inventory of the maps holding valuable information pertaining to soil that are highly demanded in various environmental assessment studies focusing on policy issues. ...

Notes

  1. ^ India officially regards K2, located in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir as its highest peak.
  2. ^ The Indian government considers the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir to be a part of India. This state borders a part of Afghanistan. A ceasefire sponsored by the United Nations in 1948 freezes the positions of Indian- and Pakistani-held territory. As a result, the region bordering Afghanistan is in Pakistani-administered territory.
  3. ^ India Yearbook 2007. Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Govt. Of India, Pg. 1. ISBN 81-230-1423-6. 
  4. ^ India Details on Official India Government website. Retrieved on June 9, 2007.
  5. ^ a b c (2006) Manorama Yearbook 2006 (India - The Country). Malayala Manorama, Pg 515. 
  6. ^ Territorial extent of India's waters. developments till 1965. THE INTERNATIONAL LAW OF THE SEA AND INDIAN MARITIME LEGISLATION (2005-04-30). Retrieved on 2006-05-16.
  7. ^ a b c d e (2006) Manorama Yearbook 2006 (India - The Country). Malayala Manorama, 516. 
  8. ^ Physical divisions
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j (2006) Manorama Yearbook 2006 (India - The Country). Malayala Manorama, 517. 
  10. ^ Deccan Plateau
  11. ^ The Eastern Coastal Plain
  12. ^ a b http://india.gov.in/knowindia/ut_andaman.php
  13. ^ a b c d (2006) Manorama Yearbook 2006 (India - The Country). Malayala Manorama, 518. 
  14. ^ a b c (2006) Manorama Yearbook 2006 (India - Environment). Malayala Manorama, 580. 
  15. ^ a b India Yearbook 2007. Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Govt. Of India, Pg. 306. ISBN 81-230-1423-6. 
  16. ^ India Yearbook 2007. Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Govt. Of India, Pg. 309. ISBN 81-230-1423-6. 
  17. ^ Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh Source:National Geographic Profile of India website
  18. ^ India Agronet website. Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Food and Agriculture Organization website. Retrieved on August 2, 2007.
  20. ^ a b c Krishi World website. Retrieved on July 18, 2007.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g (2006) Manorama Yearbook 2006 (India - Geology). Malayala Manorama, 521. 
  22. ^ CIA Factbook: India. CIA Factbook. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  23. ^ Information and Issue Briefs - Thorium. World Nuclear Association. Retrieved on 2006-06-01.
  24. ^ Balfour 1976, p. 995.
  25. ^ Allaby 1998, p. 42.
  26. ^ Allaby 1998, p. 15.
  27. ^ Goswami BN, Venugopal V, Sengupta D, Madhusoodanan MS, Xavier PK (2006). "Increasing trend of extreme rain events over India in a warming environment". Science 314 (5804): 1442–1445. ISSN 0036-8075. 
  28. ^ Nash 2002, pp. 22–23.
  29. ^ Collier & Webb 2002, p. 67.
  30. ^ a b Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. Frequently Asked Questions: When is hurricane season?. NOAA. Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  31. ^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. Frequently Asked Questions: What are the average, most, and least tropical cyclones occurring in each basin?. NOAA. Retrieved on 2006-07-25.

K2 is the second-highest mountain on Earth. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... This article is about the area controlled by India. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Allaby, M (1998), Floods, Facts on File, ISBN 0-8160-3520-2.
  • Balfour, E (1976), Encyclopaedia Asiatica: Comprising Indian Subcontinent, Eastern and Southern Asia, Cosmo Publications, ISBN 8170203252.
  • Collier, W & R Webb (2002), Floods, Droughts and Climate Change, University of Arizona Press, ISBN 0-8165-2250-2.
  • Nash, JM (2002), El Niño: Unlocking the Secrets of the Master Weather Maker, Warner, ISBN 0-446-52481-6.
  • Physical Divisions. The Smiling Face of our Mother Land. Retrieved on June 9, 2005.
  • Deccan Plateau. An eye on India. Retrieved on June 6, 2005.
  • The Eastern Coastal Plain. Water Harvesting Techniques Prevalent in the Eastern Coastal Plain. Retrieved on June 6, 2005.
  • India. Retrieved on June 9, 2007.
  • Geology of India. geohead:Earth Science on your desktop. Retrieved on June 6, 2005.
  • The Land. The Great Mountains of the North. Retrieved on June 6, 2005.
  • Land and Natural Resources. Terrain. Retrieved on June 6, 2005.
  • The Rann of Kutch. Rann Of Kutch, Geography Of Rann Of Kutch. Retrieved on June 6, 2005.
  • Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh. Terrestrial Ecoregions – Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh (IM0901). Retrieved on June 6, 2005.
  • Asian and ADRC Member Countries and their Disaster Characteristics (PDF), Accessed on June 6, 2005
  • Various authors (2003). Manorama Year Book 2003. Malayala Manorama Co. Ltd. ISBN 0542-5778. 
  • India Yearbook 2007. Published by Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Govt. Of India. ISBN 81-230-1423-6. 

Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains, eroded and cut through by the four major rivers of southern India, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A teapicker at work in the Nilgiris Nigiris Hills It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into The Nilgiris District. ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... The Satpura Range is a range of hills in central India. ... The Garo Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in Meghalaya, India. ... The Siwalik Hills (sometimes spelled Shiwalik, Shivalik, or Sivalik) are a sub-Himalayan mountain range running 1,600 km long from the Tista River, Sikkim, through Nepal and India, into northern Pakistan. ... The Khasi Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in Meghalaya, India. ... Anaimalai hills are a trekking destination in the Western Ghats located in the southern indian state of Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore district, and is known for its abundant wildlife. ... The Cardamom Hills are elevated regions in Kerala, India. ... sorry guys it is unavailable and happens to be deleted--212. ... Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (&#1607;&#1606;&#1583;&#1608;&#1705;&#1588; in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Deccan Plateau // Main article: Geography of India So anyway,The Deccan Plateau (Marathi: डेक्कन), also known as The Great Country, is a vast elevated tableland area with widely varying terrain features making up the majority of the southern India located between three ranges and extending over eight states. ... A NASA satellite image of the Thar Desert, with the India-Pakistan border superimposed is found in canada, united states. ... Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ... The Chota Nagpur Plateau (also Chhota Nagpur) is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Orissa, Bihar, and Chhattisgarh. ... Naga hills, reaching a height of around 3825 meters, lie on the border of India and Myanmar. ... The Mysore Plateau, also known as the South Karnataka Plateau, is one of the four geographically unique regions of the Indian state of Karnataka. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Indus River Delta The Indus River Delta occurs where the Indus River flows into the Arabian Sea in Pakistan. ... The Ganga basin is a part of the composite Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin, which drains an area of 1,086,000 square kilometres. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Ganges Delta (or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal, India. ... Each administrative atoll is marked, along with the thaana letter used to identify the atoll. ... Districts along the Coromandel Coast Map of the coast (French) The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula. ... It has been suggested that History of the Konkan be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world. ... Rann of Kutch on the Top Left. ... // Tamil Nadu, India Tamil Nadu State in South India covers an area of 130,058 km 2 (50,215 mi2). ... Maldives is a country of South Asia, situated in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Geography of India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5309 words)
India is bounded in the west by the Arabian Sea and in the east by the Bay of Bengal.
India is bounded on the southwest by the Arabian Sea and on the southeast by the Bay of Bengal.
India's wetland ecosystem is widely distributed from the cold and arid; from ones in the Ladakh region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir to the ones in the wet and humid climate of peninsula India.
Geography of India - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (5814 words)
India comprises most of the Indian subcontinent and has a long coastline of over 7,000 km (4,300 miles), most of which lies on a peninsula that protrudes into the Indian Ocean.
The highest point in India is disputed due to a territorial dispute with Pakistan; according to India's claim, the highest point (located in the disputed Kashmir territory) is K2, at 8,611 m (28,251 feet).
India lies to the north of the equator between 8 degree 4 minutes and 37 degree 6 minutes north latitude and 68 degrees 7 minutes and 97 degrees 25 minutes east longitude.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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