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Encyclopedia > Geography of Canada
Canada
Continent North America
Subregion Northern America
Geographic coordinates 60°00′N, 95°00′W
Area
 - Total
 - Water
Ranked 2nd
9,984,670 km²
891,163 km² (8.92%)
Coastline 202,080 km (125,567 mi)
Land boundaries 8,893 km
Countries bordered US 8,893 km
Maritime claims 200 nm
Highest point Mount Logan, 5,959 m / 19,550 ft
Lowest point Atlantic Ocean, 0 m
Longest river Mackenzie River, 4,241 km (2,635 mi)
Largest inland body of water Great Bear Lake 31,153 km² (12,021 sq. mi)
Land Use
 - Arable land
 - Permanent
   crops
 - Permanent
   pastures
 - Forests and
   woodlands
 - Other

5 %

0 %

3 %

54 %
38 % (1993 est.)
Climate: Temperate to arctic
Terrain: plains, mountains, subarctic, arctic
Natural resources iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
Natural hazards permafrost, cyclonic storms
Environmental issues air and water pollution, acid rains

The geography of Canada is vast and diverse. Occupying most of the northern portion of North America (precisely 41% of the continent), Canada is the world's second largest country in total area after Russia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1128, 551 KB) Summary Map: Canada – geopolitical (detail) Drawn and adapted by E Pluribus Anthony from Atlas of Canada Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... Northern America is a name for the parts of North America besides Mexico when Mexico is considered as Latin America. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... A nautical mile is a unit of distance, or, as physical scientists like to call it, length. ... For other uses, see Mount Logan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mackenzie River (disambiguation). ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Great Bear Lake, NWT, Canada Mackenzie River drainage basin showing Great Bear Lakes position in the Western Canadian Arctic Great Bear Lake (Slavey: Sahtu, French: Grand lac de lOurs) is the largest lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada, the fourth largest in North America, and the eight... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... == Headline text == Plains is the name of several places in the [[United usyduisaydashdsdsjdn Plains, North Lanarkshire, Scotland There are also The Plains, Ohio; Plainsboro, New Jersey; and Plainville, Kansas You might also be looking for the geographical feature plain; or the Plains Indians. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the Chinese province of Heilongjiang. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the metal. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower is the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose. ... While these two men dig in Alaska to study soil, the hard permafrost requires the use of a jackhammer In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0 °C or 32 °F) for two or more years. ... This article is about the meteorological phenomenon. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ...


Canada spans an immense territory between the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east (hence the country's motto), with the United States to the south (contiguous United States) and northwest (Alaska), and the Arctic Ocean to the north; Greenland is to the northeast. Off the southern coast of Newfoundland lies Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, an overseas collectivity of France. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60°W and 141°W longitude to the North Pole; however, this claim is contested.[1] Image:Antigua and barbuda coa. ... The continental United States refers (except sometimes in U.S. federal law and regulations) to the largest part of the U.S. that is delimited by a continuous border. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Motto: A Mare Labor(Latin) From the Sea, Work[] Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Saint-Pierre Official languages French Government  - President of the General Council Stéphane Artano  - Préfet (Prefect) Yves Fauqueur Collectivité doutre-mera of France   - ceded by the UKe 30 May 1814   - Territoire d... The Overseas collectivities (French: collectivité doutre-mer or COM), are an administrative division of France. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ...


Covering 9,984,670 km² or 3,855,103 square miles (Land: 9,093,507 km² or 3,511,023 mi²; Water: 891,163 km² or 344,080 mi²), Canada is slightly less than three-fifths as large as Russia, less than 1.3 times larger than Australia, slightly smaller than Europe, and more than 40.9 times larger than the UK. In total area, Canada is slightly larger than both in turn the US and China; however, Canada is somewhat smaller than both in land area (China is 9,596,960 km² / 3,705,407 mi² and the US is 9,161,923 km² / 3,537,438 mi²), ranking fourth. To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ...


The northernmost settlement in Canada (and in the world) is Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert (just north of Alert, Nunavut) on the northern tip of Ellesmere Islandlatitude 82.5°N – just 834 kilometres (518 mi) from the North Pole. Canadian Forces Station Alert, also CFS Alert, is a Canadian Forces signals intelligence intercept facility located in Alert, Nunavut on the northeastern tip of Ellesmere Island at . ... It has been suggested that CFS Alert be merged into this article or section. ... Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... “Miles” redirects here. ...


The magnetic North Pole lies within the Canadian Arctic territorial claim; however, recent measurements indicate it is moving towards Siberia. This is about the geographic meaning of North Pole. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...

Contents

Physical geography

A satellite composite image of Canada. Boreal forests prevail throughout the country, including the Arctic, the Coast Mountains and Saint Elias Mountains. The relatively flat Prairies facilitate agriculture. The Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River (in the southeast) where lowlands host much of Canada's population.
A satellite composite image of Canada. Boreal forests prevail throughout the country, including the Arctic, the Coast Mountains and Saint Elias Mountains. The relatively flat Prairies facilitate agriculture. The Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River (in the southeast) where lowlands host much of Canada's population.

Encompassed by its extreme points, Canada covers 9,984,670 km² (3,855,103 sq. mi) and a panoply of various geoclimatic regions. Canada also encompasses vast maritime terrain, with the world's longest coastline of 202,080 kilometres (125,567 mi). The physical geography of Canada is widely varied. Boreal forests prevail throughout the country, ice is prominent in northerly Arctic regions and through the Rocky Mountains, and the relatively flat Prairies in the southwest facilitate productive agriculture. The Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River (in the southeast) where lowlands host much of Canada's population. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1680x1050, 813 KB) Summary Canada, satellite image composite; obtained and adapted from NASA Blue Marble images Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1680x1050, 813 KB) Summary Canada, satellite image composite; obtained and adapted from NASA Blue Marble images Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... The Coast Mountains are the westernmost range of the Pacific Cordillera, running along the south western shore of the North American continent, extending south from the Alaska Panhandle and covering most of coastal British Columbia. ... The Saint Elias Mountains is a mountain range located in southeastern Alaska (United States) and southwestern Yukon (Canada). ... A prairie is an area of land of low topographic relief that principally supports grasses and herbs, with few trees, and is generally of a mesic (moderate or temperate) climate. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Continent North America Subregion Northern America Geographic coordinates Area  - Total  - Water Ranked 2nd 9,984,670 km² 891,163 km² (8. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... Boreal may refer to these: Northern from the eponymous Boreas, god of the North Wind in Greek mythology. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... A prairie is an area of land of low topographic relief that principally supports grasses and herbs, with few trees, and is generally of a mesic (moderate or temperate) climate. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ...


Appalachian Mountains

Main article: Appalachian Mountains

The Appalachian mountain range extends from Alabama in the southern United States through the Gaspé Peninsula and the Atlantic Provinces, creating rolling hills indented by river valleys. It also runs through parts of southern Quebec. The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... NASA satellite image of the Gaspé Peninsula. ... Atlantic Canada consists of the four Canadian provinces on the Atlantic Ocean: Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


The Appalachian mountains (more specifically the Notre Dame and Long Range Mountains) are an old and eroded range of mountains, approximately 380 million years in age. Notable mountains in the Appalachians include Mount Jacques-Cartier (Quebec, 1,268 m / 4,160 ft) and Mount Carleton (New Brunswick, 817 m / 2,680 ft). Parts of the Appalachians are home to a rich endemic flora and fauna, and are considered to have been nunataks during the last glaciation era. The Notre Dame Mountains are a portion of the Appalachian Mountains extending into Canada off the Green Mountains. ... The Long Range Mountains are a series of mountains along the west coast of the Canadian island of Newfoundland. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Mount Carleton is the highest mountain in New Brunswick. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... Nunataks on Greenlands east coast A nunatak (or, more properly spelt: nunataq) is the exposed summit of a ridge, mountain, or peak not covered with ice or snow within an ice field or glacier. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ...


Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Lowlands

The Great Lakes from space
The Great Lakes from space
Main articles: Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River

The southern parts of Quebec and Ontario, in the section of the Great Lakes (bordered entirely by Ontario on the Canadian side) and St. Lawrence basin (often called St. Lawrence Lowlands), is another particularly rich sedimentary plain. Prior to its colonization and heavy urban sprawl of the 20th century, this area was home to large mixed forests covering a mostly flat area of land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Canadian Shield Most of this forest has nowadays been cut down through agriculture and logging operations, but the remaining forests are for the most part heavily protected. Download high resolution version (900x546, 146 KB) This image is not licensed under the GFDL. It is under a non-commercial-use only licence. ... Download high resolution version (900x546, 146 KB) This image is not licensed under the GFDL. It is under a non-commercial-use only licence. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area. ... Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests are a temperate and humid biome. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Canadian Shield Canadian Shield Landform. ...


While the relief of these lowlands is particularly flat and regular, a group of batholites known as the Monteregian Hills are spread along a mostly regular line across the area. The most notable are Montreal's Mount Royal and Mont Saint-Hilaire. These hills are known for a great richness in rare minerals. Half Dome A batholith is a large emplacement of igneous intrusive (also called plutonic) rock that forms from cooled magma deep in the Earths crust. ... The Monteregian mountain chain is a chain of mountains in Montreal and the Montérégie, between the Laurentians and the Appalachians. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... For other uses, see Mount Royal (disambiguation). ... Mont Saint-Hilaire (en. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ...


Canadian Shield

Main article: Canadian Shield

The northern parts of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec, as well as most of Labrador, the mainland portions of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, are located on a vast rock base known as the Canadian Shield. The Shield mostly consists of eroded hilly terrain and contains many important rivers used for hydroelectric production, particularly in northern Quebec and Ontario. The shield also encloses an area of wetlands, the Hudson's Bay lowlands. Some particular regions of the Shield are referred as mountain ranges. They include the Torngat and Laurentian Mountains. Canadian Shield Canadian Shield Landform. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... This article is about the geomorphological/geopolitical term; MAINLAND is also a cheese brand owned by Fonterra, a New Zealand dairy company. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Canadian Shield Canadian Shield Landform. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Hudson Bay, Canada. ... Disambiguation: For the region of Scotland please see Scottish Lowlands Lowlands, also known as A Campingflight to Lowlands Paradise, is a music festival, held annually in the Netherlands in August. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... For the Montreal indie band see Torngat Torngat Mountains are a mountain range located on the Labrador Peninsula at the northern tip of Labrador and eastern Quebec and are part of the Arctic Cordillera. ... The Laurentians mountains in the Hautes-Gorges Quebec national parc, Charlevoix, Quebec, Canada The Laurentian mountains (French: Laurentides) are a mountain range in southern Quebec, Canada, north of the St. ...


The Shield cannot support intensive agriculture, although there is subsistence agriculture and small dairy farms in many of the river valleys and around the abundant lakes, particularly in the southern regions. Boreal forest covers much of the shield, with a mix of conifers that provide valuable timber resources. The region is known for its extensive mineral reserves. Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ...


Canadian Interior Plains

Main article: Canadian Prairies

The Canadian prairies are part of a vast sedimentary plain covering much of Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, and southwestern Manitoba, as well as much of the region between the Rocky Mountains and the Great Slave and Great Bear lakes in Northwest Territories. The prairies generally describes the expanses of (largely flat) arable agricultural land which sustain extensive grain farming operations in the southern part of the provinces. Despite this, some areas such as the Cypress Hills and Alberta Badlands are quite hilly. Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Mackenzie River drainage basin showing Great Slave Lakes position in the Western Canadian Arctic Great Slave Lake (French: Grand lac des Esclaves) is the second-largest lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada (behind Great Bear Lake), the deepest lake in North America at 614 meters (2015 ft), and... Great Bear Lake, NWT, Canada Mackenzie River drainage basin showing Great Bear Lakes position in the Western Canadian Arctic Great Bear Lake (Slavey: Sahtu, French: Grand lac de lOurs) is the largest lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada, the fourth largest in North America, and the eight... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... The Cypress Hills are a region of hills in southwestern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta, Canada. ...


Western Cordillera

The Canadian cordillera, part of the American cordillera, stretches from the Rocky Mountains in the east to the Pacific Ocean. For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... The Pacific Coast Ranges are the series of mountain ranges that stretch along the west coast of North America from Alaska to northern and central Mexico. ... The American cordillera consists of an essentially continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western backbone of both North America and South America. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ...


The Canadian Rockies are part of a major continental divide that extends north and south through western North America and western South America. The Columbia and the Fraser Rivers have their headwaters in the Canadian Rockies and are the second and third largest rivers respectively to drain to the west coast of North America. The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. ... A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of... For other uses of this name see Fraser River (disambiguation). ...

Vancouver has a mild enough climate to support several species of palm trees.
Vancouver has a mild enough climate to support several species of palm trees.

Immediately west of the mountains is a large interior plateau encompassing the Chilcotin and Cariboo regions in central BC (the Fraser Plateau) and the Nechako Plateau further North. The Peace River Valley in northeastern British Columbia is Canada's most northerly agricultural region, although it is part of the prairies. The dry, temperate climate of the Okanagan Valley in South central BC provides ideal conditions for fruit growing and a flourishing wine industry. Between the plateau and the coast is a second mountain range, the Coast Mountains. The Coast Mountains contain some of the largest temperate-latitude icefields in the world. Image File history File links Vancouverpalms. ... Image File history File links Vancouverpalms. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Tsilhqotin, an Athabaskan First Nations people town of west-central British Columbia, usually known in English spelling as Chilcotin. ... The Cariboo is a region of British Columbia along a plateau stretching from the Fraser Canyon to the Cariboo Mountains. ... Image:Canadian Rockies NechakoPlateau wEFraser. ... For other uses, see Peace River. ... A view overlooking Skaha Lake in the Okanagan Valley The regional districts that comprise the Okanagan are shown in red. ... The Coast Mountains are the westernmost range of the Pacific Cordillera, running along the south western shore of the North American continent, extending south from the Alaska Panhandle and covering most of coastal British Columbia. ... An ice field (also called an icefield) is a flat land area covered by ice, usually formed by long periods of snow. ...


On the south coast of British Columbia, Vancouver Island is separated from the mainland by the continuous Juan de Fuca, Georgia, and Johnstone Straits. Those straits include a large number of islands, notably the Gulf Islands. North, near the Alaskan border, the Queen Charlotte Islands lie across Hecate Strait from the Bella Coola region. Other than in the plateau regions of the interior and the river valleys, most of British Columbia is coniferous forest. The only temperate rain forests in Canada are found along the Pacific coast in the Coast Mountains, on Vancouver Island, and on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Vancouver Island is separated from mainland British Columbia by the Strait of Georgia and the Queen Charlotte Strait, and from Washington by the Juan De Fuca Strait. ... The Strait of Juan de Fuca separates Vancouver Island of British Columbia from the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state. ... Johnstone Strait is a 110 km (68 mi) long strait between the north east coast of Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada and, running north to south, Hanson Island, West Cracroft Island, the mainland British Columbia coast, Hardwicke Island, West Thurlow Island and East Thurlow Island where it meets Discovery... Over-Simplified diagram A strait is a narrow channel of water that connects two larger bodies of water, and thus lies between two land masses. ... Map showing the location of the Southern Gulf Islands The Gulf Islands is the name collectively given to the islands in the Strait of Georgia between Vancouver Island and the mainland Pacific coast of British Columbia, Canada. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Leaving Skidegate Inlet aboard BC Ferries M/V Queen of Prince Rupert The Queen Charlotte Islands or Haida Gwaii (Land of the Haida) are an archipelago off the northwest coast of British Columbia, Canada, consisting of two main islands, Graham Island in the North, and Moresby Island in the south... Islands and major straits of the northern Pacific Northwest Coast The Hecate Strait or Strait of Hecate (Haida: Seegaay) is a wide but relatively shallow body of water separating the Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii) from the mainland of British Columbia in Canada. ... Bella Coola may refer to several things, all closely related to a geographic area within British Columbias Central Coast. ... Temperate rain forests are coniferous or broadleaf forests that occur in the mid-latitudes in areas of high rainfall. ...


Volcanoes

Main article: Volcanism in Canada

Western Canada has many many volcanoes and is part of the system of volcanoes found around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, which is called the Pacific Ring of Fire. There are over 200 young volcanic centers that streches northward from the Cascade Range to the Yukon Territory, many of which have been active in the past two million years. They are grouped into five volcanic belts with different volcano types and tectonic settings. The Stikine Volcanic Belt was formed by faulting, cracking, rifting, and the interaction between the Pacific Plate and the North American plate. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt was formed by subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate beneath the North American Plate. The Anahim Volcanic Belt was formed as a result of the North American Plate sliding westward over the Anahim hotspot. The Chilcotin Plateau Basalts is believed to have formed as a result of back-arc extension behind the Cascadia subduction zone. The Wrangell Volcanic Field formed as a result of subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate at the easternmost end of the Aleutian Trench. The north face of Mount Garibaldi rises above The Table and Garibaldi Lake Black Tusk viewed from the southeast Mount Fee as seen from its north side Mount Edziza in the Stikine Volcanic Belt as seen from the Stewart-Cassiar Highway Mount Garibaldi in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt as seen... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 633 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken in Squamish, BC on March 12th 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 633 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken in Squamish, BC on March 12th 2005. ... Mount Garibaldi is a stratovolcano in the British Columbia part of the Cascade Range. ... Squamish is a growing community in the Canadian province of British Columbia, located at the north end of Howe Sound. ... This article is about the region in Canada. ... “The Ring of Fire” redirects here. ... “Cascades” redirects here. ... This article is about Yukon Territory in Canada. ... A volcanic belt is a district of volcanoes, located in a certain area. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... The Stikine Volcanic Belt (also called the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province) lies in northern British Columbia and continues to the Alaskian border and is Canadas most active volcanic region and has more than 100 volcanoes. ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ... In geology, a rift is a place where the Earths lithosphere is expanding. ...  The Pacific plate, shown in pale yellow The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ... The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt is a north-south range of volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia. ... Geometry of a subduction zone - insets to show accretionary prism and partial melting of hydrated asthenosphere. ... A map of the Juan de Fuca Plate The Juan de Fuca Plate, named after the explorer, is a tectonic plate arising from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and subducting under the northerly portion of the western side of the North American Plate. ... The Anahim Volcanic Belt is a range of volcanoes in British Columbia, stretching from just north of Vancouver Island to near Quesnel, British Columbia. ... The Anahim hotspot is a hotspot which is partly responsible for the volcanic activity which forms the volcanoes in central British Columbia, Canada. ... The Chilcotin Plateau Basalts are a north-south range of volcanoes in southern British Columbia running parallel to the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt. ... Back-arc basins (or retro-arc basins) are geologic features, submarine basins associated with island arcs and subduction zones. ... Structure of the Cascadia subduction zone Area of the Cascadia subduction zone The Cascadia subduction zone is a very long sloping fault that stretches from northern Vancouver Island to northern California. ... Mount Blackburn The Wrangell Volcanic Field is a volcanic field stretching from eastern Alaska in the United States to the southwestern Yukon Territory in Canada. ... Geometry of a subduction zone - insets to show accretionary prism and partial melting of hydrated asthenosphere. ...  The Pacific plate, shown in pale yellow The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ... The Aleutian Trench is an oceanic trench in the Earths crust. ...


Volcanism has also occurred in the Canadian Shield. It contains over 150 volcanic belts (now deformed and eroded down to nearly flat plains) that range from 600 to 2800 million years old. Many of Canada's major ore deposits are associated with Precambrian volcanoes. There are pillow lavas in the Northwest Territories that are about 2600 million years old and are preserved in the Cameron River Volcanic Belt. The pillow lavas in rocks over 2 billion years old in the Canadian Shield signify that great oceanic volcanoes existed during the early stages of the formation of the Earth's crust. Ancient volcanoes play an important role in estimating Canada's mineral potential. Many of the volcanic belts bear ore deposits that are related to the volcanism. Canadian Shield Canadian Shield Landform. ... A volcanic belt is a district of volcanoes, located in a certain area. ... In geography, a plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... The Cameron River Volcanic Belt is a Neoarchean volcanic belt near the Cameron River in the Northwest Territories, Canada. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ...


Canadian Arctic

Main article: Northern Canada

While the largest part of the Canadian Arctic is composed of seemingly non-stop permanent ice and tundra north of the tree line, it encompasses geological regions of varying types: the Arctic Cordillera (with the British Empire Range and the United States Range on Ellesmere Island) contains the northernmost mountain system in the world. The Arctic lowlands and Hudson Bay lowlands comprise a substantial part of the geographic region often designated as the Canadian Shield (in contrast to the sole geologic area). The ground in the Arctic is mostly composed of permafrost, making construction difficult and often hazardous, and agriculture virtually impossible. Northern Canada, defined politically Northern Canada is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... In this view of an alpine tree-line, the distant line looks particularly sharp. ... Template:Geobox Mountain Range PIRRI WAZ NOT HERE AND DOESNT HAVE PS3 The Arctic Cordillera, sometimes called the Arctic Rockies, are a vast deeply dissected mountain range in northeastern North America. ... The British Empire Range (82° 0′ N 74° 40′ W) is a mountain range on Ellesmere Island in Nunavut, Canada. ... The United States Range (82° 13′ N 66° 1′ W) is the most northern mountain range in the world. ... Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... New York Harbor, the outflow for Hudson River, is sometimes called Hudsons Bay. Hudson Bay, Canada. ... Disambiguation: For the region of Scotland please see Scottish Lowlands Lowlands, also known as A Campingflight to Lowlands Paradise, is a music festival, held annually in the Netherlands in August. ... Canadian Shield Canadian Shield Landform. ... While these two men dig in Alaska to study soil, the hard permafrost requires the use of a jackhammer In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0 °C or 32 °F) for two or more years. ...


The Arctic, when defined as everything north of the tree line, covers most of Nunavut, and the northernmost parts of Northwest Territories, Yukon, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and Labrador. In this view of an alpine tree-line, the distant line looks particularly sharp. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... This article is about Yukon Territory in Canada. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ...




Hydrography

Drainage basins of Canada

Canada holds vast reserves of water: its rivers discharge nearly 9% of the world's renewable water supply,[2] it contains a quarter of the world's wetlands, and it has the third largest amount of glaciers (after Antarctica and Greenland). Due to extensive glaciation, Canada hosts more than two million lakes: of those that are entirely within Canada, more than 31,000 are between 3 and 100 square kilometres (1.2 & 38.6 mi²) in area, while 563 are larger than 100 km².[3] This article is in need of attention. ... See Also: Rivers in Canada Rivers of the Americas Hudson Bay Watershed Bow River North Saskatchewan River Red Deer River South Saskatchewan River Peace River watershed Oldman River Peace River Gulf of Mexico Watershed Missouri Watershed Milk River Alphabetical Listing: Athabasca River Bow River Elbow River Milk River North Saskatchewan... This is a list of rivers in Saskatchewan. ... See Also: Rivers of Canada Tributaries of Hudson Bay Rivers of the Americas This is a list of rivers, creeks, and streams in Manitoba, Canada. ... See also: Rivers in Canada Tributaries of Hudson Bay Rivers in Canada alphabetically Rivers of the Americas This is the list of rivers situated which flow through Ontario. ... Here is a list of rivers in Quebec. ... List of rivers in the province of New Brunswick, Canada Atlantic Watershed Gulf of Saint Lawrence Watershed Bay of Fundy Watershed Alphabetical List: Anagance River Aroostook River Barnaby River see Miramichi River Bartibogue River see Miramichi River Bartholomew River Cains River see Southwest Miramichi River Caraquet River Dungarvon River Green... These are a list of rivers, tributaries and creeks located on the island of Prince Edward Island. ... List of Nova Scotia rivers by watershed: Gulf of Maine watershed (Fort Lawrence to Cape Sable Island) Bay of Fundy watershed (Fort Lawrence to East Ferry) Missaguash River LaPlanche River Maccan River Nappan River Southampton River Little Forks River River Hebert Kelley River Little River MacCarrons River Barnhill River Little... Nearly all of the rivers and creeks flow right into the Atlantic. ... Arctic Watershed Upper Liard River Rancheria River Frances River Hyland River Coal River La Biche River Peel River Ogilvie River Blackstone River Hart River Wild River Bonnet Plume River Snake River Firth River Malcolm river Trail River Babbage River Blow River Bering Sea Watershed Yukon River Marsh Lake McClintock Creek... The Following is a list of rivers and creeks that are situated in the Northwest Territories Arctic Watershed Horton River Beaufort Watershed Mackenzie River Anderson River Great Slave Lake Watershed Great Bear Lake Watershed Atlantic Watershed Hudson Bay Thelon River Alphabetical List: Anderson Coppermine Horton Mackenzie Thelon See Also, List... Arctic Watershed Beaufort Sea Great Bear Lake (Northwest Territories) Bloody River Dease River Viscount Melville Sound Nanook River (Victoria Island) Amudsen Gulf Harnady River Roscoe River Croker River Harding River Kagloryuak River (Victoria Island) Coronation Gulf Rae River Richardson River Coppermine River Asiak River Tree River Hood River James River... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (860x691, 198 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Geography of Canada List of rivers in Canada User:Qyd/Maps ... This article is about the geological formation. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ...


There are five main watersheds in Canada: the Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific, Hudson and Gulf of Mexico watersheds. A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... The Arctic Ocean, located in the southern hemisphere and mostly in the Antarctic south polar region, is the largest of the worlds five major landmassesic divisions and the deepest. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... Pacific redirects here. ... New York Harbor, the outflow for Hudson River, is sometimes called Hudsons Bay. Hudson Bay, Canada. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ...


The Atlantic watershed drains the entirety of the Atlantic provinces (parts of the Quebec-Labrador boundary are fixed at the Atlantic continental divide), most of inhabited Quebec and large parts of southern Ontario. It is mostly drained by the economically important St. Lawrence River and its tributaries, notably the Saguenay, Manicouagan and Ottawa rivers. The Great Lakes and Lake Nipigon are also drained by the St. Lawrence. The Churchill River and St. John River are other important elements of the Atlantic watershed in Canada. This article is about the Canadian province. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... For other uses, see Border (disambiguation). ... A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Saguenay River is a major river of Quebec, Canada. ... The Manicouagan River is a river in Quebec, Canada. ... This is about the river in Canada. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Lake Nipigon (French : lac Nipigon) is the largest lake entirely within the boundaries of the Canadian province of Ontario and is sometimes described as the sixth Great Lake. ... Churchill river newfoundland and churchill falls The Churchill River (French: fleuve Churchill) is a river in Newfoundland and Labrador which flows east from the Smallwood Reservoir in Labrador into the Atlantic Ocean via Lake Melville. ... The Saint John River is a river, approximately 418 mi (673 km) long, located in the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ...


The Hudson Bay watershed drains over a third of Canada. It covers Manitoba, northern Ontario and Quebec, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southwestern Nunavut and the southern half of Baffin Island. This basin is most important in fighting drought in the prairies and producing hydroelectricity, especially in Manitoba, northern Ontario and Quebec. Major elements of this watershed include Lake Winnipeg, Nelson River, the North Saskatchewan and South Saskatchewan Rivers, Assiniboine River, and Nettilling Lake on Baffin Island. Wollaston Lake lies on the boundary between the Hudson Bay and Arctic Ocean watersheds and drains into both. It is the largest lake in the world that naturally drains in two directions. Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... Winnipeg Beach, Manitoba, on Lake Winnipeg Lake Winnipeg (52°30′N 97°47′W) is a very large (24,400 km²) lake in central North America, in the province of Manitoba, Canada, about 55 km north of the city of Winnipeg. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The North Saskatchewan River is a glacier-fed river flowing east from the Canadian Rockies to Lake Winnipeg. ... The South Saskatchewan River flows eastward from the confluence of the Bow and Oldman Rivers near Grassy Lake, Alberta. ... The Saskatchewan River (Cree: kisiskāciwani-sīpiy, swift flowing river)is a major river in Canada, approximately 550 km (340 mi) long, flowing roughly eastward across Saskatchewan and Manitoba to drain into Lake Winnipeg. ... Junction of the Assiniboine and Red rivers in downtown Winnipeg. ... Nettilling Lake is in the southern part of the island, being the upper of the two visible lakes. ... Wollaston Lake is located in northeastern Saskatchewan, Canada. ...


The Continental Divide in the Rockies separates the Pacific watershed in British Columbia and the Yukon from the Arctic and Hudson Bay watersheds. This watershed irrigates the agriculturally important areas of inner British Columbia (such as the Okanagan and Kootenay valleys), and is used to produce hydroelectricity. Major elements are the Yukon, Columbia and Fraser Rivers. A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of... The Okanogan River (called the Okanagan River in its upper reaches in Canada) is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately 115 mi (185 km) long, in southern British Columbia in Canada and north central Washington in the United States. ... The Kootenay River (spelled Kootenai River for its American portions) is the uppermost major tributary of the Columbia River, flowing through British Columbia, Montana and Idaho. ... The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. ... For other uses of this name see Fraser River (disambiguation). ...


The northern parts of Alberta, Manitoba and British Columbia, most of Northwest Territories and Nunavut, and parts of the Yukon are drained by the Arctic watershed. This watershed has been little used for hydroelectricity, with the exception of the Mackenzie River, the longest river in Canada. The Peace, Athabasca and Liard Rivers, as well as Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake (respectively the largest and second largest lakes wholly enclosed by Canada) are significant elements of the Arctic watershed. Each of these elements eventually merges with the Mackenzie so that it thereby drains the vast majority of the Arctic watershed. For other uses, see Mackenzie River (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Peace River. ... Athabasca River watershed in western Canada The Athabasca River (French: rivière Athabasca) originates from the Columbia Glacier of the Columbia Icefield in Jasper National Park in Alberta, Canada. ... The Liard River is a river that flows through the Yukon Territory, British Columbia and the Northwest Territories, and in Canada. ... Great Bear Lake, NWT, Canada Mackenzie River drainage basin showing Great Bear Lakes position in the Western Canadian Arctic Great Bear Lake (Slavey: Sahtu, French: Grand lac de lOurs) is the largest lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada, the fourth largest in North America, and the eight... Mackenzie River drainage basin showing Great Slave Lakes position in the Western Canadian Arctic Great Slave Lake (French: Grand lac des Esclaves) is the second-largest lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada (behind Great Bear Lake), the deepest lake in North America at 614 meters (2015 ft), and...


The southernmost part of Alberta drains into the Gulf of Mexico through the Milk River and its tributaries. The Milk River originates in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, then flows into Alberta, then returns into the United States, where it is drained by the Missouri River. A small area of southwestern Saskatchewan is drained by Battle Creek, which empties into the Milk River. The Milk River shown highlighted The Milk River is a tributary of the Missouri River, 729 mi (1,173 km) long in the U.S. state of Montana and the Canadian province of Alberta. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... Battle Creek is a stream that begins in southwest Saskatchewan along the border with Alberta. ...

See also: List of rivers in Canada

The list of rivers in Canada is organized by drainage basin (new format) and province (old format to be removed). ...

Floristic geography

Mixed forest landscape in Réserve Faunique de Portneuf, Québec
Mixed forest landscape in Réserve Faunique de Portneuf, Québec
Main article: Ecoregions of Canada

Canada has produced a Biodiversity Action Plan in response to the 1992 international accord; the plan addresses conservation of endangered species and certain habitats. The main biomes of Canada are: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 614 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1934 × 1888 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 614 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1934 × 1888 pixel, file size: 1. ... Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests are a temperate and humid biome. ... Deciduous trees native to Ontario are: sugar maple, white oak, northern red oak, black oak, tulip trees, Hackberry, horsechestnut, silver maple, sycamore and green ash. ... Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ...

See also: Flora of Canada and Fauna of Canada

For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests are a temperate and humid biome. ... A temperate hardwood forest is a type of forest found in temperate zones around the globe. ... For other uses, see Prairie (disambiguation). ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Pine forests are an example of a temperate coniferous forests Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ... A map showing the areas where temperate rain forest can be found Temperate rain forest in the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, United States. ... The flora of Canada is quite diverse, due to the wide range of ecoregions and environmental conditions present in Canada. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Human geography

Canada is divided into thirteen provinces and territories. According to Statistics Canada, 72.0% of the population is concentrated within 150 kilometres (95 mi) of the nation's southern border with the United States, 70.0% live south of the 49th parallel, and over 60% of the population lives along the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River between Windsor, Ontario and Quebec City. This leaves the vast majority of Canada's territory as sparsely populated wilderness; Canada's population density is 3.5 people/km² (9.1/mi²), among the lowest in the world. Despite this, 79.7% of Canada's population resides in urban areas, where population densities are increasing. Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... The 49th parallel of north latitude forms part of the International Boundary between Canada and the United States from Manitoba to British Columbia on the Canadian side and from Minnesota to Washington on the U.S. side. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Nickname: Motto: The river and the land sustain us. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ...


Canada shares the world's longest undefended border with the US at 8,893 kilometres (5,526 mi); 2,477 kilometres (1,539 mi) are with Alaska. The Danish island dependency of Greenland lies to Canada's northeast, separated from the Canadian Arctic islands by Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. The French islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon lie off the southern coast of Newfoundland in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and have a maritime territorial enclave within Canada's Exclusive Economic Zone. Canada also shares a land border with Denmark, as maps released in December 2006 show that the agreed upon boundaries run through the middle of Hans Island.[4] Canada and the United States of America share the longest common border among any two countries that is not militarized or actively patrolled. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Reference map of Canadian arctic islands. ... Baffin Bay, lying between Nunavut, Canada and Greenland. ... Map of Baffin Island and surrounding areas, including Davis Strait. ... Motto: A Mare Labor(Latin) From the Sea, Work[] Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Saint-Pierre Official languages French Government  - President of the General Council Stéphane Artano  - Préfet (Prefect) Yves Fauqueur Collectivité doutre-mera of France   - ceded by the UKe 30 May 1814   - Territoire d... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ... Hans Island, 1 August 2003, HDMS Triton Hans Island (Greenlandic/Inuktitut: Tartupaluk; Danish: Hans Ø; French: ÃŽle Hans) is a small, uninhabited barren knoll measuring 1. ...


Canada's geographic proximity to the United States has historically bound the two countries together in the political world as well. Canada's position between the Soviet Union (now Russia) and the US was strategically important during the Cold War as the route over the North Pole and Canada was the fastest route by air between the two countries and the most direct route for intercontinental ballistic missiles. Since the end of the Cold War, there has been growing speculation that Canada's Arctic maritime claims may become increasingly important if global warming melts the ice enough to open the Northwest Passage. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A Minuteman III ICBM test launch from Vandenberg AFB, California, United States. ... The North, the Canadian Arctic defined politically. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... For other uses, see Northwest Passage (disambiguation). ...


Similarly, the disputed – and tiny – Hans Island (with Denmark), in the Nares Strait between Ellesmere Island and northern Greenland, may be a flashpoint for challenges to overall claims of Canadian sovereignty in The North. Hans Island, 1 August 2003, HDMS Triton Hans Island (Greenlandic/Inuktitut: Tartupaluk; Danish: Hans Ø; French: ÃŽle Hans) is a small, uninhabited barren knoll measuring 1. ... The Nares strait is a waterway between Canadas Ellesmere Island and Greenland which connects Baffin Bay to the Arctic Ocean. ... Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... The North, the Canadian Arctic defined politically. ...


Similar to the more famous American Four Corners, Canada has a point common to two provinces and two territories, near Kasba Lake. The Four Corners region is in the red area on this map The Four Corners Monument, placed by the Interior Department at the exact point. ... A map highlighting the Four Corners of Canada, where the borders of four Canadian political subdivisions intersect. ... Kasba Lake is a lake in the northern Canadian wilderness in the Northwest Territories. ...


Natural resources

Canada's abundance of natural resources is reflected in their continued importance in the Economy of Canada. Major resource-based industries are Fisheries, Forestry, Agriculture, Petroleum products and Mining. Canada is one of the worlds wealthiest nations, and a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Group of Eight (G8). ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, this is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ...


The fisheries industry has historically been one of Canada's strongest. Unmatched cod stocks on the Grand Banks off Newfoundland launched this industry in the 16th Century. Today these stocks are nearly depleted and their conservation has become a preoccupation of the Atlantic Provinces. On the West Coast, tuna stocks are now restricted. The less depleted (but still greatly diminished) salmon population continues to drive a strong fisheries industry. Canada claims 12 nautical miles (22 km) of territorial sea, a contiguous zone of 24 nautical miles (44 km), an exclusive economic zone of 200 nautical miles (370 km) and a continental shelf of 200 nautical miles (370 km) or to the edge of the continental margin. COD may refer to many different topics, including: Cash on delivery Completion of discharge, shipping College of DuPage, a public Junior College with campuses in the suburbs of Chicago Call of Duty (series), a series of computer games Canadian Oxford Dictionary Carrier onboard delivery Catastrophic optical damage, a failure mode... Map showing the Grand Banks Historic map of the Grand Banks. ... Atlantic Canada consists of the four Canadian provinces on the Atlantic Ocean: Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. ... For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ...


Forestry has long been a major industry in Canada. Forest products contribute one fifth of the nation's exports. The provinces with the largest forestry industries are British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. 54% of Canada's land area is covered in forest. The boreal forests account for four-fifths of Canada's forestland. Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the Canadian province. ...

Five per cent of Canada's land area is arable, none of which is for permanent crops. Three per cent of Canada's land area is covered by permanent pastures. Canada has 7,200 square kilometres (2,800 mi²) of irrigated land (1993 estimate). Agricultural regions in Canada include the Canadian prairies, the Lower Mainland and interior plateau of British Columbia, the St. Lawrence Basin and the Canadian Maritimes. Main crops in Canada include flax, oats, wheat, maize, barley, sugar beets and rye in the prairies; flax and maize in Western Ontario; Oats and potatoes in the Maritimes. Fruit and vegetables are grown primarily in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia, Southwestern Ontario, the Golden Horseshoe region of Ontario, along the south coast of Georgian Bay and in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. Cattle and sheep are raised in the valleys of BC. Cattle, sheep and Hogs are raised on the prairies, Cattle and Hogs in Western Ontario, Sheep and Hogs in Quebec, and sheep in the Maritimes. There are significant Dairy regions in Central Nova Scotia, Southern New Brunswick, the St. Lawrence Valley, Northeastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, the Red River valley of Manitoba and the valleys of eastern British Columbia, on Vancouver Island and the Lower mainland. Download high resolution version (848x512, 25 KB)Grain Elevator - Alberta This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (848x512, 25 KB)Grain Elevator - Alberta This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ... The Lower Mainland is the name that residents of British Columbia apply to the region surrounding the City of Vancouver. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article is about the Canadian region. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Western Ontario is a region of Ontario centred on London, Ontario. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... Annapolis Valley is a valley in western Nova Scotia, formed by a trough between two parallel mountain ranges along the shore of the Bay of Fundy. ... Southwestern Ontario is a region of the Canadian province of Ontario, centred on the city of London. ... Hamilton, Ontario Skyline The skyline of Niagara Falls, Ontario side The Golden Horseshoe is a densely populated and industrialized region or urban agglomeration centred around the west end of Lake Ontario in Southern Ontario, Canada. ... Georgian Bay (French: baie Georgienne) is a large bay of Lake Huron, located in Ontario, Canada. ... A view overlooking Skaha Lake in the Okanagan Valley The regional districts that comprise the Okanagan are shown in red. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Sheep redirects here. ... Hog is a domestic or feral adult swine. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Northeastern Ontario is the region within the Canadian province of Ontario which lies north and east of the Great Lakes. ... The Red River drainage basin, with the Red River highlighted The Red River in Greater Grand Forks, as viewed from the Grand Forks side of the river The Red River in Fargo-Moorhead, as viewed from the Fargo side of the river For other things named Red River, see the... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Vancouver Island is separated from mainland British Columbia by the Strait of Georgia and the Queen Charlotte Strait, and from Washington by the Juan De Fuca Strait. ... The Lower Mainland is the name that residents of British Columbia apply to the region surrounding the City of Vancouver. ...


Fossil Fuels are a more recently developed resource in Canada. While Canada's crude oil deposits are fewer, technological developments in recent decades have opened up oil production in Alberta's Tar Sands to the point where Canada now has some of the largest reserves of oil in the world. In other forms, Canadian industry has long exploited large coal and natural gas reserves. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Athabasca Oil Sands Tar sands is a common name of what are more properly called bituminous sands, but also commonly referred to as oil sands or (in Venezuela) extra-heavy oil. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


Canada's mineral resources are diverse and extensive. Across the Canadian Shield and in the north there are large iron, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, and uranium reserves. Large diamond concentrations have been recently developed in the Arctic, making Canada one of the world's largest producers. Throughout the Shield there are many mining towns extracting these minerals. The largest, and best known, is Sudbury, Ontario. Sudbury is an exception to the normal process of forming minerals in the Shield since there is significant evidence that the Sudbury Basin is an ancient meteorite impact crater. The Shield is also covered by vast boreal forests that support an important logging industry. For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the metal. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the mineral. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedificemus (Latin for Come, let us build together) Coordinates: , Country Province Established 1893 (as Sudbury)   2001 (as Greater Sudbury) Government  - Mayor John Rodriguez  - Governing Body Greater Sudbury City Council  - MPs Raymond Bonin (LPC), Diane Marleau (LPC)  - MPPs Rick Bartolucci (OLP), Shelley Martel (NDP) Area  - City 3,200 km... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... Tycho crater on Earths moon. ... Taiga (SAMPA /taIg@/, from Russian тайга́) is a biome characterized by its coniferous forests. ... Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ...


Canada's many rivers have afforded extensive development of hydroelectric power. Extensively developed in British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and Labrador, the many dams have long provided a clean, dependable source of energy. Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ...


Natural hazards

Continuous permafrost in the north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ...


Current environmental issues

Air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities. The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ...

See also: Acid rain and Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change and the warming of the polar region will likely cause significant changes to the environment, including loss of the polar bear, the exploration for resource then the extraction of these resources and an alternative transport route [read north west passage now open] to the Panama Canal. The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ...


Extreme points

Topographic map
Topographic map

This is a list of the extreme points of Canada, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1211, 791 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1211, 791 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Canada

Canada (mainland) Cape Columbia is the northernmost point of land of Canada, located on Ellesmere Island at 83°05N, 70°21W. It marks the westernmost coastal point of Lincoln Sea in the Arctic Ocean. ... Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... Map of Pelee island and Middle Island. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about Yukon Territory in Canada. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The 1836 Cape Spear lighthouse Cape Spear, 47°31. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...

Elevation extremes Murchison Promontory on Boothia Peninsula is the northernmost point on mainland Canada, as well as North America at . The distance to the North Pole is 2014 km (1251 mi / 1087 nm), or 64 km less than the distance from Point Barrow, Alaska to the Pole. ... Boothia and Melville peninsulas, Nunavut, Canada. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... Point Pelee National Park is a park in Essex County in southwestern Ontario, Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about Yukon Territory in Canada. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ...

See also: Extreme points of Canadian provinces

For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... For other uses, see Mount Logan (disambiguation). ... See also: Extreme points of U.S. states Categories: Geography of Canada ...

See also

Geography by province

British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, bordered by the Pacific Ocean. ... Alberta is a province in western Canada with an area 661,190 km² (260,000 mi²). It is bounded to the south by the United States boundary line, 49° north. ... The Geography of Saskatchewan (suskăchuwun, –wän, săs–) [key], province (2001 pop. ... Map of Manitoba The Geography of Manitoba is the easternmost of the three prairie provinces, and is located in the longitudinal center of Canada. ... Ontario is located in East/Central Canada, bordered by the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay and James bay. ... The Quebec territory. ... Road map of N.B. New Brunswick (French: Nouveau-Brunswick) is one of Canadas three Maritime provinces, and the only officially bilingual province (French and English) in the country. ... This is the coast of Prince Edward Island around Cavendish. ... Nova Scotia is a province located in eastern Canada fronting the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Geography of Newfoundland and Labrador describes Newfoundland and Labradors topography. ... A map of Yukon The Yukon Territory is in the northwestern corner of Canada. ... The Geography of Northwest Territories (Abbr. ... The Canadian territory of Nunavut covers about 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (852x698, 139 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Geography of Canada Same-sex marriage in Canada Egale Canada Same-sex marriage in Yukon Same-sex marriage... This is a list of the highest points of the Canadian provinces and territories, by height. ... Although Canada and The United States share the longest non-militarized border between two countries, there are four areas whose ownership is still disputed. ... This is a list of the extreme communities in Canada. ... The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. ... Canadian Geographic is the bimonthly magazine of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society (RCGS). ... Mount Logan in the Yukon is the highest peak of Canada. ...

References

  1. ^ Atlas of Canada (April 2004). Canada teritorrial evolution. Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  2. ^ Atlas of Canada (February 2004). Distribution of Freshwater. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  3. ^ Atlas of Canada (April 2004). Facts about Canada - Lakes. Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  4. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/technology/story/2007/07/26/hans-technology.html

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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