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Encyclopedia > Geography of California
Digitally colored elevation map of California
Digitally colored elevation map of California

The Geography of California is rich and diverse. There are alpine mountains, foggy coastlines, hot deserts, and a fertile central valley. The U.S. state of California is home to the world's tallest (coast redwood), most massive (Giant Sequoia), and oldest (bristlecone pine) trees. It is also home to both the highest (Mt. Whitney) and lowest (Death Valley) points in the 48 contiguous states. Download high resolution version (1742x1943, 549 KB) SOURCE: http://wwwflag. ... Download high resolution version (1742x1943, 549 KB) SOURCE: http://wwwflag. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities referred to... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Binomial name Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. ... Binomial name Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl. ... Species Pinus aristata Pinus longaeva Pinus balfouriana The bristlecone pines are a small group of pine trees (Family Pinaceae, genus Pinus, subsection Balfourianae) that can reach an age far greater than that of any other living thing known - up to nearly 5,000 years. ... Mount Whitney is the highest point in the Continental United States. ... Death Valley and Panamint Range The salt lake at Badwater, Death Valley is the lowest point in western hemisphere. ... Depending on usage, the term continental United States can refer to either: the 48 contiguous states plus the District of Columbia; or the 48 contiguous states plus the District of Columbia and Alaska. ...


The state is generally divided into Northern and Southern California, although the boundary between the two is not well defined. The US Geological Survey defines the geographic center of the state at a point near North Fork, California. Northern California, sometimes abbreviated NorCal, refers to the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... Downtown Los Angeles Skyline Southern California, also colloquially referred to as SoCal, is an informal name for the megalopolis and nearby desert that occupies the southern-most quarter of the U.S. state of California. ... North Fork is a small town located in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada near Yosemite National Park. ...


The state can be divided into twelve distinct geomorphic provinces with clearly defined boundaries. They are, from north to south, the Klamath Mountains, the Cascade Range, the Modoc Plateau, the Basin and Range, the Coast Ranges, the Central Valley, the Sierra Nevada, the Transverse Ranges, the Los Angeles Basin, the Mohave Desert, the Peninsular Ranges, and the Colorado Desert.

Contents

Northern California

Klamath Mountains

The Klamath Mountains are a mountain range in northwest California and southwest Oregon, the highest peak being Thompson Peak (2744 m / 9002 ft) in Trinity County, California. They have a very varied geology, with substantial areas of serpentine and marble, and a climate characterised by cold winters with very heavy snowfall, and warm summers with limited rainfall. As a consequence of the geology, they have a unique flora including several endemic or near-endemic species, such as Lawson's Cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), Foxtail Pine (Pinus balfouriana), Brewer's Spruce (Picea breweriana) and Kalmiopsis (Kalmiopsis leachiana). The Klamath Mountains are a mountain range in northwest California and southwest Oregon, the highest peaks being Mount Eddy (2744m / 9002) in Trinity County, California, and Mount Ashland (2296m / 7533) in Jackson County, Oregon. ... Thompson Peak is located in the McDowell Mountains 20 miles outside of downtown Phoenix, it is a prominant landmark throughout the valley, and the radio towers on top are owned by Verizon Wireless. ... Trinity County is a county located in northwestern California, along the Trinity River and among the Klamath Mountains. ... Serpentine Serpentine is a group of common rock-forming hydrous magnesium iron phyllosilicate ((Mg, Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4) minerals; it is also often rich in other metal ores, including chromium, manganese, cobalt and nickel. ... Venus de Milo, front. ... Binomial name Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl. ... Binomial name Pinus balfouriana Balf. ... Binomial name Picea breweriana S. Watson Brewers Spruce or Weeping Spruce (Picea breweriana) is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 20-40 m tall, exceptionally 54 m, and with a trunk diameter of up to 1. ... Binomial name Kalmiopsis leachiana (Henderson) Rehd. ...


Cascade Range

Mount Shasta from Interstate 5
Mount Shasta from Interstate 5

The Cascade Range is a mountainous region stretching from British Columbia in Canada down to the northern part of California. The Cascades (as they are called for short) are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the ring of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean. All of the known historic eruptions in the contiguous United States have been from Cascade volcanoes. The last Cascade volcano to erupt in California was Lassen Peak, which erupted from 1914 to 1921. Lassen is the most southerly active volcano of the Cascade chain. Download high resolution version (898x332, 41 KB)copyright assigned to wikipedia by photographer. ... Download high resolution version (898x332, 41 KB)copyright assigned to wikipedia by photographer. ... Interstate 5 (abbreviated I-5) is the westernmost interstate highway in the continental United States. ... Mount Adams in Washington The Cascade Range is a mountainous region famous for its chain of tall volcanoes called the High Cascades that run north-south along the west coast of North America from British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to the Shasta Cascade area of northern California. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English de facto (none stated in law) Flower Pacific dogwood Tree Western Redcedar Bird Stellers Jay Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area... Lassen Peak[1] (also known as Mount Lassen) is the southernmost active volcano in the Cascade Range. ...


This region is located in the northeastern section of the state bordering Oregon and Nevada, mostly north of the Central Valley and the Sierra Nevada mountain range. The area is centered on Mount Shasta, near the Trinity Alps. Mount Shasta is a dormant volcano, but there is some evidence that it or Shastina, a smaller companion, erupted in the 18th Century. Official language(s) None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Mount Shasta, a 14,179-foot (4,322 m)[1] stratovolcano, is the second-highest peak in the Cascade Range and the fifth highest peak in California. ... The Trinity Alps near Granite Lake in July 2005 The Trinity Alps are mountains in Northern California. ...


Modoc Plateau

In the northeast corner of the state lies the Modoc Plateau, an expanse of lava flows at an altitude of 4000 to 6000 ft (1200 to 1800 m) with cinder cones, juniper flats, pine forests, and seasonal lakes. Nearly 1 million acres (4,000 km²) of the Modoc National Forest lie on the plateau between the Medicine Lake Highlands in the west and the Warner Mountains in the east. The plateau supports large herds of mule deer (Odocoileus Hemionus), Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus Canadensis), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra Americana). There are also several herds of wild horses on the plateau. The Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuge and Long Bell State Game Refuge are located on the plateau as well. The Lost River watershed drains the north part of the plateau, while southern watersheds either collect in basin reservoirs or flow into the large Big Sage Reservoir, which sits in the center of Modoc County. The Modoc Plateau lies in the northeast corner of California as well as parts of Oregon and Nevada. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cinder Cone is a cinder cone volcano in Lassen Volcanic National Park. ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... Modoc National Forest is a national forest located in northern California, USA. External links Modoc National Forest official website Don Bains VirtualGuidebooks to Mount Lassen and the Modoc Plateau Category: California geography stubs ... Warner Mountains The Warner Mountains are a short mountain range in northeastern California and extending into south central Oregon in the United States. ... Binomial name Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817) The mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is a deer whose habitat is in the western half of North America. ... Binomial name Antilocapra americana Ord, 1815 The pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae, and the fastest land animal in North America running at speeds up to 54 mph (90 km/h). ... Modoc County is a county located in Californias far northeast corner, bounded by Oregon to the north and Nevada to the east. ...


Basin and Range

Mono Lake
Mono Lake

To the east of the Sierra is the Basin and Range geological province, which extends into Nevada. The Basin and Range is a series of mountains and valleys (specifically horsts and grabens), caused by the extension of the Earth's crust. One notable feature of the Basin and Range is Mono Lake, which is the oldest lake in North America. The Basin and Range also contains the Owens Valley, the deepest valley in North America (more than 10,000 feet (3 km) deep, as measured from the top of Mount Whitney). Download high resolution version (1000x414, 43 KB)Image taken in June 2004 by Daniel Mayer. ... Download high resolution version (1000x414, 43 KB)Image taken in June 2004 by Daniel Mayer. ... Basin and Range index map - USGS The Basin and Range Province is a particular type of topography that covers much of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico that is typified by elongate north-south trending arid valleys bounded by mountain ranges which also bound adjacent valleys. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... USGS image In physical geography and geology, a horst is the raised fault block bounded by normal faults. ... USGS image A graben is a depressed block of land bordered by parallel faults. ... Mono Lake is an alkaline and hypersaline lake in California, United States that is a critical nesting habitat for several bird species and is one of the most productive ecosystems in North America[citation needed]. // Satellite photo of Mono Lake Mono Craters to the right of the image are rhyolitic... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Owens Valley is the arid ranching valley of the Owens River in southeastern California in the United States. ...


In the eastern part of the state, below the Sierra Nevada, there is a series dry lake beds that were filled with water during the last ice age (fed by ice melt from alpine glaciers but never directly affected by glaciation; see pluvial). Many of these lakes have extensive evaporite deposits that contain a variety of different salts. In fact, the salt sediments of many of these lake beds have been mined for many years for various salts, most notably borax (this is most famously true for Owens Lake and Death Valley). A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity and undergoes internal deformation. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... A pluvial lake is a lake which experiences significant increase in depth and extent as a result of increased precipitation and reduced evaporation. ... Evaporites are water-soluble, mineral sediments that result from the evaporation of saline water. ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) Salt covering the floor of Bad Water in Death Valley, CA, the lowest point in the US. A salt, in chemistry, is any ionic compound composed of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is neutral... This article is about mineral extraction. ... It has been suggested that Sodium boric acid be merged into this article or section. ... Death Valley and Panamint Range The salt lake at Badwater, Death Valley is the lowest point in western hemisphere. ...


In this province reside the White Mountains, which are home to the oldest living thing in the world, the bristlecone pine. The White Mountains along the east side of the Owens Valley The White Mountains of California are a small mountain range that runs along the eastern side of the upper Owens Valley, just across from the Sierra Nevada. ... Species Pinus aristata Pinus longaeva Pinus balfouriana The bristlecone pines are a small group of pine trees (Family Pinaceae, genus Pinus, subsection Balfourianae) that can reach an age far greater than that of any other living thing known - up to nearly 5,000 years. ...


Coast Ranges

Skyline Boulevard, along the crest of the Santa Cruz Mountains
Skyline Boulevard, along the crest of the Santa Cruz Mountains

To the west of the Central Valley lies the Coast Ranges, including the Diablo Range, just east of San Francisco, and the Santa Cruz Mountains, to the south of San Francisco. The Coast Ranges north of San Francisco become increasingly foggy and rainy. These mountains are noted for their coast redwoods, which live within the range of the coastal fog, the tallest trees on Earth. Download high resolution version (1270x494, 142 KB)A section of Skyline Blvd in the Santa Cruz Mountains of Northern California. ... Download high resolution version (1270x494, 142 KB)A section of Skyline Blvd in the Santa Cruz Mountains of Northern California. ... The Coast Ranges of California constitute one of the eleven traditional geomorphic provinces of California. ... Nickname: The City by the Bay; Fog City Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom Area    - City 122 km²  (47 sq mi)  - Land 121. ... The Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, are a mountain range in central California. ... Binomial name Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. ... Evening fog obscures Londons Tower Bridge from passers by. ...


Central Valley

California's geography is largely defined by its central feature — the Central Valley, a huge, fertile valley between the coastal mountain ranges and the Sierra Nevada with the exception of the Sutter Buttes mistakenly referred to as "The Smallest Mountain Range in the World" located approximately 10 miles northwest of Yuba City. The northern part of the Central Valley is called the Sacramento Valley, after its main river, and the southern part is called the San Joaquin Valley (IPA: sæn wɑkin), after its main river. The whole Central Valley is watered by mountain-fed rivers (notably the San Joaquin, Kings, and Sacramento) that drain to the San Francisco Bay system. The rivers are sufficiently large and deep that several inland cities, notably Stockton, California, are seaports. The California Central Valley Part of the Valley as seen from overhead A typical Central Valley scene at ground level The California Central Valley is a large, flat valley that dominates the central portion of the U.S. state of California. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley A valley (in Scotland, a glen) is a landform, which can range from a few square miles (square kilometers) to hundreds or even thousands of square miles in area. ... The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range that is almost entirely in the eastern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... The Sutter Buttes rise humbly over the town of Sutter, CA. The Sutter Buttes, also known as the Marysville Buttes or Histum Yani (Maidu), is often called the smallest mountain range in the world. ... Yuba City is the county seat of Sutter County, California. ... The Sacramento Valley is the portion of the California Central Valley that lies to the north of the San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... The San Joaquin River, 330 miles (530 km) long, is the second-longest river in California, United States. ... The Kings River is a major river of California, USA. It arises in the Sierra Nevada, in three forks. ... A spring at the Sacramento River headwater The Sacramento River is the longest river in the state of California. ... San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ... City nickname: Californias Sunrise Seaport City slogan: Stocktons Great, Take A Look! County: San Joaquin Area code: 209 ZIP code: 952xx Area:  - Total  - Water 144. ...


The southern tip of the valley has interior drainage and thus is not technically part of the valley at all. Tulare Lake, once 570 square miles and now dry and covered with agricultural fields, once filled much of the area. Tulare Lake is an extinct fresh-water lake that was formerly the largest to be completely enclosed within the territories of the Unites States. ...


Sierra Nevada

Little Lakes Valley in the eastern Sierra Nevada
Little Lakes Valley in the eastern Sierra Nevada

In the east of the state lies the Sierra Nevada, which runs north-south for 400 miles (600 km). The highest peak in the continental United States, Mount Whitney at 14,505 feet (4421 m), lies within the Sierra Nevada. The topography of the Sierra is shaped by uplift and glacial action. Little Lakes Valley, Sierra Nevada, USA. I took this photo on June 10, 2001. ... Little Lakes Valley, Sierra Nevada, USA. I took this photo on June 10, 2001. ... The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range that is almost entirely in the eastern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... Mount Whitney is the highest point in the contiguous United States at elevation 14,505 feet (4,421 meters). ...


The Sierra has 200-250 sunny days each year, warm summers, fierce winters, and varied terrain. The rare combination of rugged variety and pleasant weather leads many mountaineers to say that they are the most beautiful and accessible mountains in the world. The famous Yosemite Valley lies in the Central Sierra. The large, deep freshwater Lake Tahoe lies to the North of Yosemite. The Sierra is also home to the Giant Sequoia, the most massive trees on Earth. Yosemite Valley with Half Dome in the distance. ... Tahoe redirects here. ... Binomial name Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl. ...


These features inspired the founding of the Sierra Club and the Alpine Club, public-service clubs of mountaineers devoted to maintaining trails and lodges and organizing outings to explore the Sierra. The most famous hiking and horse-packing trail in the Sierra is the John Muir Trail, which goes from the top of Mt. Whitney to Yosemite valley, and which is part of the Pacific Crest Trail that goes from Mexico to Canada. The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known conservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ... The Alpine Club was: Today, Alpine clubs stage climbing competitions, operate Alpine huts and paths, and are active in protecting the Alpine environment. ... John Muir Trail is a long-distance trail in California, running 211 miles (340 km) from the Yosemite Valley to Mount Whitney. ... The Pacific Crest Trail is a long-distance mountain hiking and equestrian trail that runs from the United States border with Mexico to its border with Canada. ...


The three major national parks in this province are Yosemite National Park, Kings Canyon National Park, and Sequoia National Park. Yosemite redirects here. ... This article is about Kings Canyon National Park, USA. For Kings Canyon, Australia, see Kings Canyon (Northern Territory). ... Crescent Meadow in the Giant Forest, called by John Muir the Gem of the Sierras Sequoia National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Visalia, California in the United States of America. ...


Southern California

Transverse Ranges

Mount San Gorgonio and Mount Baldy as seen from Mount San Jacinto
Mount San Gorgonio and Mount Baldy as seen from Mount San Jacinto

Southern California is separated from the rest of the state by the east-west trending Transverse Ranges, including the Tehachapi, which separate the Central Valley from the Mojave Desert. Urban Southern California intersperses the valleys between the Santa Susana Mountains, Santa Monica Mountains and San Gabriel Mountains, which range from the Pacific Coast, eastward over 100 miles (160 km), to the San Bernardino Mountains, north of Palm Springs. The highest point of the range is Mount San Gorgonio at 11,502 feet (3506 m). The San Gabriel Mountains have Mount Wilson observatory, where the redshift was discovered in the 1920s. Download high resolution version (1433x447, 58 KB)Mount San Gorgonio (Old Grayback), seen from Mount San Jacinto. ... Download high resolution version (1433x447, 58 KB)Mount San Gorgonio (Old Grayback), seen from Mount San Jacinto. ... Downtown Los Angeles Skyline Southern California, also colloquially referred to as SoCal, is an informal name for the megalopolis and nearby desert that occupies the southern-most quarter of the U.S. state of California. ... The Transverse ranges are a group of mountain ranges of southern California, part of the North American Coast Ranges that run along the Pacific coast from Alaska to Mexico. ... Tehachapi Mountains The Tehachapi Mountains are a short transverse range in southern California in the United States, running SW-NE to connect the Coast Ranges on the west with the southern end of the Sierra Nevada mountains on the east. ... Looking across from Emigrant Pass towards the Kingston Range in the eastern Mojave. ... Santa Susana Mountains The Santa Susana Mountains are a transverse range of mountains in southern California, north of the city of Los Angeles, in the United States. ... Santa Monica Mountains The Santa Monica Mountains are a low transverse range in southern California in the United States. ... San Gabriel Mountains The San Gabriel Mountains are located in northern Los Angeles County and western San Bernardino County, California, USA. The mountain range forms a barrier between the Greater Los Angeles Area and the Mojave Desert. ... San Bernardino Mountains The San Bernardino Mountains are short transverse mountain range northeast of Los Angeles in southern California in the United States. ... Palm Springs is a famed Riverside County, California, desert resort city, approximately 110 miles east of Los Angeles. ... Mount San Gorgonio rises 11,502 feet (3506 meters) above sea level and is located in the San Bernardino Mountains. ... The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California. ... Redshift of spectral lines in the optical spectrum of a supercluster of distant galaxies (right), as compared with that of the Sun (left). ... The 1920s was a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ...


The Transverse Ranges include a series of east-west trending mountain ranges that extend from Point Conception at the western tip of Santa Barbara County, eastward (and a bit south) to the east end of the San Jacinto Mountains in western Riverside County. The Santa Ynez Mountains make up the westernmost ranges, extending from Point Conception to the Ventura River just west-northwest of Ojai, in Ventura County. Pine Mountain Ridge, Nordhoff Ridge-Topatopa Mountains, Rincon Peak-Red Mountain, Sulphur Mountain, Santa Paula Ridge, South Mountain-Oat Mountain-Santa Susana Mountains, Simi Hills, Conejo Mountains-Santa Monica Mountains are all part of the Western Transverse Ranges, in Ventura and western Los Angeles Counties.


The Liebre Mountains occupy the northwest corner of Los Angeles County, and represent a northwestern extension of the San Gabriel Mountains, both on the Pacific Plate side of the San Andreas Fault. The fault divides the San Gabriel Mountains from the San Bernardino Mountains further to the east in San Bernardino County.


It is possible to surf in the Pacific Ocean and ski on a mountain during the same winter day in Southern California (but it takes planning to avoid the traffic congestion). Look up surf on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A shaped, twin-tip alpine ski. ... Downtown Los Angeles Skyline Southern California, also colloquially referred to as SoCal, is an informal name for the megalopolis and nearby desert that occupies the southern-most quarter of the U.S. state of California. ...


Los Angeles Basin

For the last 15 million years, the Los Angeles, San Gabriel, and Santa Ana Rivers have deposited sediment from the Transeverse Ranges along the southern coast of California. That sediment has formed the large, flat expanse of land known as the Los Angeles Basin, on which lives most of the population of Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The Los Angeles River, highlighted in red (on the left). ... San Gabriel River is the name of watercourses in two states: San Gabriel River (California) San Gabriel River (Texas) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Santa Ana River begins in San Bernardino County, California in the San Bernardino National Forest. ... The Los Angeles Basin is the coastal sediment-filled plain located between the peninsular and transverse ranges in southern California in the United States containing the central part of the city of Los Angeles. ... Map of California showing Los Angeles County. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


At its deepest point, near where the Los Angeles River meets the Rio Hondo, the sediment forming the basin is 6 miles (11 km) deep. The fact that so much sediment, which is naturally less stable than other geologic formations, underlies Los Angeles and its environs is one of the reasons earthquakes are such a danger to the metropolitan area. The Rio Hondo is a tributary of the Los Angeles River in Los Angeles County, California, approximately 20 miles long. ... An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ...


Mojave Desert

Badwater Basin: the lowest point in North America.

There are harsh deserts in the Southeast of California. These deserts are caused by a combination of the cold offshore current, which limits evaporation, and the rain shadow of the mountains. The prevailing winds blow from the ocean inland. When the air passes over the mountains, adiabatic cooling causes most water in the air to rain on the mountains. When the air returns to sea level on the other side of the mountains, it recompresses, warms and dries, parching the deserts. When the wind blows from inland, the resulting hot dry föhn winds are called the Santa Ana Winds. Photo by Daniel Mayer. ... Photo by Daniel Mayer. ... Erg Chebbi, Morocco In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives very little precipitation. ... For the television series see Rain Shadow. ... The adiabatic lapse rate is the rate of temperature change that occurs in an atmosphere as a function of elevation, assuming that air behaves adiabatically. ... A föhn wind or foehn wind occurs when a deep layer of prevailing wind is forced over a mountain range (Orographic lifting). ... Santa Ana winds are warm, dry winds that characteristically appear in Southern California weather during autumn and early winter. ...


The Mojave Desert is bounded by the peninsular Tehachapi Mountains on the Northwest, together with the San Gabriel and the San Bernardino Mountains on the Southwest. These Western boundaries are quite distinct, forming the dominant pie-slice shaped Antelope Valley in Southern California. The outlines of this valley are caused by the two largest faults in California: the San Andreas and the Garlock. The Mojave Desert extends Eastward into the State of Nevada. The Mojave Desert receives less than 6 inches (150 mm) of rain a year and is generally between 3000 and 6000 feet (1000 and 2000 m) of elevation. Most of the towns and cities in the California portion of the Mojave are relatively small, except for Palmdale and Lancaster. However, some are quite famous like Barstow, a popular stop on the famous Route 66. The Mojave Desert also contains the lowest, hottest place in the Americas: Death Valley, where temperature normally approaches 120 °F (49 °C) in late July and early August. Looking across from Emigrant Pass towards the Kingston Range in the eastern Mojave. ... The Antelope Valley consists of northern Los Angeles County and the southeastern portion of Kern County, California. ... View of the San Andreas Fault on the Carrizo Plain in central California, 35°07N, 119°39W The San Andreas Fault is a geological fault that runs a length of roughly 800 miles (1300 kilometres) through western and southern California in the United States. ... The Garlock Fault Line is a fault line running approximately north-south along the coast of California. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... City nickname:Aerospace Capital of America County Los Angeles County, California Area  - Total  - Water 272. ... Location of Lancaster in California and Los Angeles County Coordinates: Country United States State California County Los Angeles Incorporated November 22, 1977 Mayor Henry W. Hearns Area    - City 243. ... Barstow is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States. ... Alternate meanings of Route 66: New Jersey State Highway 66, Interstate 66, and a company named after the route US Highway 66 or Route 66 was and is the most famous road in the United States highway system and quite possibly the most famous and storied highway in the world. ... World map showing the Americas CIA map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Death Valley National Park is a mostly-arid United States National Park located east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Inyo County, California with a small extension and exclave (Devils Hole) in Nye County, Nevada. ...


Peninsular Ranges

The southernmost mountains of California are the Peninsular Ranges, which are East of San Diego and continue into Baja California (Mexico) in the Sierra San Pedro Martir. The Peninsular Ranges contain the Laguna Mountains, the San Jacinto Mountains, the Santa Ana Mountains and the Palomar Mountain Range, notable for its famous Palomar observatory. San Jacinto Peak's eastern shoulder has a cable tram that runs from the desert floor to nearly the top of the mountain where riders can set off hiking or go cross-country skiing. The Peninsular Ranges are a group of mountain ranges which stretch 900 miles from southern California to the southern tip of Baja California, part of the North American Coast Ranges that run along the Pacific coast from Alaska to Mexico. ... Nickname: Americas Finest City Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates: Country United States State California County San Diego Mayor Jerry Sanders City Attorney Michael Aguirre City Council Scott Peters Kevin Faulconer Toni Atkins Tony Young Brian Maienschein Donna Frye Jim Madaffer Ben Hueso Area    - City 963. ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ... The Sierra San Pedro Martir is a mountain chain that runs north-south along the northern part of Baja California in northwest Mexico. ... The Laguna Mountains are a section of the Peninsular Ranges in eastern San Diego County. ... North slope of San Jacinto Peak San Jacinto Mountains The San Jacinto Mountains are short mountain range east of Los Angeles in southern California in the United States. ... Santa Ana Mountains The Santa Ana Mountains are short peninsular mountain range along the coast of southern California in the United States. ... The Palomar Mountain Range is a high range in northern San Diego County of Southern California. ... Palomar Observatory is a privately-owned observatory located in San Diego County, California, 90 miles (145 km) southeast of Mount Wilson Observatory, on Palomar Mountain. ... San Jacinto Peak is the highest peak in Riverside County, California and part of the sheerest mountain face in all of North America. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... Cross-country skiing (also known as XC skiing) is a winter sport popular in many countries with large snowfields, primarily Northern Europe and Canada. ...


Colorado Desert

The Coachella Valley Preserve
The Coachella Valley Preserve

To the east of the peninsular ranges lie the Colorado and Sonoran Deserts, which extend into Arizona and Mexico. One feature of the desert is the Salton Sea, an inland lake that was formed in 1905 when a swollen Colorado River breached a temporary canal near the U.S.-Mexico border and flowed into the Salton Basin for almost two years. Today, the Salton Sea remains as California's largest lake. Mojave Desert Colorado Desert File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Mojave Desert Colorado Desert File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Colorado Desert (yellow) showing Joshua Tree National Park The Colorado Desert is a large arid depression in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of California and the northeastern portion of the Mexican state of Baja California. ... Sonoran Desert wildlife Mountains in the Sonoran Desert 3D photograph of Saguaro National Park at dusk. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... The Salton Sea (with local/regional cities) The Salton Sea is an inland saline lake, located in the Colorado Desert in Southern California, north of the Imperial Valley. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River is a river in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, approximately 1,450 mi (2,333 km) long, draining a part of the arid regions on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. ... The international border between Mexico and the United States runs a total of 3,141 km (1,951 miles) from San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east. ...


The Channel Islands

The Channel Islands are a group of islands off the coast of Southern California. They are divided into two groups, the Northern islands and the Southern islands. There are eight islands total:
The Channel Islands of California, also called the Santa Barbara Islands, are a chain of eight islands located in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Southern California along the Santa Barbara Channel in the United States of America. ... Rugged coastline of the West Coast of New Zealand The coast is defined as the part of the land adjoining or near the ocean. ...

Northern islands Southern islands
Anacapa Island San Clemente Island
San Miguel Island San Nicolas Island
Santa Cruz Island Santa Barbara Island
Santa Rosa Island Santa Catalina Island

Four of the islands are located in Santa Barbara County, two are located in Ventura County, and two are located in Los Angeles County. The islands have relatively few people. The only island with a sizable settlement is Santa Catalina, with its towns of Avalon and Two Harbors. The islands of Anacapa, San Miguel, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, and Santa Rosa make up the Channel Islands National Park. There is also a marine sanctuary in the islands, the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. The Channel Islands, and in particular San Nicolas Island, are famous for the Lost Woman of San Nicolas, or Juana María. This woman was the main character in the book Island of the Blue Dolphins by Scott O’Dell. NASA satellite image of Anacapa Island Anacapa Island is a small volcanic island located about 14 miles (23 km) off the coast of Ventura, California, in Ventura County. ... View from space of Southern California coast, showing Santa Catalina Island (closer to mainland) and San Clemente Island (further from mainland). ... Aerial view of San Miguel San Miguel Island is the westernmost of Californias Channel Islands and the sixth-largest of the eight at 9,325 acres (37. ... San Nicolas Island (sometimes shortened as San Nic or SNI) is the most remote of Californias Channel Islands. ... NASA satellite image of Santa Cruz Island. ... Categories: US geography stubs | Channel Islands of California | Santa Barbara County, California ... Santa Rosa Island Santa Rosa Island is the second largest of the Channel Islands of California at 52,794 acres (21,365 hectares). ... Santa Catalina Island, location relative to the coast of Southern California Santa Catalina Island, often called simply Catalina Island, or just Catalina, is a rocky island off the coast of the U.S. state of California. ... Download high resolution version (1100x428, 242 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1100x428, 242 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Avalon Bay and the city of Avalon. ... Santa Catalina Island, location relative to the coast of Southern California Santa Catalina Island, often called simply Catalina Island, or just Catalina, is a rocky island off the coast of the U.S. state of California. ... The eight Channel Islands of California, off the west coast of North America. ... Santa Barbara County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the southern portion of the U.S. state of California, just west of Ventura County. ... Official website: http://www. ... Los Angeles County is a county in California and is the most populous county in the United States. ... Avalon Bay is a beautiful bay on Catalina Island. ... Avalon Bay and the city of Avalon. ... view of Two Harbors from the sea Two Harbors is a small island village on Santa Catalina Island, California with a population of about 150. ... The Channel Islands National Park is a national park that consists of five of the eight Channel Islands off the coast of the U.S. state of California, in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary is a reserve area off the Pacific coast of the United States, near California. ... Juana María (died October 18, 1853), better known to history as The Lone Woman of San Nicolas (her Indian name is unknown), was a Native American woman of the now-extinct Nicoleño tribe who lived alone on San Nicolas Island from 1835 until her discovery in 1853. ... Island of the Blue Dolphins is a novel for children, written by Scott ODell. ...


Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean lies to the west of California. Sea temperatures rarely exceed 65 °F (18 °C), even in summer, because of up-welling deep waters with dissolved nutrients. Therefore, most sea life in and around California more closely resembles Arctic, rather than tropical, biotopes. The sea off California is remarkably fertile, a murky green filled with fish, rather than the clear dead blue of most tropical seas. Before 1930, there was an extremely valuable sardine (herring) fishery off Monterey, but this was depleted, an event later famous as the background to John Steinbeck's Cannery Row. Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-deplete surface water. ... A biotope is an area of uniform environmental (physical) conditions providing habitat(s) for a specific assemblage of plants and animals. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Sardines or pilchards are a group of several types of small oily fish related to herrings, family Clupeidae. ... Species Clupea alba Clupea bentincki Clupea caspiopontica Clupea chrysotaenia Clupea elongata Clupea halec Clupea harengus Clupea inermis Clupea leachii Clupea lineolata Clupea minima Clupea mirabilis Clupea pallasii Clupea sardinacaroli Clupea sulcata Herrings are small oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the temperate, shallow waters of the North Atlantic... Nickname: The Cradle of History, Californias First City Location of Monterey, California County Monterey Mayor Chuck Della Sala Area    - City 11. ... John Ernst Steinbeck (February 27, 1902 – December 20, 1968) is one of the best-known and most widely read American writers of the 20th century. ... Cannery Row is a 1945 novel by John Steinbeck. ...


Natural hazards

California's most infamous natural hazard is earthquakes due to the many faults that run through California, Nevada, and the Pacific Coast. Major historical earthquakes include: An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ...

Coastal cities are vulnerable to tsunamis from locally generated earthquakes as well as those elsewhere in the Pacific Ring of Fire. The Great Chilean Earthquake tsunami (1960) killed one person and caused $500,000 to $1,000,000 dollars of damage in Los Angeles, damaged harbors in many coastal cities, and flooded streets in Crescent City.[1] Waves from the Alaskan Good Friday Earthquake of 1964 killed twelve people in Crescent City and caused damage as far south as Los Angeles. Arnold Genthes famous photograph of San Francisco following the earthquake, looking toward the fire on Sacramento Street The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 was a major earthquake that struck San Francisco and the coast of northern California at 5:12 A.M. on Wednesday, April 18, 1906. ... The Sylmar earthquake struck at 6:00:55 a. ... The Loma Prieta earthquake occurred on Tuesday October 17, 1989, in the greater San Francisco Bay Area in California at 5:04 p. ... The 1994 Northridge earthquake occurred on January 17, 1994 at 4:30:55 AM Pacific Standard Time in the city of Los Angeles, California, falling on Martin Luther King Day in 1994. ... The tsunami that struck Malé in the Maldives on December 26, 2004. ... The Pacific Ring of Fire The Pacific Ring of Fire is a zone of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions encircling the basin of the Pacific Ocean. ... A Valdivia street after the earthquake of May 22, 1960 Map showing the areas affected by the tsunami The Great Chilean Earthquake or Valdivian Earthquake (Terremoto de Valdivia in Spanish) of May 22, 1960 is the largest magnitude earthquake recorded since seismographic monitoring began. ... Nickname: City of Angels Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: State California County Los Angeles County  - Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa Area    - City 1290. ... Crescent City is the county seat, and the only incorporated city, of Del Norte County, California, USA. It is named after the crescent-shaped stretch of sandy beach south of the city. ... Fourth Avenue, Anchorage The Good Friday Earthquake (also called the Great Alaska Earthquake) of Friday, March 27, 1964, 5:36 P.M. ADT (03:36 3/28 UTC) was the second most powerful earthquake in U.S. and North American history after magnitude 9. ...


The state is subject to coastal storms, especially during the North American monsoon season. Dry weather during the rest of the year produces conditions favorable to wildfires. California hurricanes occur less frequently than their counterparts on the Atlantic Ocean. Higher elevations experience snowstorms in the winter months. A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, Netherlands A storm is any disturbed state of an astronomical bodys atmosphere, especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather. ... Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India A monsoon is a wind pattern that changes direction depending on the season. ... Bitterroot National Forest wildfire A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, brush fire, peat fire (gambut in Indonesia), bushfire (in Australasia), or hill fire, is an uncontrolled fire often occurring in wildland areas, but which can also consume houses or agricultural resources. ... A California tropical cyclone is a tropical cyclone that affects the state of California. ... A winter storm is a storm where the dominant forms of precipitation are forms that occur only at cold temperatures, such as snow or sleet, or a rainstorm where ground temperatures are cold enough to allow ice to form. ...


Floods are occasionally caused by heavy rain, storms, and snowmelt. Steep slopes and unstable soil make certain locations vulnerable to landslides in wet weather or during earthquakes. Picture of flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand For other uses, see Flood (disambiguation). ... This entry refers to the geological term landslide. ...


California is also home to several volcanoes, including Lassen Peak, which erupted in 1914 and 1921, and Mount Shasta. Volcano 1. ... Lassen Peak[1] (also known as Mount Lassen) is the southernmost active volcano in the Cascade Range. ... Mount Shasta, a 14,179-foot (4,322 m)[1] stratovolcano, is the second-highest peak in the Cascade Range and the fifth highest peak in California. ...


Future geography

California, when only partially explored by the Spanish, was once thought to be an island, as when the southern peninsula of Baja California is approached from the Gulf of California the land appears to the west. It is expected, through the motions of plate tectonics that the sea floor spreading now acting in the Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez) will eventually extend through Southern California and along the San Andreas fault to below San Francisco, finally forming a long island in less than 150 million years. (For comparison, this is also the approximate age of the Atlantic Ocean.) Predictions suggest that this island will eventually collide with Alaska after an additional 100 million years. Baja California (highlighted) Alternative use: Baja California (state) Baja California or Lower California is a peninsula in the west of Mexico. ... The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez or Sea of Cortés; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or, much less frequently, Golfo de California) is a body of water that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. ... Bridge across the Álfagjá rift valley in southwest Iceland, the boundary of the Eurasian and North American continental tectonic plates. ... View of the San Andreas Fault on the Carrizo Plain in central California, 35°07N, 119°39W The San Andreas Fault is a geological fault that runs a length of roughly 800 miles (1300 kilometres) through western and southern California in the United States. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ...


See also

Flag of California State of California
Sacramento (capital)
Topics

Climate | Districts | Economy | Elections | Geography | Government | History | Politics | Californians The ecology of California is diverse. ... This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... This is a list of state parks and reserves in the California state park system. ... Tulare Lake is an extinct fresh-water lake that was formerly the largest to be completely enclosed within the territories of the Unites States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_California. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A state of the United States is any one of the fifty subnational entities referred to... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Nickname: City of Trees Location of Sacramento in California County Sacramento Mayor Heather Fargo Area    - City 99. ... Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, site of first U.S. capital. ... Greetings from California, vintage large-letter postcard. ... There are several different types of districts in California. ... The number of elections in California varies by year. ... A field of California golden poppies circa 1910. ... The recent and current politics of the U.S. state of California are complex and involve a number of entrenched interests. ... This is a partial list of well-known people from California. ...

Regions

Antelope Valley | Beach Cities | Big Sur | Central Coast | Central Valley | Channel Islands | Coachella Valley | Conejo Valley | Crescenta Valley | Cucamonga Valley | Death Valley | East Bay (SF) | Eastern California | East Los Angeles | Emerald Triangle | Gateway Cities | Gold Country | Greater Los Angeles | Harbor Area (LA) | Imperial Valley | Inland Empire | Los Angeles Basin | Mojave | North Bay (SF) | North Coast | Northern California | North San Diego County | Owens Valley | Palos Verdes | The Peninsula | Pomona Valley | Redwood Empire | Russian River | Sacramento Valley | Salinas Valley | San Fernando Valley | San Francisco Bay Area | San Gabriel Valley | San Joaquin Valley | SanSan | Santa Clara Valley | Santa Clarita Valley | Shasta Cascade | Sierra Nevada | Silicon Valley | Sonoma Valley | South Bay (LA) | Southern California | South Los Angeles | Tech Coast | Tri-Valley | Victor Valley | West Los Angeles | Wine Country | Yosemite This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... A truck passes eastbound along the busy Highway 58 through the Antelope Valley. ... The Malibu pier. ... Big Sur is a thinly-settled region of the central California coast where the Santa Lucia Mountains rise abruptly from the Pacific Ocean. ... The Central Coast is an area of California, United States, extending from Santa Cruz in the north to Santa Barbara in the south, but centering primarily on Monterey and San Luis Obispo counties. ... The California Central Valley Part of the Valley as seen from overhead A typical Central Valley scene at ground level The California Central Valley is a large, flat valley that dominates the central portion of the U.S. state of California. ... The Channel Islands of California, also called the Santa Barbara Islands, are a chain of eight islands located in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Southern California along the Santa Barbara Channel in the United States of America. ... Coachella Valley The Coachella Valley is an irrigated agricultural and recreational desert valley in southern California east of Los Angeles. ... The Conejo Valley is a region spanning both Southeastern Ventura County and Northwestern Los Angeles County in Southern California. ... The Crescenta Valley is a small inland valley in Los Angeles County, California. ... The Cucamonga Valley is a region between the Los Angeles and San Bernardino areas, in San Bernardino County and Riverside County, of California, USA. It is located east of the Pomona Valley and it is a major site of wine production. ... Death Valley and Panamint Range The salt lake at Badwater, Death Valley is the lowest point in western hemisphere. ... A part of the East Bay showing Concord, Walnut Creek, Martinez, Pleasant Hill and Clayton The East Bay is a subregion of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, United States. ... Eastern California is not a well-defined term. ... Intersection of Eagle Rock Boulevard and Colorado Boulevard. ... The Emerald Triangle is a collection of three counties in Northern California, consisting of Mendocino, Humboldt, and Trinity. ... The Gateway Cities, shaded in blue (the boundary is approximate) The Gateway Cities of Southern California are those located in southeastern Los Angeles County. ... Gold Country (also Mother Lode Country) is a region of northeastern California famed for the mines and mineral deposits which so famously brought the 49ers west for the California Gold Rush. ... The Greater Los Angeles Area, or the Southland, is the agglomeration of urbanized area around the city of Los Angeles, California. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Imperial Valley and the Salton Sea, as seen from the Space shuttle. ... The Inland Empire and its regions within The Inland Empire refers to the region in Southern California located in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties. ... The Los Angeles Basin is the coastal sediment-filled plain located between the peninsular and transverse ranges in southern California in the United States containing the central part of the city of Los Angeles. ... Looking across from Emigrant Pass towards the Kingston Range in the eastern Mojave. ... The North Bay is a subregion of the San Francisco Bay Area, in California, United States. ... The North Coast of the U.S. state of California is a mostly rural coastline on the Pacific Ocean stretching from the city of San Francisco to the border of Oregon characterized by cliffs, hills, and tide pools. ... Northern California, sometimes abbreviated NorCal, refers to the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... North San Diego County (locally referred to as North County) refers to the northern portion of San Diego County, a suburban and rural area far from the urban center of San Diego. ... Owens Valley is the arid ranching valley of the Owens River in southeastern California in the United States. ... Palos Verdes is often used to refer to a group of coastal cities on the Palos Verdes Peninsula in the Los Angeles/South Bay area of California. ... USGS Satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... The Pomona Valley, a part of the Inland Empire (the Pomona Valley is its own georgraphical area, and should not be bundled in with the Inland Empire. ... The Redwood Empire (also Redwood Coast or North Coast) is a region of California that stretches from San Francisco and the Golden Gate Bridge to the Oregon coast. ... The Russian River downstream of Duncans Mills The Russian River rises in the coastal mountain ranges of Mendocino County, north of Ukiah in Northern California. ... The Sacramento Valley is the portion of the California Central Valley that lies to the north of the San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta. ... The Salinas Valley in the Central Coast region of California lies along the Salinas River between the Gabilan Mountains and the Santa Lucia Range. ... San Fernando Valley from southwestern edge. ... USGS satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... San Gabriel Valley within Southern California The San Gabriel Valley is one of the principal valleys of southern California. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... California Population Density Map Population-density map of SanSan The SanSan megalopolis is a name for a chain of metropolitan areas in western California along the coast extending from San Francisco to San Diego. ... The Santa Clara Valley is a valley just south of the San Francisco Bay in northern California in the United States. ... The Santa Clarita Valley is the valley of the Santa Clara River in Southern California. ... The Shasta Cascade region of California is located in the northeastern and north-central sections of the state bordering Oregon and Nevada, north of the Central Valley and the Sierra Nevada mountain range. ... The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range that is almost entirely in the eastern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... A view of downtown San Jose, the self-proclaimed Capital of Silicon Valley. ... Today in a town we like to call sonoma valley about 17 minutes away from santa rosa Sean virrtoes was cought with his pants down and know we have reason to believe that sean is not straight but might be gay we have reached a new world change, ALSo just... The South Bay and surrounding regions in Southern California The South Bay is a region in the southwest peninsula of Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Downtown Los Angeles Skyline Southern California, also colloquially referred to as SoCal, is an informal name for the megalopolis and nearby desert that occupies the southern-most quarter of the U.S. state of California. ... South Los Angeles South Los Angeles is the official name for a large geographic and cultural area lying to the south and southeast of downtown Los Angeles, California. ... Tech Coast is the nickname given to the Southern California region extending from Santa Barbara in the north to San Diego in the south. ... The Tri-Valley region of California is based around the San Francisco Bay Area cities of Pleasanton, Livermore, Dublin and San Ramon in the three valleys from which it takes its name: Amador Valley, Livermore Valley and San Ramon Valley. ... Victor Valley is a region of Southern California north of the San Bernardino Mountains in the Mojave Desert. ... West Los Angeles (West L.A. in the short form) or the Westside is generally considered to be the portion of Los Angeles, California and its suburbs that lies east of the Pacific Ocean, west of La Cienega Boulevard (or, occasionally, Fairfax or even La Brea Avenue), south of the... Wine Country is a region of Northern California in the United States, known as a wine-growing region since 1838. ... Yosemite redirects here. ...

Metros

Bakersfield | Chico | Fresno | Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale | Modesto | Napa | Oakland-Fremont-Hayward | Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura | Redding | Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario | Sacramento-Roseville | Salinas | San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos | San Francisco-San Mateo-Redwood City | San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara | Santa Ana-Anaheim-Irvine | Santa Barbara-Santa Maria | Santa Cruz-Watsonville | Santa Rosa-Petaluma | Stockton | Vallejo-Fairfield | Visalia-Porterville | Yuba City In the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has produced a formal definition of metropolitan areas. ... City nickname:Californias Country Music Capital County Kern County, California Area  - Total  - Water 296. ... Nickname: City of Roses, City of Trees Location of Chico in California Coordinates: Country State County United States California Butte Settled 1843 Founded 1860 Incorporated 1872 Mayor Andrew Holcombe City Council Scott Gruendl Steve Bertagna Larry Wahl Ann Schwab Mary Flynn Tom Nickell City Manager Greg Jones Area    - City 71. ... Nickname: Fresno, the All American City & Raisin Capital of the World Location in the state of California County Fresno Mayor Alan Autry Area    - City 271. ... Nickname: City of Angels Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: State California County Los Angeles County  - Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa Area    - City 1290. ... Nickname: The International City (on flag), Friendly City (in Latin on citys seal), or the LBC Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: Country United States State California County Los Angeles County Mayor Bob Foster Area    - City 170. ... Nickname: The Jewel City Location of Glendale within Los Angeles County and the State of California. ... Modesto is the county seat of Stanislaus County in the U.S. state of California. ... Napa is the county seat of Napa County, California. ... Oakland, founded in 1852, is the eighth-largest city in California[1] and the county seat of Alameda County. ... Fremont (IPA: ) is a city in California which was incorporated on January 23, 1956, from the merger of five smaller communities: Centerville, Irvington, Mission San Jose, Niles, and Warm Springs. ... Hayward is a city located in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area in Alameda County. ... Nickname: The City that Cares Location of Oxnard, California Coordinates: Country United States State California County Ventura County Mayor Dr. Thomas E. Holden Area    - City km²  (36. ... Thousand Oaks is a city in Ventura County, California, in the United States. ... Coordinates: Country United States State California County Ventura Mayor Carl Morehouse Area    - City 84. ... Redding from space, April 1994 Redding is the county seat of Shasta County, California, USA, located on the Sacramento River and on Interstate 5 south of Shasta Lake. ... Nickname: The City of Trees Location in the state of California Coordinates: Country United States State California County Riverside  - Mayor Ron Loveridge Area    - City 203. ... San Bernardino is the county seat of San Bernardino County, California, United States. ... Ontario is a city located in San Bernardino County, California. ... Nickname: City of Trees Location of Sacramento in California County Sacramento Mayor Heather Fargo Area    - City 99. ... Roseville is a city in Placer County, California, located in the metropolitan area of Sacramento. ... Nickname: Americas Salad Bowl Location of Salinas, California Country United States State California County Monterey Mayor Dennis Donohue Area    - City 49. ... Nickname: Americas Finest City Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates: Country United States State California County San Diego Mayor Jerry Sanders City Attorney Michael Aguirre City Council Scott Peters Kevin Faulconer Toni Atkins Tony Young Brian Maienschein Donna Frye Jim Madaffer Ben Hueso Area    - City 963. ... Location of Carlsbad within San Diego County, California. ... San Marcos is a city located in the northern portion of San Diego County, California, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 54,977. ... Nickname: The City by the Bay; Fog City Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom Area    - City 122 km²  (47 sq mi)  - Land 121. ... Hillsdale Inn, Honeymoon Suite (demolished 5 April 2001) San Mateo is a city in San Mateo County, California, USA. It is one of the larger suburbs on the San Francisco Peninsula, located between Burlingame to the north, Foster City to the East, and Belmont to the south. ... Redwood City is a suburb located on the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. ... Nickname: Capital of Silicon Valley Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... Location of Sunnyvale within Santa Clara County, California. ... Official website: http://www. ... Location of Santa Ana within Orange County, California. ... Location of Anaheim within Orange County, California Coordinates: Country United States State California County Orange Mayor Curt Pringle Area    - City 130. ... Location of Irvine within Orange County, California. ... Santa Barbara is a city in California, United States. ... Santa Maria is the largest city in Santa Barbara County, California. ... Santa Cruz is the county seat and most-populated city of Santa Cruz County, California, United States. ... Watsonville is a city located in Santa Cruz County, California. ... Location of Santa Rosa, California Country United States State California County Sonoma Mayor Jane Bender Area    - City 104. ... Petaluma is a city with a well preserved historic city center [1] in Sonoma County, California, in the United States. ... City nickname: Californias Sunrise Seaport City slogan: Stocktons Great, Take A Look! County: San Joaquin Area code: 209 ZIP code: 952xx Area:  - Total  - Water 144. ... Vallejo (pronounced IPA: , vuh-LAY-hoe) is a city in Solano County, California, United States. ... Fairfield, Court House, California Fairfield is a city located in Northern California, USA, near San Francisco and Sacramento. ... Visalia is a Central California city situated in the heart of California’s agricultural San Joaquin Valley, approximately 230 miles southeast of San Francisco and 190 miles north of Los Angeles. ... Porterville is a city in Tulare County, California, United States. ... Town Square located in downtown Yuba City. ...

Counties

Alameda | Alpine | Amador | Butte | Calaveras | Colusa | Contra Costa | Del Norte | El Dorado | Fresno | Glenn | Humboldt | Imperial | Inyo | Kern | Kings | Lake | Lassen | Los Angeles | Madera | Marin | Mariposa | Mendocino | Merced | Modoc | Mono | Monterey | Napa | Nevada | Orange | Placer | Plumas | Riverside | Sacramento | San Benito | San Bernardino | San Diego | San Francisco | San Joaquin | San Luis Obispo | San Mateo | Santa Barbara | Santa Clara | Santa Cruz | Shasta | Sierra | Siskiyou | Solano | Sonoma | Stanislaus | Sutter | Tehama | Trinity | Tulare | Tuolumne | Ventura | Yolo | Yuba The U.S. state of California is divided into 58 counties. ... Official website: http://www. ... Alpine County is the smallest county, by population, in the U.S. state of California. ... Amador County is a county located in the Sierra Nevada of California. ... Butte County is a county located in the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California, north of state capital Sacramento. ... Calaveras County is a county located in Californias Gold Country. ... Colusa County is a county located in Californias Central Valley, northwest of Sacramento. ... Official website: http://www. ... Del Norte County is Californias northwesternmost county, located on the Pacific coast south of Oregon. ... Location in the state of California Formed 1850 Seat Placerville Area  - Total  - Water 4,631 km² (1,788 mi²) 200 km² (77 mi²) 4. ... Fresno County is a county located in the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California, south of Stockton and north of Bakersfield. ... Glenn County is a county located in the California Central Valley north of Sacramento County. ... Humboldt County is a county located on the northwest coast of the U.S. state of California, on the Pacific Ocean. ... Imperial County is a county located in the Imperial Valley, in the far southeast of the U.S. state of California, and borders both Arizona and Mexico. ... Inyo County is a county located in east-central California, on the east side of the Sierra Nevada south of Yosemite National Park. ... Kern County is a county located in the southern Central Valley of the U.S. state of California. ... Kings County is a county located in the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California, southeast of Fresno County. ... Lake County is a county located in the north central portion of the U.S. state of California, north of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Lassen County is a county located in the northeastern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... Los Angeles County is a county in California and is the most populous county in the United States. ... Madera County is a county of California, located in the Central Valley north of Fresno County. ... Marin County (pronounced mah-RIN) is a county located in the North San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... Mariposa County is a county in the U.S. state of California, located in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains. ... Mendocino County is a county located on Californias north coast, north of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sonoma County and west of the Central Valley. ... Merced County is a county located in Californias Central Valley, north of Fresno and southeast of San Jose. ... Modoc County is a county located in Californias far northeast corner, bounded by Oregon to the north and Nevada to the east. ... Mono County is a county located in the east central portion of the U.S. state of California, to east of the Sierra Nevada between Yosemite National Park and Nevada. ... Monterey County is a county located on the Pacific coast of California, its northwestern section forming the southern half of Monterey Bay. ... Napa Valley redirects here. ... Nevada County is a county located in Californias Sierra Nevada, in the Mother Lode country. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Placer County is a county located in California, USAs Sierra Nevada, in the Gold Country. ... Plumas County is a county located in Californias Sierra Nevada. ... Riverside County is a county located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of California, stretching from Orange County to the Colorado River, which is the border with Arizona. ... Sacramento County is a county of the U.S. state of California. ... San Benito County is a county located in the Coast Range Mountains of the U.S. state of California, south of San Jose. ... Official website: http://www. ... San Diego County is a county located on the Pacific Ocean in the far southwest of the U.S. state of California, along its border with Mexico. ... Nickname: The City by the Bay; Fog City Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom Area    - City 122 km²  (47 sq mi)  - Land 121. ... San Joaquin County is a county located in the United States of America in Californias Central Valley, just east of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... San Luis Obispo County is a county located on the central Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California, between Los Angeles and the Bay Area. ... Official website: http://www. ... Santa Barbara County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the southern portion of the U.S. state of California, just west of Ventura County. ... Location of Santa Clara County within California. ... Santa Cruz County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California, just south of the San Francisco Bay Area, it forms the northern coast of the Monterey Bay. ... Shasta County is a county located in the northern portion of the U.S. state of California, in the Cascade Mountains. ... Sierra County is a county located in Californias Sierra Nevada, northeast of Sacramento on the border with Nevada. ... Siskiyou County is a county located in far northernmost California, USA, in the Cascade Mountains on the Oregon border. ... Solano County is a county located in central part of the U.S. state of California, about halfway between San Francisco and Sacramento and is one of the nine San Francisco Bay Area counties. ... Sonoma County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California, north of Marin County and the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Stanislaus County is a county located in Californias California Central Valley, between Stockton and Fresno. ... Sutter County is a county located along the Sacramento River in the California Central Valley north of Sacramento. ... Location in the state of California Formed 1856 Seat Red Bluff Area  - Total  - Water 7,672 km² (2,962 mi²) 29 km² (11 mi²) 0. ... Trinity County is a county located in northwestern California, along the Trinity River and among the Klamath Mountains. ... Tulare County is a county located in U.S. state of Californias Central Valley, south of Fresno. ... Tuolumne County is a county located in the U.S. state of Californias Sierra Nevada. ... Official website: http://www. ... Yolo County is located in the northern part of the U.S. state of California, bordered by the counties of Sacramento, Solano, Napa, Lake, Colusa, and Sutter. ... Location in the state of California Formed 1850 Seat Marysville Area  - Total  - Water 1,667 km² (644 mi²) 34 km² (13 mi²) 2. ...

External links

Coordinates: 36°34′43″N, 118°17′31″W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Geography of California - definition of Geography of California in Encyclopedia (1361 words)
The geography of California is defined by its central feature--the Central Valley, a huge, fertile valley between the coastal mountain ranges and the Sierra Nevada to the east.
Southern California is separated from the rest of the state by the east-west trending Transverse Ranges, including the Tehachapi, which separate the Central Valley from the Mojave Desert.
California, when only partially explored by the Spanish, was once thought to be an island, as when the southern peninsula of Baja California is approached from the Gulf of California the land appears to the west.
California - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4772 words)
California is governed as a republic, with three branches of government, the executive branch consisting of the Governor of California and the other independently elected constitutional officers, the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate, and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts.
California is famous for its earthquakes, due partly to the presence of the San Andreas Fault.
California's mountain ranges influence the climate as well: moisture-laden air from the west cools as it ascends the mountains, dropping moisture; some of the rainiest parts of the state are west-facing mountain slopes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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