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Encyclopedia > Geography of Brazil
Geography of Brazil
Location of Brazil
Area
Total 8,514,215 km² (3,287,357 sq mi)
Land 8,456,510 km² (3,265,076 sq mi)
Water 55,455 km² (21,411 sq mi)
Notes:[1][2]
Boundaries
Coastline 7,367 km (4578 mi)
Total land boundary 15,735 km (9777 mi)
Border countries
  • Argentina 1,263 km (785 mi)
  • Bolivia 3,126 km (1942 mi)
  • Colombia 1,644 km (1022 mi)
  • French Guiana 655 km (407 mi)
  • Guyana 1,298 km (807 mi)
  • Paraguay 1,339 km (832 mi)
  • Peru 2,995 km (1861 mi)
  • Suriname 593 km (368 mi)
  • Uruguay 1,0011111111111111 km (623 mi)
  • Venezuela 1,819 km (1130 mi)
Territories and claims
Brazilian territories and claims
Islands
Informal claim Brazilian Antarctica
Maritime claims
Contiguous zone 24 nautical miles (44 km)
Continental shelf 200 nautical miles (370 km)
Exclusive Economic Zone 200 nautical miles (370 km)
Territorial sea 12 nautical miles (22 km)
Land use
Arable land 5% (1993)
Permanent crops 1% (1993)
Permanent pastures 22% (1993)
Forests and woodland 58% (1993)
Other 14% (1993)
Irrigated land 28,000 km² (10,800 sq mi) (1993)

The country of Brazil occupies roughly half of South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Brazil covers a total area of 8,514,215 km² (3,287,357 sq mi) which includes 8,456,510 km² (3,265,076 sq mi) of land and 55,455 km² (21,411 sq mi) of water. The highest point in Brazil is Pico da Neblina at 2,994 m (9,823 ft). Brazil is bordered by the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela. By comparison, Brazil is slightly smaller in land mass than the United States. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 417 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 743 pixel, file size: 56 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Aerial view of the island from the north east Image:Orthographic projection centred over Fernando de Noronha Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, around 220 miles (354 km) offshore from the Brazilian coast. ... Rocas Atoll ( Atol das Rocas) is an atoll in the Atlantic Ocean at location 03°52′S 33°49′W. It is part of Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. ... The Saint Peter and Paul Rocks lie near the middle of the Atlantic Narrows. ... The islands of Trindade and Martim Vaz (also called Martin Vaz), which are located 715 km East of Vitória in the Southern Atlantic Ocean, belong to the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Pico da Neblina is the highest mountain in Brazil. ...


Much of the climate is tropical, with the south being relatively temperate. The largest river in Brazil, and one of the longest in the world, is the Amazon. The rainforest that covers the Amazon Basin constitutes almost half of the rainforests on Earth. For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... This article is about the river. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ...


Geographic coordinates: 10°S 55°W / -10, -55Coordinates: 10°S 55°W / -10, -55 Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Contents

Size and location

With its expansive territory, Brazil occupies most of the eastern part of the South American continent and its geographic heartland, as well as various islands in the Atlantic Ocean. The only countries in the world that are larger are Russia, Canada, the People's Republic of China, and the United States (including Alaska). The national territory extends 4,395 kilometres (2,731 mi) from north to south (5°16'20" N to 33°44'32" S latitude) and 4,319 kilometres (2,684 mi) from east to west (34°47'30" W to 73°59'32" W longitude). It spans four time zones, the westernmost of which, in Acre State, is the same as Eastern Standard Time in the United States. The time zone of the capital (Brasília) and of the most populated part of Brazil along the east coast is two hours ahead of Eastern Standard Time, except when it is on its own daylight saving time, from October to February. The Atlantic islands are in the easternmost time zone. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Acre is a state of Brazil, located in the north_western part of the country. ... Eastern Standard Time redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ...


Brazil possesses the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, located 350 kilometres (217 mi) northeast of its "horn", and several small islands and atolls in the Atlantic - Abrolhos, Atol das Rocas, Penedos de São Pedro e São Paulo, Trindade, and Martim Vaz. In the early 1970s, Brazil claimed a territorial sea extending 362 kilometres (225 mi) from the country's shores, including those of the islands. Aerial view of the island from the north east Image:Orthographic projection centred over Fernando de Noronha Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, around 220 miles (354 km) offshore from the Brazilian coast. ... The Abrolhos Marine National Park (Parque Nacional Marinho de Abrolhos) is located on the southern coast of Bahia state in the northeast of Brazil, between 17º25’—18º09’ S and 38º33’—39º05’ W. External links Satellite photo (Google) See also List of national parks of Brazil Categories... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The Saint Peter and Paul Rocks lie near the middle of the Atlantic Narrows. ... The islands of Trindade and Martim Vaz (also called Martin Vaz), which are located 715 km East of Vitória in the Southern Atlantic Ocean, belong to the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. ... The islands of Trindade and Martim Vaz (also called Martin Vaz), which are located 715 km East of Vitória in the Southern Atlantic Ocean, belong to the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. ...


On Brazil's east coast, the Atlantic coastline extends 7,367 kilometres (4,578 mi). In the west, in clockwise order from the south, Brazil has 15,719 kilometres (9,767 mi) of borders with Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. The only South American countries with which Brazil does not share borders are Chile and Ecuador. A few short sections are in question, but there are no major boundary controversies with any of the neighboring countries.


Geology, geomorphology, and drainage

In contrast to the Andes, which rose to elevations of nearly 7,000 metres (23,000 ft) in a relatively recent epoch and inverted the Amazon's direction of flow from westward to eastward, Brazil's geological formation is very old. Precambrian crystalline shields cover 36% of the territory, especially its central area. The principal mountain ranges average elevations just under 2,000 metres (6,600 ft). The Serra do Mar Range hugs the Atlantic coast, and the Serra do Espinhaço Range, the largest in area, extends through the south-central part of the country. The highest mountains are in the Tumucumaque, Pacaraima, and Imeri ranges, among others, which traverse the northern border with the Guianas and Venezuela. This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... Guarumbi, part of Serra do Mar in the state of Paraná Serra do Mar (Portuguese for Mountain Range of the Sea) is a 1,500 km long system of mountain ranges and escarpments in Southeastern Brazil, which runs in parallel to the Atlantic Ocean coast, from the state of Esp... The Espinhaço Mountains (Portuguese Serra do Espinhaço) is a mountain range in eastern Brazil. ... Pacaraima is a municipality located in the northeast of the state of Roraima in Brazil. ...


In addition to mountain ranges (about 0.5% of the country is above 1,200 m), Brazil's Central Highlands include a vast central plateau (Planalto Central). The plateau's uneven terrain has an average elevation of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). The rest of the territory is made up primarily of sedimentary basins, the largest of which is drained by the Amazon and its tributaries. Of the total territory, 41% averages less than 200 metres (660 ft) in elevation. The coastal zone is noted for thousands of kilometers of tropical beaches interspersed with mangroves, lagoons, and dunes, as well as numerous coral reefs. The Brazilian Highlands (or Planalto Brasileiro) are an extensive geographical region, covering most of the eastern, southern and central portions of Brazil, in all approximately half of the countrys land area, or some 4,000,000 km² (1,544,000 sq mi). ... This article is about the river. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ... This article is about sand formations. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ...

Topograpic map of Brazil

Brazil has one of the world's most extensive river systems, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic Ocean. Two of these basins--the Amazon and Tocantins-Araguaia (account for more than half the total drainage area). The largest river system in Brazil is the Amazon, which originates in the Andes and receives tributaries from a basin that covers 45.7% of the country, principally the north and west. The main Amazon river system is the Amazonas-Solimões-Ucayali axis (the 6,762-kilometre (4,202 mi)-long Ucayali is a Peruvian tributary), flowing from west to east. Through the Amazon Basin flows one-fifth of the world's fresh water. A total of 3,615 kilometres (2,246 mi) of the Amazon are in Brazilian territory. Over this distance, the waters decline only about 100 metres (330 ft). The major tributaries on the southern side are, from west to east, the Javari, Juruá, Purus (all three of which flow into the western section of the Amazon called the Solimões), Madeira, Tapajós, Xingu, and Tocantins. On the northern side, the largest tributaries are the Branco, Japurá, Jari, and Rio Negro. The above-mentioned tributaries carry more water than the Mississippi (its discharge is less than one-tenth that of the Amazon). The Amazon and some of its tributaries, called "white" rivers, bear rich sediments and hydrobiological elements. The black-white and clear rivers--such as the Negro, Tapajós, and Xingu--have clear (greenish) or dark water with few nutrients and little sediment. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1419, 747 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1419, 747 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the Second World War frigate class, see River class frigate The Murray River in Australia A waterfall on the Ova da Fedoz, Switzerland A river is a large natural waterway. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... Solimões is the name often given to early stretches of the Amazon River from the border of Brazil and Peru to its confluence with the Negro River. ... The Madeira River is a major waterway in South America. ... The Tapajós, a Brazilian river running through a humid and hot valley, pours into the Amazon River 500 miles above Pará and is about 1200 miles long. ... The Xingu River in Brazil is a tributary of the Amazon River. ... The Tocantins is a river, the central fluvial artery of Brazil. ... The Branco is the principal affluent of the Venezuela and Guyana from Brazil. ... The Japurá River, also called the zhepoorä´ in Latin, river, c. ... The Negro (Spanish: black) River, the great northern tributary of the Amazon River and the largest blackwater river in the world, has its sources along the watershed between the Orinoco and the Amazon basins, and also connects with the Orinoco by way of the Casiquiare canal. ...


The major river system in the Northeast is the Rio São Francisco, which flows 1,609 kilometres (1,000 mi) northeast from the south-central region. Its basin covers 7.6% of the national territory. Only 277 kilometres (172 mi) of the lower river are navigable for oceangoing ships. The Paraná system covers 14.5% of the country. The Paraná flows south among the Río de la Plata Basin, reaching the Atlantic between Argentina and Uruguay. The headwaters of the Paraguai, the Paraná's major eastern tributary, constitute the Pantanal, the largest contiguous wetlands in the world, covering as much as 230,000 square kilometres (89,000 sq mi). The São Francisco River is a river in Brazil with a length of 3,160 kilometres. ... The sun rising over the Paraná River, from the north-east of Rosario, Argentina. ... The Río de la Plata Basin (Spanish:Cuenca del Plata) is the name given to the 3,100,000 km2 hydrographical area that covers parts of Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. ... The Pantanal is the world’s largest wetland area, a flat landscape, with gently sloping and meandering rivers. ...


Below their descent from the highlands, many of the tributaries of the Amazon are navigable. Upstream, they generally have rapids or waterfalls, and boats and barges also must face sandbars, trees, and other obstacles. Nevertheless, the Amazon is navigable by oceangoing vessels as far as 3,885 kilometres (2,414 mi) upstream, reaching Iquitos in Peru. The Amazon river system was the principal means of access until new roads became more important in the 1970s. The São Francisco was also used for transportation in the past. Dams and locks in the Paraná system have made it an important artery for interstate and international trade in the 1990s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Iquitos is the largest city in the rainforest of Peru. ...


The various river systems descending from the shields have endowed Brazil with vast hydroelectric potential, estimated at 129,046 megawatts (MW), of which 30,065 MW were in operation or under construction in 1991. The largest hydroelectric projects are Itaipu, in Paraná, with 12,600 MW; Tucuruí, in Pará, with 7,746 MW; and Paulo Afonso, in Bahia, with 3,986 MW. Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Itaipu Dam close-up Itaipu (Guarani: Itaipu, Portuguese: Itaipu, Spanish: Itaipú; pronounced ) is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay. ... Flag of Pará See other Brazilian States Capital Belém Largest City Belém Area 1. ... Paulo Afonso is a city in Bahia, Brazil. ... Flag of Bahia See other Brazilian States Capital Salvador Largest City Salvador Area 564 273 km² Population   - Total   - Density 13 070 250 23. ...


Natural resources

Natural resources include bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower and timber. This article is about the ore. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, a phosphate is a polyatomic ion or radical consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - creator of the process of refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower is the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


Rivers and lakes

The Amazon River is the widest and second longest river in the world. This huge river waters the majority of the world's rainforests. Another rather large river called the Paraná, has its source in Brazil. It forms the border of Paraguay and Argentina, then winds its way through Argentina and into the Atlantic Ocean, along Uruguay. The HBV hydrology transport model has been used to analyze certain pollutant transport in Brazil's river systems. The Amazon is full of eroding soil. This article is about the river. ... The HBV hydrology model is a computer simulation used to analyze river water pollution and flood flows. ... River in Madagascar relatively free of sediment load An hydrological transport model is a mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters. ...


Soils and vegetation

Natural vegetation map of Brazil, 1977
Natural vegetation map of Brazil, 1977
The Amazon Rainforest
The Amazon Rainforest
Araucaria forest in Southern Brazil.

Brazil's tropical soils produce 70 million tons of grain crops per year, but this output is attributed more to their extension than their fertility. Despite the earliest Portuguese explorers' reports that the land was exceptionally fertile and that anything planted grew well, the record in terms of sustained agricultural productivity has been generally disappointing. High initial fertility after clearing and burning usually is depleted rapidly, and acidity and aluminum content are often high. Together with the rapid growth of weeds and pests in cultivated areas, as a result of high temperatures and humidity, this loss of fertility explains the westward movement of the agricultural frontier and slash-and-burn agriculture; it takes less investment in work or money to clear new land than to continue cultivating the same land. Burning also is used traditionally to remove tall, dry, and nutrient-poor grass from pasture at the end of the dry season. Until mechanization and the use of chemical and genetic inputs increased during the agricultural intensification period of the 1970s and 1980s, coffee planting and farming in general moved constantly onward to new lands in the west and north. This pattern of horizontal or extensive expansion maintained low levels of technology and productivity and placed emphasis on quantity rather than quality of agricultural production. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (799x758, 165 KB) Natural vegetation map of Brazil from 1994 http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (799x758, 165 KB) Natural vegetation map of Brazil from 1994 http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1400, 1821 KB) Imagen de la Selva Amazónica tomada desde satélite. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1400, 1821 KB) Imagen de la Selva Amazónica tomada desde satélite. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The southern region of Brazil (Sul in portuguese) is characterized by its high standard of living, the highest in the country, as of 2004, the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul had an average of ~0. ... Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ...


The largest areas of fertile soils, called terra roxa (red earth), are found in the states of Paraná and São Paulo. The least fertile areas are in the Amazon, where the dense rain forest is. Soils in the Northeast are often fertile, but they lack water, unless they are irrigated artificially. Capital (and largest city) Curitiba Demonym Paranaense Government  -  Governor Roberto Requião  -  Vice Governor Orlando Pessuti Area  -  Total 281. ... This article is about the city. ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ...


In the 1980s, investments made possible the use of irrigation, especially in the Northeast Region and in Rio Grande do Sul State, which had shifted from grazing to soy and rice production in the 1970s. Savanna soils also were made usable for soybean farming through acidity correction, fertilization, plant breeding, and in some cases spray irrigation. As agriculture underwent modernization in the 1970s and 1980s, soil fertility became less important for agricultural production than factors related to capital investment, such as infrastructure, mechanization, use of chemical inputs, breeding, and proximity to markets. Consequently, the vigor of frontier expansion weakened. Flag of Rio Grande do Sul See other Brazilian States Capital Porto Alegre Largest City Porto Alegre Area 282,062 km² Population   - Total   - Density 10. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Savannah redirects here. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. ...


The variety of climates, soils, and drainage conditions in Brazil is reflected in the range of its vegetation types. The Amazon Basin and the areas of heavy rainfall along the Atlantic coast have tropical rain forest composed of broadleaf evergreen trees. The rain forest may contain as many as 3,000 species of flora and fauna within a 2.6-square-kilometre (1 sq mi) area. The Atlantic Forest is reputed to have even greater biological diversity than the Amazon rain forest, which, despite apparent homogeneity, contains many types of vegetation, from high canopy forest to bamboo groves. Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ...


In the semiarid Northeast, Caatinga , a dry, thick, thorny vegetation, predominates. Most of central Brazil is covered with a woodland savanna, known as the Cerrado (sparse scrub trees and drought-resistant grasses), which became an area of agricultural development after the mid-1970s. In the South (Sul), needle-leaved pinewoods (Paraná pine or araucaria) cover the highlands; grassland similar to the Argentine pampa covers the sea-level plains. The Mato Grosso swamplands (Pantanal Mato-grossense) is a Florida-sized plain in the western portion of the Center-West (Centro-Oeste). It is covered with tall grasses, bushes, and widely dispersed trees similar to those of the cerrado and is partly submerged during the rainy season. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sertão. ... The cerrado (Portuguese: thick, dense) is a vast area of savanna-like grasslands in Brazil. ... The southern region of Brazil is one of the five administrative regions of Brazil. ... Pinewood Studios is a major film studio that is situated approximately 20 miles west of London among the pine trees on what was the estate of Heatherden Hall in the village of Iver Heath in Iver Parish, in the county of Buckinghamshire, England. ... Species See text. ... This article is about the lowland plains in South America. ... A freshwater swamp A swamp is a wetland that features permanent inundation of large areas of land by shallow bodies of water, generally with a substantial number of hummocks, or dry-land protrusions. ... The Pantanal is the world’s largest wetland area, a flat landscape, with gently sloping and meandering rivers. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... A woody plant is a vascular plant that has a stem (or more than one stem) that is lignified to a high degree. ...


Brazil, which is named after reddish dyewood (pau brasil), has long been famous for the wealth of its tropical forests. These are not, however, as important to world markets as those of Asia and Africa, which started to reach depletion only in the 1980s. By 1996 more than 90% of the original Atlantic forest had been cleared, primarily for agriculture, with little use made of the wood, except for araucaria pine in Paraná. Brazilwood is a common name for several trees of the family Leguminosae (Pulse family) whose wood yields a red dye called brazilin, which oxidizes to brazilein. ...


The inverse situation existed with regard to clearing for wood in the Amazon rain forest, of which about 15% had been cleared by 1994, and part of the remainder had been disturbed by selective logging. Because the Amazon forest is highly heterogeneous, with hundreds of woody species per hectare, there is considerable distance between individual trees of economic value, such as mahogany and cerejeira. Therefore, this type of forest is not normally cleared for timber extraction but logged through high-grading, or selection of the most valuable trees. Because of vines, felling, and transportation, their removal causes destruction of many other trees, and the litter and new growth create a risk of forest fires, which are otherwise rare in rain forests. In favorable locations, such as Paragominas, in the northeastern part of Pará State, a new pattern of timber extraction has emerged: diversification and the production of plywood have led to the economic use of more than 100 tree species. A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... This article is about the timber. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... Flag of Pará See other Brazilian States Capital Belém Largest City Belém Area 1. ... Towers of Hanoi constructed from plywood. ...


Starting in the late 1980s, rapid deforestation and extensive burning in Brazil received considerable international and national attention. Satellite images have helped document and quantify deforestation as well as fires, but their use also has generated considerable controversy because of problems of defining original vegetation, cloud cover, and dealing with secondary growth and because fires, as mentioned above, may occur in old pasture rather than signifying new clearing. Public policies intended to promote sustainable management of timber extraction, as well as sustainable use of nontimber forest products (such as rubber, Brazil nuts, fruits, seeds, oils, and vines), were being discussed intensely in the mid-1990s. However, implementing the principles of sustainable development, without irreversible damage to the environment, proved to be more challenging than establishing international agreements about them. Satellite imagery are photographs of Earth or other planets made from artificial satellites. ... Binomial name Bertholletia excelsa Humb. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Climate

Main article: Climate of Brazil

Although 90% of the country is within the tropical zone, the climate of Brazil varies considerably from the mostly tropical North (the equator traverses the mouth of the Amazon) to temperate zones below the Tropic of Capricorn (23°27' S latitude), which crosses the country at the latitude of the city of São Paulo. Brazil has five climatic regions: equatorial, tropical, semiarid, highland tropical, and subtropical. Max. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... World map showing the Tropic of Capricorn For the novel by Henry Miller, see Tropic of Capricorn (novel). ... Landmark buildings Edifício Italia (at left) and Copan (curved façade at center), in São Paulo Downtown. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ...


Temperatures along the equator are high, averaging above 25 °C (77 °F), but not reaching the summer extremes of up to 40 °C (104 °F) in the temperate zones. There is little seasonal variation near the equator, although at times it can get cool enough for wearing a jacket, especially in the rain. At the country's other extreme, there are frosts south of the Tropic of Capricorn during the winter (June-August), and in some years there is snow in the mountainous areas, such as Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Temperatures in the cities of São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, and Brasília are moderate (usually between 15 °C/59 °F and 30 °C/86 °F), despite their relatively low latitude, because of their elevation of approximately 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). Rio de Janeiro, Recife, and Salvador on the coast have warm climates, with average temperatures ranging from 23 °C (73 °F) to 27 °C (81 °F), but enjoy constant trade winds. The southern cities of Porto Alegre and Curitiba have a subtropical climate similar to that in parts of the United States and Europe, and temperatures can fall below freezing in winter. Flag of Rio Grande do Sul See other Brazilian States Capital Porto Alegre Largest City Porto Alegre Area 282,062 km² Population   - Total   - Density 10. ... Capital Florianópolis Largest city Joinville Demonym catarinense or barriga-verde Government  -  Governor Luiz Henrique  -  Vice Governor Leonel Pavan Area  -  Total 95. ... Nickname: Location in Brazil Coordinates: , Country Region State Minas Gerais Founded 1701 Incorporated (as city) December 12, 1897 Government  - Mayor Fernando da Mata Pimentel (PT) Area  - City 330. ... Nickname: Location of Brasília Coordinates: , Region State Founded 21 April 1960 Government  - Governor Jose Roberto Arruda Area  - Total 5,802 km² (2,240. ... Ipanema beach A NASA satellite image of Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro (meaning River of January in Portuguese) is the name of both a state and a city in southeastern Brazil. ... This article is about Porto Alegre, Brazil. ... Nickname: Motto: A cidade sorriso (The smiley city) Location of Curitiba Country Region State Paraná Founded 29 March 1693 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Mayor Carlos Alberto Richa (PSDB) Area  - City 430. ...


Precipitation levels vary widely. Most of Brazil has moderate rainfall of between 1,000 and 1,500 millimeters (40–60 in) a year, with most of the rain falling in the summer (between December and April) south of the Equator. The Amazon region is notoriously humid, with rainfall generally more than 2,000 millimetres (80 in) per year and reaching as high as 3,000 millimetres (120 in) in parts of the western Amazon and near Belém. It is less widely known that, despite high annual precipitation, the Amazon rain forest has a three- to five-month dry season, the timing of which varies according to location north or south of the equator. In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... A river in the Amazon rainforest The Amazon is a rainforest in South America. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


High and relatively regular levels of precipitation in the Amazon contrast sharply with the dryness of the semiarid Northeast, where rainfall is scarce and there are severe droughts in cycles averaging seven years. The Northeast is the driest part of the country. The region also constitutes the hottest part of Brazil, where during the dry season between May and November, temperatures of more than 38 °C (100 °F) have been recorded. However, the sertão, a region of semidesert vegetation used primarily for low-density ranching, turns green when there is rain. Most of the Center-West has 1,500 to 2,000 millimeters (60–79 in) of rain per year, with a pronounced dry season in the middle of the year, while the South and most of the a without a distinct dry season. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Brazil, the sertão (meaning backland in Portuguese) refers to the semi-arid region comprising parts of the states of Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará and Piauí. The plural of sertão is sertões. ... This article is about arid terrain. ...


Geographic regions

Main article: Regions of Brazil
1 • Central-West 2 • Northeast 3 • North 4 • Southeast 5 • Southern
1 Central-West
2 Northeast
3 North
4 Southeast
5 Southern
The Brazilian states.
The Brazilian states.

Brazil's twenty-six states and the Federal District (Distrito Federal) are divided conventionally into five regions: North (Norte), Northeast (Nordeste), Southeast (Sudeste), South (Sul), and Center-West (Centro-Oeste) - see fig. 4. In 1996 there were 5,581 municipalities (municípios), which have municipal governments. Many municipalities, which are comparable to United States counties, are in turn divided into districts (distritos), which do not have political or administrative autonomy. In 1995 there were 9,274 districts. All municipal and district seats, regardless of size, are considered officially to be urban. For purely statistical purposes, the municipalities were grouped in 1990 into 559 micro-regions, which in turn constituted 136 meso-regions. This grouping modified the previous micro-regional division established in 1968, a division that was used to present census data for 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985. Brazil is currently divided in five regions, by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE). ... Image File history File links Brazil_Regions. ... Image File history File links Brazil_Regions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Brazil_States. ... Image File history File links Brazil_States. ... Brazil is divided into twenty-six estados (states; singular estado) and one district, the Distrito Federal (Federal District) which contains the capital city, Brasília. ... The Brazilian Federal District (in Portuguese, Distrito Federal) is set apart for Brasília, the capital of Brazil. ... Image:Brasil Norte vincent harley rocks maploc. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The southern region of Brazil is one of the five administrative regions of Brazil. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Organisational use In some organisational analyses, administration can refer to the bureaucratic or operational performance of mundane office tasks, usually internally oriented. ... Look up autonomy, autonomous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Each of the five major regions has a distinct ecosystem. Administrative boundaries do not necessarily coincide with ecological boundaries, however. In addition to differences in physical environment, patterns of economic activity and population settlement vary widely among the regions. The principal ecological characteristics of each of the five major regions, as well as their principal socioeconomic and demographic features, are summarized below. A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Devils Punchbowl Waterfall, New Zealand. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor Look up economics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Center-west

Main article: Center-West Region, Brazil

The Center-West consists of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, and Mato Grosso do Sul (separated from Mato Grosso in 1979), as well as the Federal District, site of Brasília, the national capital. Until 1988 Goiás State included the area that then became the state of Tocantins in the North. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Capital (and largest city) Cuiabá Demonym Mato-grossense Government  -  Governor Blairo Maggi  -  Vice Governor Silval da Cunha Barbosa Area  -  Total 903. ... Capital (and largest city) Campo Grande Demonym Sul-mato-grossense or Mato-grossense-do-sul Government  -  Governor André Puccinelli  -  Vice Governor Murilo Zauith Area  -  Total 357. ... Federal districts are subdivisions of a federal system of government. ... Nickname: Location of Brasília Coordinates: , Region State Founded 21 April 1960 Government  - Governor Jose Roberto Arruda Area  - Total 5,802 km² (2,240. ...


The Center-West has 1,612,077 square kilometres (622,426 sq mi) and covers 18.9% of the national territory. Its main biome is the cerrado, the tropical savanna in which natural grassland is partly covered with twisted shrubs and small trees. The cerrado was used for low-density cattle-raising in the past but is now also used for soybean production. There are gallery forests along the rivers and streams and some larger areas of forest, most of which have been cleared for farming and livestock. In the north, the cerrado blends into tropical forest. It also includes the Pantanal wetlands in the west, known for their wildlife, especially aquatic birds and caymans. In the early 1980s, 33.6% of the region had been altered by anthropic activities, with a low of 9.3% in Mato Grosso and a high of 72.9% in Goiás (not including Tocantins). In 1996 the Center-West region had 10.2 million inhabitants, or 6% of Brazil's total population. The average density is low, with concentrations in and around the cities of Brasília, Goiânia, Campo Grande, and Cuiabá. Living standards are below the national average. In 1994 they were highest in the Federal District, with per capita income of US$7,089 (the highest in the nation), and lowest in Mato Grosso, with US$2,268. The cerrado (Portuguese: thick, dense) is a vast area of savanna-like grasslands in Brazil. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... The Pantanal is the world’s largest wetland area, a flat landscape, with gently sloping and meandering rivers. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... For the overseas territory of the United Kingdom in the West Indies, see Cayman Islands For the islands, see Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, or Little Cayman. ... Nickname: Location of Brasília Coordinates: , Region State Founded 21 April 1960 Government  - Governor Jose Roberto Arruda Area  - Total 5,802 km² (2,240. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Goiás. ... Nickname: Motto: Poder, prosperidade e altruísmo(Portuguese) Power, prosperity and altruism Location in Brazil Country Region State Mato Grosso do Sul Founded 1899 Government  - Mayor Nelson Trad Filho (PMDB) Area  - City 8,110 km²  (3,131. ... Coordinates: , Country Region State Mato Grosso Government  - Mayor Wilson Santos PSDB Area  - City 3,538 km²  (1,366 sq mi) Elevation 165 m (541 ft) Population (2000)  - City 542,861  - Density 153. ...


Northeast

The nine states that make up the Northeast are Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, and Sergipe. The former federal territory of Fernando de Noronha was incorporated into Pernambuco State in 1988. For planning or ecological purposes, Maranhão west of 44° W longitude, most of which until recently was covered with "pre-Amazon" forest (that is, transition from the cerrado or caatinga to tropical forest), is often included in the Amazon region. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag of Alagoas See other Brazilian States Capital Maceió Largest City Maceió Area 27 818 km² Population   - Total   - Density 2 822 621 101. ... Flag of Bahia See other Brazilian States Capital Salvador Largest City Salvador Area 564 273 km² Population   - Total   - Density 13 070 250 23. ... Flag of Ceará See other Brazilian States Capital Fortaleza Largest City Fortaleza Area 148,016 km² Population   - Total   - Density 6,500,000 43. ... Maranhão is one of the states of Brazil in the north-eastern region. ... Flag of Paraíba See other Brazilian States Capital João Pessoa Largest City João Pessoa Area 56. ... Flag of Pernambuco See other Brazilian States Capital Recife Largest City Recife Area 98,281 km² Population   - Total   - Density 7,918,344 80. ... Flag of Piauí See other Brazilian States Capital Teresina Largest City Teresina Area 250,934 km² Population   - Total   - Density 2,750,000 11 inh. ... Flag of Sergipe See other Brazilian States Capital Aracaju Largest City Aracaju Area 21,994 km² Population   - Total   - Density 1. ... Aerial view of the island from the north east Image:Orthographic projection centred over Fernando de Noronha Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, around 220 miles (354 km) offshore from the Brazilian coast. ...


The Northeast, with 1,561,178 square kilometres (602,774 sq mi), covers 18.3% of the national territory. Its principal biome is the semiarid caatinga region, which is subject to prolonged periodic droughts. By the 1990s, this region utilized extensive irrigation. In an area known as the forest zone (zona da mata), the Atlantic Forest, now almost entirely gone, once stretched along the coastline as far north as Rio Grande do Norte. Sugar plantations established there in colonial times persisted for centuries. Between the mata and the sertão lies a transition zone called the agreste, an area of mixed farming. In 1988-89, 46.3% of the region had been subjected to anthropic activity, ranging from a low of 10.8% in Maranhão to a high of 77.2% in Alagoas. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sertão. ... Zona da Mata is a region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. ... Capital (and largest city) Natal Demonym Potiguar or Norte-rio-grandense Government  -  Governor Wilma de Faria  -  Vice Governor Iberê Paiva Ferreira de Souza Area  -  Total 52. ... A sugarcane plantation at Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, 2005 A plantation is a large tract of monoculture, as a tree plantation, a cotton plantation, a tea plantation or a tobacco plantation. ... In the History of Brazil, Colonial Brazil comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1822, when Brazil became independent from Portugal. ... It comprehends the entire region of Northwest region (except the west of Maranhão; see Portuguese; the first Brazilian capital was Salvador. ...


Because its high rates of natural increase offset heavy out-migration, the Northeast's large share of the country's total population declined only slightly during the twentieth century. In 1996 the region had 45 million inhabitants, 28% of Brazil's total population. The population is densest along the coast, where eight of the nine state capitals are located, but is also spread throughout the interior. The major cities are Salvador, in Bahia; Recife, in Pernambuco; and Fortaleza, in Ceará. The region has the country's largest concentration of rural population, and its living standards are the lowest in Brazil. In 1994 Piauí had the lowest per capita income in the region and the country, only US$835, while Sergipe had the highest average income in the region, with US$1,958. Salvador and Baía de Todos os Santos from space, April 1997 Salvador (in full, São Salvador da Baía de Todos os Santos, or in literal translation: Holy Savior of All Saints Bay) is a city on the northeast coast of Brazil and the capital of the northeastern... Nickname: Motto: Ut luceat omnibus Latin: That it may shine on all (Matthew 5:15) Location in Brazil Country Region State Pernambuco Founded March 12, 1537 Incorporated (as village) 1709 Incorporated (as city) 1823 Government  - Mayor João Paulo Lima e Silva (PT) Area  - Total 218 km² (84. ... For the fortress and governors mansion in Puerto Rico, see La Fortaleza. ...


North

Main article: North Region, Brazil

The equatorial North, also known as the Amazon or Amazônia, includes, from west to east, the states of Rondônia, Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, Pará, Amapá, and, as of 1988, Tocantins (created from the northern part of Goiás State, which is situated in the Center-West). Rondônia, previously a federal territory, became a state in 1986. The former federal territories of Roraima and Amapá were raised to statehood in 1988. Image:Brasil Norte vincent harley rocks maploc. ... The name Amazon may refer to several concepts: The legendary Amazons, women renowned in antiquity for their prowess in battle. ... Flag of Rondônia See other Brazilian States Capital Porto Velho Largest City Porto Velho Area 238,512. ... Amazonas is the largest state of Brazil, located in the northern part of the country. ... Flag of Roraima See other Brazilian States Capital Boa Vista Largest City Boa Vista Area 225,116. ... Flag of Pará See other Brazilian States Capital Belém Largest City Belém Area 1. ... Flag of Amapá See other Brazilian States Capital Macapá Largest City Macapá Area 142 816 km² Population   - Total   - Density 477 032 3. ... Tocantins is one of the states of Brazil. ...


With 3,869,638 square kilometres (1,494,076 sq mi), the North is the country's largest region, covering 45.3% of the national territory. The region's principal biome is the humid tropical forest, also known as the rain forest, home to some of the planet's richest biological diversity. The North has served as a source of forest products ranging from "backlands drugs" (such as sarsaparilla, cocoa, cinnamon, and turtle butter) in the colonial period to rubber and Brazil nuts in more recent times. In the mid-twentieth century, nonforest products from mining, farming, and livestock-raising became more important, and in the 1980s the lumber industry boomed. In 1990, 6.6% of the region's territory was considered altered by anthropic (man-made) action, with state levels varying from 0.9% in Amapá to 14.0% in Rondônia. A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... Biodiversity or biological diversity is a neologism and a portmanteau word, from bio and diversity. ... Binomial name Killip & Morton Sarsaparilla (Smilax regelii and other closely related species of Smilax) is a plant that comes in vine and, in the case of Aralia nudicaulis L., bush variants that bears roots with many useful properties. ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Bertholletia excelsa Humb. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Logging is the process in which trees are felled (cut down) usually as part of a timber harvest. ...


In 1996 the North had 11.1 million inhabitants, only 7% of the national total. However, its share of Brazil's total had grown rapidly in the 1970s and early 1980s as a result of interregional migration, as well as high rates of natural increase. The largest population concentrations are in eastern Pará State and in Rondônia. The major cities are Belém and Santarém in Pará, and Manaus in Amazonas. Living standards are below the national average. The highest per capita income, US$2,888, in the region in 1994, was in Amazonas, while the lowest, US$901, was in Tocantins. Nickname: Local da cidade de Belém, no estado do Pará State Pará County Belém Government  - Mayor Duciomar Gomes da Costa Area  - City 1,070 km²  (413. ... There are a number of places called Santarém: Santarém, Brazil Santarém, Portugal Santarém is also a Portuguese cheese. ... Location in Brazil Country Region State Amazonas Founded 1669 Government  - Mayor Serafim Corrêa (PSB) Area  - City 11. ... The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ...


Southeast

The Southeast consists of the four states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. Its total area of 927,286 square kilometres (358,027 sq mi) corresponds to 10.9% of the national territory. The region has the largest share of the country's population, 63 million in 1991, or 39% of the national total, primarily as a result of internal migration since the mid-nineteenth century until the 1980s. In addition to a dense urban network, it contains the megacities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, which in 1991 had 18.7 million and 11.7 million inhabitants in their metropolitan areas, respectively. The region combines the highest living standards in Brazil with pockets of urban poverty. In 1994 São Paulo boasted an average income of US$4,666, while Minas Gerais reported only US$2,833. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Capital Vitória Largest city Vila Velha Demonym capixaba or espiritossantense Government  -  Governor Paulo Hartung  -  Vice Governor Ricardo Ferraço Area  -  Total 46. ... Capital (and largest city) Belo Horizonte Demonym Mineiro Government  -  Governor Aécio Neves  -  Vice Governor Antônio Augusto Junho Anastasia Area  -  Total 588,528. ... Flag of Rio de Janeiro See other Brazilian States Capital Rio de Janeiro Largest City Rio de Janeiro Area 43,696. ... Motto Pro Brasilia Fiant Eximia (Latin) For Brazil Great Things Are Done Anthem Bandeirantes Anthem Capital (and largest city) São Paulo Demonym Paulista Government  -  Governor José Serra  -  Vice Governor Alberto Goldman Area  -  Total 248. ...


Originally, the principal biome in the Southeast was the Atlantic Forest, but by 1990 less than 10% of the original forest cover remained as a result of clearing for farming, ranching, and charcoal making. Anthropic activity had altered 79.5% of the region, ranging from 75% in Minas Gerais to 91.1% in Espírito Santo. The region has most of Brazil's industrial production. The state of São Paulo alone accounts for half of the country's industries. Agriculture, also very strong, has diversified and now uses modern technology. Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ...


South

The three states in the temperate South: Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina--cover 577,214 square kilometres (222,864 sq mi), or 6.8% of the national territory. The population of the South in 1991 was 23.1 million, or 14% of the country's total. The region is almost as densely settled as the Southeast, but the population is more concentrated along the coast. The major cities are Curitiba and Porto Alegre. The inhabitants of the South enjoy relatively high living standards. Because of its industry and agriculture, Paraná had the highest average income in 1994, US$3,674, while Santa Catarina, a land of small farmers and small industries, had slightly less, US$3,405. The southern region of Brazil is one of the five administrative regions of Brazil. ... Capital (and largest city) Curitiba Demonym Paranaense Government  -  Governor Roberto Requião  -  Vice Governor Orlando Pessuti Area  -  Total 281. ... Nickname: Motto: A cidade sorriso (The smiley city) Location of Curitiba Country Region State Paraná Founded 29 March 1693 Incorporated 1842 Government  - Mayor Carlos Alberto Richa (PSDB) Area  - City 430. ... This article is about Porto Alegre, Brazil. ...


In addition to the Atlantic Forest and Araucaria moist forests, much of which were cleared in the post-World War II period, the southernmost portion of Brazil contains the Uruguayan savanna, which extends into Argentina and Uruguay. In 1982, 83.5% of the region had been altered by anthropic activity, with the highest level (89.7%) in Rio Grande do Sul, and the lowest (66.7%) in Santa Catarina. Agriculture--much of which, such as rice production, is carried out by small farmers--has high levels of productivity. There are also some important industries. Araucaria moist forest in Curitiba, Paraná The Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica in Portuguese) is a region of tropical and subtropical moist forest, tropical dry forest, tropical savannas, and mangrove forests which extends along the Atlantic coast of Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte state in the north to Rio... The Araucaria moist forests are a subtropical moist forest ecoregion of southern Brazil and northeastern Argentina. ... The Uruguayan savanna, also known as the Brazilian-Uruguayan savanna, is a subtropical grassland and savanna ecoregion which includes all of Uruguay and southernmost Brazil. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ...


Environmental issues

Main article: Environment of Brazil

The environmental problem that attracted most international attention in Brazil in the 1980s was undoubtedly deforestation in the Amazon. Of all Latin American countries, Brazil still has the largest portion (66%) of its territory covered by forests, but clearing and burning in the Amazon proceeded at alarming rates in the 1970s and 1980s. Most of the clearing resulted from the activities of ranchers, including large corporate operations, and a smaller portion resulted from slash and burn techniques used by small farmers. The majority of biodiversity on the planet Earth, approximately two thirds of all species, are found in tropical areas, which is often where developing contries are. ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... In telecommunication, the term clearing has the following meanings: A sequence of events used to disconnect a call and return to the ready state. ... Burning may refer to any of the following: Combustion The use of a CD burner The Burning Man festival Burning-in of Photographic paper Immolation An insult (slang term) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ...


Deforestation in the Amazon declined from levels averaging 22,000 square kilometres (8,500 sq mi) per year during the 1970-88 period to about 11,000 square kilometres (4,200 sq mi) per year between 1988 and 1991. There was controversy about the levels in the mid-1990s. Knowledgeable experts placed the level of accumulated deforestation at about 15% in 1996, as opposed to 12% in 1991. Although unseasonal rainfall patterns may explain some year-to-year variation, the basic cause for the decline in deforestation after 1987 was economic crisis. There was insufficient capital, credit, or incentive for large-scale clearing, as well as insufficient public investment to stimulate new migration. Migration to the Amazon also fell quickly in the late 1980s. More effective enforcement of government regulations and bad publicity for large offenders, both of which were associated with changes in public opinion about the environment, also played a part. Technical changes involved in the transition from horizontal expansion of agriculture to increasing productivity also accounted for decreasing rates of deforestation. In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ...


Desertification, another important environmental problem in Brazil, only received international attention following the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development, also known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Desertification means that the soils and vegetation of drylands are severely degraded, not necessarily that land turns into desert. In the early 1990s, it became evident that the semiarid caatinga ecosystem of the Northeast was losing its natural vegetation through clearing and that the zone was therefore running the risk of becoming even more arid, as was occurring also in some other regions. Ship stranded by the retreat of the Aral Sea Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various climatic variations, but primarily from human activities. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sertão. ...


In areas where agriculture is more intense and developed, there are serious problems of soil erosion, siltation and sedimentation of streams and rivers, and pollution with pesticides. In parts of the savannas, where irrigated soybean production expanded in the 1980s, the water table has been affected. Expansion of pastures for cattle raising has reduced natural biodiversity in the savannas. Swine effluents constitute a serious environmental problem in Santa Catarina in the South. Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... Sedimentation describes the motion of particles in solutions or suspensions in response to an external force such as gravity, centrifugal force or electric force. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Savannah redirects here. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Cross section showing the water table varying with surface topography as well as a perched water table The water table or phreatic surface is the surface where the water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


In urban areas, at least in the largest cities, levels of air pollution and congestion are typical of, or worse than, those found in cities in developed countries. At the same time, however, basic environmental problems related to the lack of sanitation, which developed countries solved long ago, persist in Brazil. These problems are sometimes worse in middle-sized and small cities than in large cities, which have more resources to deal with them. Environmental problems of cities and towns finally began to receive greater attention by society and the government in the 1990s. Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... Congestion is a state of excessive accumulation or overfilling or overcrowding. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ...


According to many critics, the economic crisis in the 1980s worsened environmental degradation in Brazil because it led to overexploitation of natural resources, stimulated settlement in fragile lands in both rural and urban areas, and weakened environmental protection. At the same time, however, the lower level of economic activity may have reduced pressure on the environment, such as the aforementioned decreased level of investment in large-scale clearing in the Amazon. That pressure could increase if economic growth accelerates, especially if consumption patterns remain unchanged and more sustainable forms of production are not found. In economics, crisis is an old term in business cycle theory, referring to the sharp transition to a recession. ...


In Brazil public policies regarding the environment are generally advanced, although their implementation and the enforcement of environmental laws have been far from ideal. Laws regarding forests, water, and wildlife have been in effect since the 1930s. Brazil achieved significant institutional advances in environmental policy design and implementation after the Stockholm Conference on the Environment in 1972. Specialized environmental agencies were organized at the federal level and in some states, and many national parks and reserves were established. By 1992 Brazil had established thirty-four national parks and fifty-six biological reserves. In 1981 the National Environment Policy was defined, and the National System for the Environment (Sistema Nacional do Meio Ambiente--Sisnama) was created, with the National Environmental Council (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente--Conama) at its apex, municipal councils at its base, and state-level councils in between. In addition to government authorities, all of these councils include representatives of civil society. Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about national parks. ...


The 1988 constitution incorporates environmental precepts that are advanced compared with those of most other countries. At that time, the Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) established its permanent Commission for Defense of the Consumer, the Environment, and Minorities. In 1989 the creation of the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis--Ibama) joined together the federal environment secretariat and the federal agencies specializing in forestry, rubber, and fisheries. In 1990 the administration of Fernando Collor de Mello (president, 1990-92) appointed the well-known environmentalist José Lutzemberger as secretary of the environment and took firm positions on the environment and on Indian lands. In 1992 Brazil played a key role at the Earth Summit, not only as its host but also as negotiator on sustainable development agreements, including the conventions on climate and biodiversity. The Ministry of Environment was created in late 1992, after President Collor had left office. In August 1993, it became the Ministry of Environment and the Legal Amazon and took a more pragmatic approach than had the combative Lutzemberger. However, because of turnover in its leadership, a poorly defined mandate, and lack of funds, its role and impact were limited. In 1995 its mandate and name were expanded to include water resources--the Ministry of Environment, Hydraulic Resources, and the Legal Amazon--it began a process of restructuring to meet its mandate of "shared management of the sustainable use of natural resources." In 1997 the Commission on Policies for Sustainable Development and Agenda 21 began to function under the aegis of the Civil Household. One of its main tasks was to prepare Agenda 21 (a plan for the twenty-first century) for Brazil and to stimulate preparation of state and local agendas. Chamber of Deputies is the name given to a legislative body, which may either be the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or the name of a unicameral one. ... IBAMA is the Brazilian Ministry of the Environments enforcement agency. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Fernando Affonso Collor de Mello, pron. ... The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, also known as the Earth Summit (or, in Portuguese, Eco 92) was a major conference held in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to June 14, 1992. ... Location of Amazônia Legal within Brazil (red) States within Amazônia Legal Amazônia Legal (Legal Amazon) is the largest socio-geographic division of the South American nation of Brazil, which contains all of its territory in the Amazon Basin. ...


Institutional development at the official level was accompanied and in part stimulated by the growth, wide diffusion, and growing professional development of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) dedicated to environmental and socio-environmental causes. The hundreds of NGOs throughout Brazil produce documents containing both useful information and passionate criticisms. Among the Brazilian environmental NGOs, the most visible are SOS Atlantic Forest (SOS Mata Atlântica), the Social-Environmental Institute (Instituto Sócio-Ambiental--ISA), the Pro-Nature Foundation (Fundação Pró-Natureza--Funatura), and the Amazon Working Group (Grupo de Trabalho Amazônico--GTA). The Brazilian Forum of NGOs and Social Movements for the Environment and Development and the Brazilian Association of Nongovernmental Organizations (Associacão Brasileira de Organizações Não-Governamentais--ABONG) are national networks, and there are various regional and thematic networks as well. The main international environmental NGOs that have offices or affiliates in Brazil are the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Conservation International (CI), and Nature Conservancy. A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Especially after the events of the late 1980s, international organizations and developed countries have allocated significant resources for the environmental sector in Brazil. In 1992 environmental projects worth about US$6.8 million were identified, with US$2.6 in counterpart funds (funds provided by the Brazilian government). More than 70% of the total value was for sanitation, urban pollution control, and other urban environmental projects. Thus, the allocation of resources did not accord with the common belief that funding was influenced unduly by alarmist views on deforestation in the Amazon.


Among the specific environmental projects with international support, the most important was the National Environmental Plan (Plano Nacional do Meio Ambiente--PNMA), which received a US$117 million loan from the World Bank. The National Environmental Fund (Fundo Nacional do Meio Ambiente--FNMA), in addition to budgetary funds, received US$20 million from the Inter-American Development Bank to finance the environmental activities of NGOs and small municipal governments. The Pilot Program for the Conservation of the Brazilian Rain Forests (Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil--PPG-7) was supported by the world's seven richest countries (the so-called G-7) and the European Community, which allocated US$258 million for projects in the Amazon and Atlantic Forest regions. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), created in 1990, set aside US$30 million for Brazil, part of which is managed by a national fund called Funbio. GEF also established a small grants program for NGOs, which focused on the cerrado during its pilot phase. The World Bank also made loans for environmental and natural resource management in Rondônia and Mato Grosso, in part to correct environmental and social problems that had been created by the World Bank-funded development of the northwest corridor in the 1980s.


Despite favorable laws, promising institutional arrangements, and external funding, the government has not, on the whole, been effective in controlling damage to the environment. This failure is only in small measure because of the opposition of anti-environmental groups. In greater part, it can be attributed to the traditional separation between official rhetoric and actual practice in Brazil. It is also related to general problems of governance, fiscal crisis, and lingering doubts about appropriate tradeoffs between the environment and development. Some of the most effective governmental action in the environmental area has occurred at the state and local levels in the most developed states and has involved NGOs. In 1994 the PNMA began to stress decentralization and strengthening of state environmental agencies, a tendency that subsequently gained momentum.


Environment - current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities
note: President Cardoso in September 1999 signed into force an environmental crime bill which for the first time defines pollution and deforestation as crimes punishable by stiff fines and jail sentences This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Fernando Henrique Cardoso (born June 18, 1931) was the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil for two terms from January 1, 1995 to January 1, 2003. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ...


Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of selected agreements Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ...


See also

Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Indigenous peoples in Brazil (provoke indía gnas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior to its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ... In the History of Brazil, Colonial Brazil comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1822, when Brazil became independent from Portugal. ... The Empire of Brazil was a political entity that comprised present-day Brazil under the rule of Emperors Pedro I and his son Pedro II. Founded in 1822, it was replaced by a republic in 1889. ... // The Constitutionalist Revolution From 1889 to 1930, the government was a constitutional democracy, with the presidency alternating between the dominant states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. ... // Depression, coffee oligarchs, and the Revolution of 1930 The Great Depression The tenente rebellion (See History of Brazil (1889-1930)) did not mark the revolutionary breakthrough of Brazils bourgeois social reformers. ... // End of the Estado Novo As World War II ended with Brazil participating on the Allied side, President Getúlio Vargas moved to liberalize his own fascist-influenced Estado Novo regime. ... The military maintained power in Brazil from 1964 until March 1985 because of political struggles within the regime and Brazilian elite. ... After the end of the military dictatorship, Brazil went into a troubled process of redemocratization. ... Politics of Brazil takes place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Brazil is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Brazilian Presidential Standard The President of Brazil is both the head of state and head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil. ... Brazils bicameral National Congress (Portuguese: Congresso Nacional) consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. ... Brazilian law derives from Portuguese civil law and is based on statutes and, partly and more recently, stare decisis. ... The Supreme Federal Tribunal (in Portuguese Supremo Tribunal Federal, or simply STF) is the highest court of law of the Federative Republic of Brazil. ... Brazil elects on the national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature. ... This article lists political parties in Brazil. ... Traditionally, Brazil has been a leader in the inter-American community and has played an important role in collective security efforts, as well as in economic cooperation in the Western Hemisphere. ... There are serious issues in regard to abuses of human rights in Brazil. ... ISO 4217 Code BRL User(s) Brazil Inflation 3. ... This is a list of major companies based in Brazil. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 19 million (1997) 39 million (2005) Telephones - mobile cellular: 4 million (1997) 80 million (2005) Telephone system: good working system domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat... The Economic history of Brazil covers various economic events and traces the changes in the Brazilian economy of the course of the history of Brazil From Portugals discovery of Brazil in 1500 until the late 1930s, the Brazilian economy relied on the production of primary products for exports. ... Brazil is currently divided in five regions, by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE). ... Brazil is divided into twenty-six estados (states; singular estado) and one district, the Distrito Federal (Federal District) which contains the capital city, Brasília. ... Municipalities of Brazil This article is about the municipalities of Brazil. ... This is a list of the extreme points of Brazil, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location. ... // Brazil has conducted a periodical population census since 1872. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Brazilian culture is a Latin American culture of a very diverse nature. ... Mangueira samba school parades in Rio de Janeiro The Brazilian Carnival (Portuguese: ) is an annual festival in Brazil held 40 days before Easter and marks the beginning of Lent. ... The cuisine of Brazil, like Brazil itself, varies greatly by region. ... Other holidays Dia dos Namorados is celebrated on June 12 as the Brazilian equivalent of St. ... The Literature of Brazil refers to literature written in the Portuguese language by Brazilians or in Brazil, even if prior to Brazils independence from Portugal, in 1822. ... Strong influences on the music of Brazil come from many parts of the world, but there are very popular regional music styles influenced by African and European forms. ... The beaches of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the most popular tourist destination in the country. ... The following are international rankings of Brazil. ... Itaipu Brazilian science and technology has achieved in the last decades a significant position in the international arena. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Special Note: About 60% of the Amazon Rainforest is part of Brazil.
  2. ^ Note: Includes Archipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, Trindade and Martim Vaz Islands.

Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... Aerial view of the island from the north east Image:Orthographic projection centred over Fernando de Noronha Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, around 220 miles (354 km) offshore from the Brazilian coast. ... Rocas Atoll ( Atol das Rocas) is an atoll in the Atlantic Ocean at location 03°52′S 33°49′W. It is part of Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. ... The Saint Peter and Paul Rocks lie near the middle of the Atlantic Narrows. ...

References

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The World Factbook 2007 (government edition) cover. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Map of South America. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Map of Trinidad and Tobago Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela Geographic coordinates: 11°00′ N 61°00′ W Map references: Central America and the Caribbean Area: total: 5,128 sq km land: 5,128 sq km water: 0 sq km... Image File history File links South_America. ... A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a State. ... Geography of French Guiana. ... Motto: Leo Terram Propriam Protegat (Latin: The Lion shall protect his own land) Official language English Capital Grytviken Commissioner Howard Pearce Area  - Total  - % water not ranked 3,093 km² - Population  - Total (2006 E)  - Density not ranked ~20 n/a; Currency GBP Time zone UTC/GMT -2 National anthem God Save... This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Brazil - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (4455 words)
Brazil has the world's second largest Christian population (151 million, behind that of the United States), and also is the world's largest Roman Catholic-majority nation in terms of both number of adherents and land mass --- a strong cultural legacy left behind by the Roman Catholic Portuguese colonists.
Brazil is characterized by the extensive low-lying Amazon Rainforest in the north and a more open terrain of hills and low mountains to the south — home to most of the Brazilian population and its agricultural base.
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