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Encyclopedia > Geography of Albania
Albania
Shaded relief map of Albania.
Continent Europe
Subregion Southeast Europe
Geographic coordinates 41°00′N, 20°00′E
Area
 - Total
 - Water
Ranked 143rd
28,748 km²
1,350- km² (2.30%)
Coastline 362 km
Land boundaries 720 km
Countries bordered Greece 282 km,
Montenegro 172 km,
Macedonia 151 km,
Serbia 115 km
Maritime claims 12 nm
Highest point Golem Korab, 2,754 m
Lowest point Adriatic Sea, 0 m
Longest river Drin River, 335 km
Largest inland body of water Lake Shkodër 530 km²
Land Use
 - Arable land

 - Permanent
   crops

 - Other

20.1 %

4.21 %

75.69 % (2005 est.)
Irrigated Land 3,530km²
Climate: Mild temperate to cool
Terrain: Mountains, hills, small plains
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower
Natural hazards earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, drought
Environmental issues deforestation, soil erosion, water pollution

Albania has a total area of 28,750 square kilometers. It shares a 287-kilometre border with Serbia and Montenegro to the north, a 151-kilometre border with the Republic of Macedonia to the north and east, and a 282-kilometre border with Greece to the south and southeast. Its coastline is 362 kilometres long. The lowlands of the west face the Adriatic Sea and the strategically important Strait of Otranto, which puts less than 100 kilometers of water between Albania and the heel of the Italian "boot" (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea). Download high resolution version (1019x1274, 262 KB)General info: Large shaded relief map of Albania Size: 262 KB Dimension: 1019x1274 pixels Source: PCL Map Collection License: public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for... Download high resolution version (1019x1274, 262 KB)General info: Large shaded relief map of Albania Size: 262 KB Dimension: 1019x1274 pixels Source: PCL Map Collection License: public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... The Korab Mountain range Korab Mountain landscape Mount Korab is the highest mountain of both Albania and Republic of Macedonia at the border of the two states. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Artificial Lake Koman filling up the canyons of the Drin in Northern Albania Drin and Buna rivers The Drin (Дрим/Drim in Macedonian and in Serbian) is the longest river in Albania with a total length of 335 km. ... Lake Scutari (Serbian: Skadarsko jezero, in Cyrillic: Скадарско језеро; Albanian: Liqeni i Shkodrës), also called Skadar Lake, is a lake on the border of Montenegro with Albania, the largest lake in the Balkan Peninsula. ... Look up Cool in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mount Cook, a mountain in New Zealand A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... For the landform that extends above the surrounding terrain and that is smaller than a mountain, see the article on mountain. ... == Headline text == Plains is the name of several places in the [[United usyduisaydashdsdsjdn Plains, North Lanarkshire, Scotland There are also The Plains, Ohio; Plainsboro, New Jersey; and Plainville, Kansas You might also be looking for the geographical feature plain; or the Plains Indians. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Bauxite with penny Bauxite with core of unweathered rock Bauxite is an aluminium ore. ... Chromite, iron magnesium chromium oxide: (Fe,Mg)Cr2O4, is an oxide mineral belonging to the spinel group. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower is the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Map showing the location of the Strait of Otranto. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... The Ionian Sea. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ...


Albania has coastline on the Adriatic Sea and the Ionian Sea. A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... The Ionian Sea. ...

Contents

Borders

Satellite image of Albania.
Satellite image of Albania.

With the exception of the coastline, all Albanian borders are artificial. They were established in principle at the 1912-1913 conference of ambassadors in London. The country was occupied by Italian, Serbian, Greek, and French forces during World War I, but the 1913 boundaries were essentially reaffirmed by the victorious states in 1921. The original principle was to define the borders in accordance with the best interests of the Albanian people and the nationalities in adjacent areas. The northern and eastern borders were intended, insofar as possible, to separate the Albanians from the Serbs and Montenegrins; the southeast border was to separate Albanians and Greeks; the valuable western Macedonia lake district was to be divided among the three states-- Albania, Greece, and Yugoslavia --whose populations shared the area. When there was no compromise involving other factors, borderlines were chosen to make the best possible separation of national groups, connecting the best marked physical features available. Download high resolution version (400x800, 83 KB)Albania from space. ... Download high resolution version (400x800, 83 KB)Albania from space. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...


Allowance was made for local economic situations, for example, to prevent separation of a village from its animals' grazing areas or the markets for its produce. Political pressures also were a factor in the negotiations, but the outcome was subject to approval by powers having relatively abstract interests, most of which involved the balance of power rather than specific economic ambitions.


Division of the lake district among three states required that each of them have a share of the lowlands in the vicinity. Such an artificial distribution, once made, necessarily affected the borderlines to the north and south. The border that runs generally north from the lakes, although it follows the ridges of the eastern highlands, stays sixteen to thirty-two kilometers west of the watershed divide. Because negotiators at the London conference declined to use the watershed divide as the northeast boundary of the new state of Albania, the Albanian population of Kosovo was incorporated into Serbia. Main European water divides (red lines) separating catchments (gray regions). ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


In Albania's far north and the northeast mountainous sections, the border connects high points and follows mountain ridges through the largely inaccessible North Albanian Alps, and further south Bjeshkët e Namuna (The Accursed Mountains). For the most part, there is no natural boundary from the highlands to the Adriatic, although Lake Shkodër and a portion of the Buna River south of it were used to mark Albania's northwest border. From the lake district south and southwest to the Ionian Sea, the country's southeast border goes against the grain of the land, crossing a number of ridges instead of following them. Lake Scutari (Serbian: Skadarsko jezero, in Cyrillic: Скадарско језеро; Albanian: Liqeni i Shkodrës), also called Skadar Lake, is a lake on the border of Montenegro with Albania, the largest lake in the Balkan Peninsula. ... There are two Buna Rivers : The Buna in Bosnia and Herzegovina, left tributary of the Neretva The Buna in Albania and Montenegro, Bojana in Serbian, which flows from The lake of Skadar/Shkodra into the Adriatic. ...


Climate

With its coastline facing the Adriatic and Ionian seas, its highlands backed upon the elevated Balkan landmass, and the entire country lying at a latitude subject to a variety of weather patterns during the winter and summer seasons, Albania has a high number of climatic regions for so small an area. The coastal lowlands have typically Mediterranean weather; the highlands have a Mediterranean continental climate. In both the lowlands and the interior, the weather varies markedly from north to south.

Coastline in southern Albania

The lowlands have mild winters, averaging about 7 °C. Summer temperatures average 24 °C, humidity is high, and the weather tends to be oppressively uncomfortable. In the southern lowlands, temperatures average about 5 °C higher throughout the year. The difference is greater than 5 °C during the summer and somewhat less during the winter. Coastline in southern Albania (image under GFDL from Marc Morell used with permission) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Coastline in southern Albania (image under GFDL from Marc Morell used with permission) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Inland temperatures are affected more by differences in elevation than by latitude or any other factor. Low winter temperatures in the mountains are caused by the continental air mass that dominates the weather in Eastern Europe and the Balkans. Northerly and northeasterly winds blow much of the time. Average summer temperatures are lower than in the coastal areas and much lower at higher elevations, but daily fluctuations are greater. Daytime maximum temperatures in the interior basins and river valleys are very high, but the nights are almost always cool. Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... ... Eateries in pre-war shophouses along River Valley Road offer local delicacies. ...


Average precipitation is heavy, a result of the convergence of the prevailing airflow from the Mediterranean Sea and the continental air mass. Because they usually meet at the point where the terrain rises, the heaviest rain falls in the central uplands. Vertical currents initiated when the Mediterranean air is uplifted also cause frequent thunderstorms. Many of these storms are accompanied by high local winds and torrential downpours. Mediterranean redirects here. ...


When the continental air mass is weak, Mediterranean winds drop their moisture farther inland. When there is a dominant continental air mass, cold air spills onto the lowland areas, which occurs most frequently in the winter. Because the season's lower temperatures damage olive trees and citrus fruits, groves and orchards are restricted to sheltered places with southern and western exposures, even in areas with high average winter temperatures.


Lowland rainfall averages from 1,000 millimeters to more than 1,500 millimeters annually, with the higher levels in the north. Nearly 95% of the rain falls in the winter.


Rainfall in the upland mountain ranges is heavier. Adequate records are not available, and estimates vary widely, but annual averages are probably about 1,800 millimeters and are as high as 2,550 millimeters in some northern areas. The seasonal variation is not quite as great in the coastal area.


The higher inland mountains receive less precipitation than the intermediate uplands. Terrain differences cause wide local variations, but the seasonal distribution is the most consistent of any area.


Terrain

The 70% of the country that is mountainous is rugged and often inaccessible. The remainder, an alluvial plain, receives precipitation seasonally, is poorly drained, and is alternately arid or flooded. Much of the plain's soil is of poor quality. Far from offering a relief from the difficult interior terrain, the alluvial plain is often as inhospitable as the mountains. Good soil and dependable precipitation, however, are found in intermontane river basins, in the lake district along the eastern frontier, and in a narrow band of slightly elevated land between the coastal plains and the interior mountains.


In the far north, the mountains are an extension of the Dinaric Alps and, more specifically, the Montenegrin limestone plateau. Albania's northern mountains are more folded and rugged, however, than most of the plateau. The rivers have deep valleys with steep sides and arable valley floors. Generally unnavigable, the rivers obstruct rather than encourage movement within the alpine region. Roads are few and poor. Lacking internal communications and external contacts, a tribal society flourished in this area for centuries. Only after World War II were serious efforts made to incorporate the people of the region into Albanian national life. A low coastal belt extends from the northern boundary southward to the vicinity of Vlorë. On average, it extends less than sixteen kilometers inland, but widens to about fifty kilometers in the Elbasan area in central Albania. In its natural state, the coastal belt is characterized by low scrub vegetation, varying from barren to dense. There are large areas of marshlands and other areas of bare, eroded badlands. Where elevations rise slightly and precipitation is regular--in the foothills of the central uplands, for example--the land is highly arable. Marginal land is reclaimed wherever irrigation is possible. Mt Orjen at the Bay of Kotor is the heaviest karstified range of the dinarids View of the central part of the Dinaric Alps (north=down) Valbona pass, northern Albania. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Vlorë(Albanian: Vlorë or Vlora, (locally) Vlonë or Vlona, Italian: , Greek: , Turkish: ) is the second largest port city of Albania, after Durrës, with a population of about 85,000 (2003 estimate). ... Elbasan (Albanian: Elbasan or Elbasani) is a city in central Albania. ...


Just east of the lowlands, the central uplands, called Çermenikë by Albanians, are an area of generally moderate elevations, between 305 and 915 meters, with a few points reaching above 1,520 meters. Shifting along the faultline that roughly defines the western edge of the central uplands causes frequent, and occasionally severe, earthquakes. Çermenikë is a upland in central Albania. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ...

Mount Çikë in the south
Mount Çikë in the south

Although rugged terrain and points of high elevation mark the central uplands, the first major mountain range inland from the Adriatic is an area of predominantly serpentine rock (which derives its name from its dull green color and often spotted appearance), extending nearly the length of the country, from the North Albanian Alps to the Greek border south of Korçë. Within this zone, there are many areas in which sharp limestone and sandstone outcroppings predominate, although the ranges as a whole are characterized by rounded mountains. Image File history File links Mount Çikë in southern Albania (image under GFDL from Marc Morell used with permission) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Mount Çikë in southern Albania (image under GFDL from Marc Morell used with permission) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Korçë (Albanian: Korçë or Korça, Greek: Κορυτσά Koritsá , Italian: Corizza, South Slavic: Корча, Korcha or Корче, Korče, Aromanian: Curceaua, Turkish: Görice) is a major city in south-eastern Albania, located at near the border with Greece. ...


The mountains east of the serpentine zone are the highest in Albania, exceeding 2,754 meters in the Mount Korab (Mali Korabit) range at Korabi's Peak (Maja e Korabit). Together with the North Albanian Alps and the serpentine zone, the eastern highlands are the most rugged and inaccessible of any terrain on the Balkan Peninsula. The Korab Mountain range Korab Mountain landscape Mount Korab is the highest mountain of both Albania and Republic of Macedonia at the border of the two states. ...


The three lakes of easternmost Albania, Lake Ohrid (Liqeni Ohrit), Big Prespa Lake (Prespa e Madhe), and Small Prespa Lake (Prespa e Vogël), are remote and picturesque. Much of the terrain in their vicinity is not overly steep, and it supports a larger population than any other inland portion of the country. Albania's eastern border passes through Lake Ohrid; all but a small tip of Prespa e Vogël is in Greece; and the point at which the boundaries of three states meet is in Lake Prespa. Each of the two larger lakes has a total surface areas of about 260 square kilometers, and Prespa e Vogël is about one-fifth as large. The surface elevation is about 695 meters for Lake Ohrid and 855 meters for the other two lakes. Lake Ohrid (Macedonian: Охридско Езеро, Ohridsko Ezero Albanian: Liqeni i Ohrit) straddles the mountainous border between the southwestern region of the Republic of Macedonia and eastern Albania. ...


The southern mountain ranges are more accessible than the serpentine zone, the eastern highlands, or the North Albanian Alps. The transition to the lowlands is less abrupt, and the arable valley floors are wider. Limestone, the predominant mineral, is responsible for the cliffs and clear water of the coastline southeast of Vlorë. Erosion of a blend of softer rocks has provided the sediment that has caused wider valleys to form in the southern mountain area than those characteristic of the remainder of the country. This terrain encouraged the development of larger landholding, thus influencing the social structure of southern Albania. For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ...

This is a list of Albanian lakes. ... This is a list of Albanian mountains. ... This is a list of Albanian rivers. ... Albania, with a total area of 28,750 square kilometers, which is slightly larger than the state of Maryland. ...

Drainage

River in the south
River in the south
Map of major rivers

Nearly all of the precipitation that falls on Albania drains into the rivers and reaches the coast without even leaving the country. In the north, only one small stream escapes Albania. In the south, an even smaller rivulet drains into Greece. Because the topographical divide is east of the Albanian border with its neighbors, a considerable amount of water from other countries drains through Albania. An extensive portion of the basin of the Drini i Bardhë River (White Drini), basin is in the Rrafshi i Dukagjinit area, across Albania's northeastern border. The three eastern lakes that Albania shares with its neighboring countries, as well as the streams that flow into them, drain into the Drini i Zi River (Black Drini). The watershed divide in the south also dips nearly seventy-five kilometers into Greece at one point. Several tributaries of the Vjosa River rise in that area. River in Albania (image under GFDL from Marc Morell used with permission) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... River in Albania (image under GFDL from Marc Morell used with permission) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 391 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (653 × 1000 pixel, file size: 209 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 391 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (653 × 1000 pixel, file size: 209 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... Drini i Zi, in Albanian(the black Deer)starts in the mountains boarding Albania with Macedonia. ... The Vjosë (Albanian indefinite form, the definite form is Vjosa) or Aóos (Greek: Αώος, Latin: Aous) is a river in north-western Greece and south-western Albania. ...


With the exception of the Drini i Zi River, which flows northward and drains nearly the entire eastern border region before it turns westward to the sea, most of the rivers in northern and central Albania flow fairly directly westward to the sea. In the process, they cut through the ridges rather than flow around them. This apparent geological impossibility occurs because the highlands originally were lifted without much folding. The streams came into existence at that time. The compression and folding of the plateau into ridges occurred later. The folding process was rapid enough in many instances to dam the rivers temporarily. The resulting lakes existed until their downstream channels became wide enough to drain them. This sequence created the many interior basins that are typically a part of the Albanian landform. During the lifetime of the temporary lakes, enough sediment was deposited in them to form the basis for fertile soils. Folding was rarely rapid enough to force the streams into radically different channels. For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ...


The precipitous fall from higher elevations and the highly irregular seasonal flow patterns that are characteristic of nearly all streams in the country reduce the economic value of the streams. They erode the mountains and deposit the sediment that created the lowlands and continues to augment them, but the rivers flood when there is local rainfall. When the lands are parched and need irrigation, the rivers usually are dry. Their violence when they are full makes them difficult to control, and they are unnavigable. The Buna River is an exception. It is dredged between Shkodër and the Adriatic Sea and can be navigated by small ships. In contrast to their history of holding fast to their courses in the mountains, the rivers constantly change channels on the lower plains, making waste of much of the land they create. Butchers Creek, Omeo, Victoria A stream, brook, beck, burn or creek, is a body of water with a detectable current, confined within a bed and banks. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... In physical geography, a lowland is any broad expanse of land with a general low level. ... Ãœsküdar, a district of Istanbul, was also known as Scutari. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ...


The Drin River is the largest and most constant stream. Fed by melting snows from the northern and eastern mountains and by the more evenly distributed seasonal precipitation of that area, its flow does not have the extreme variations characteristic of nearly all other rivers in the country. Its normal flow varies seasonally by only about one-third. Along its length of about 282 kilometers, it drains nearly 5,957 square kilometers within Albania. As it also collects from the Adriatic portion of Kosovo's watersheds and the three border lakes (Big Lake Prespa drains to Lake Ohrid via an underground stream), its total basin encompasses about 15,540 square kilometers. Artificial Lake Koman filling up the canyons of the Drin in Northern Albania Drin and Buna rivers The Drin (Дрим/Drim in Macedonian and in Serbian) is the longest river in Albania with a total length of 335 km. ... Map Satellite image Prespa is the name of two freshwater lakes in southeast Europe, shared by Greece, Albania, and the Republic of Macedonia. ... Lake Ohrid (Macedonian: Охридско Езеро, Ohridsko Ezero Albanian: Liqeni i Ohrit) straddles the mountainous border between the southwestern region of the Republic of Macedonia and eastern Albania. ...


The Semani and Vjosa are the only other rivers that are more than 160 kilometers long and have basins larger than 2,600 square kilometers. These rivers drain the southern regions and, reflecting the seasonal distribution of rainfall, are torrents in winter and nearly dry in the summer, in spite of their length. This variable nature also characterizes the many shorter streams. In the summer, most of them carry less than a tenth of their winter averages, if they are not altogether dry. The Vjosë (Albanian indefinite form, the definite form is Vjosa) or Aóos (Greek: Αώος, Latin: Aous) is a river in north-western Greece and south-western Albania. ...


Although the sediment carried by the mountain torrents continues to be deposited, new deposits delay exploitation. Stream channels rise as silt is deposited in them and eventually become higher than the surrounding terrain. Shifting channels frustrate development in many areas. Old channels become barriers to proper drainage and create swamps or marshlands. It is difficult to build roads or railroads across the lowlands or otherwise use the land. For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ...


References

This article contains material from the Library of Congress Country Studies, which are United States government publications in the public domain. Much of the material in this article comes from the CIA World Factbook 2000 of Albania. The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...


See also


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Physical geography Physical geography, is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere.
Human geography, also known as anthropogeography, is a branch of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the environment, with particular reference to the causes and consequences of the spatial distribution of human activity on the Earth's surface.
While the major focus of human geography is not the physical landscape of the Earth (see Physical geography) it is hardly possible to discuss human geography without referring to the physical landscape on which human activities are being played out, and environmental geography is emerging as a link between the two.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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