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Encyclopedia > Geographic coordinates

This article is about longitude and latitude; see also UTM coordinate system A transverse Mercator projection is a map projection similar to the Mercator projection in that it is a projection of Earth on a tangent cylinder by rays radial with respect to the cylinder. ...

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Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (vertically) and longitude (horizontally); large version (http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/reference_maps/pdf/political_world.pdf) (pdf)

The geographic (earth-mapping) coordinate system expresses every horizontal position on Earth by two of the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system which is aligned with the spin axis of the Earth. It defines two angles measured from the center of the Earth: Earth, also known as the Earth or Terra, is the third planet outward from the Sun. ... Latitude, denoted φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... Map of Earth showing curved lines of longitude Longitude, sometimes denoted λ, describes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a north-south line called the Prime Meridian. ... This article describes some of the common coordinate systems that appear in elementary mathematics. ... Earth, also known as the Earth or Terra, is the third planet outward from the Sun. ...

  • the latitude measures the angle between any point and the equator
  • the longitude measures the angle along the equator from an arbitrary point on the Earth. Greenwich in London is the accepted zero-longitude point in most modern societies.

By combining these two angles, the horizontal position of any location on Earth can be specified. For example, Baltimore, Maryland (in the USA) has a latitude of 39.3 degrees North, and a longitude of 76.6 degrees West ( 39.3° N 76.6° W (http://kvaleberg.com/extensions/mapsources/index.php?params=39.3_N_76.6_W_)). So, a vector drawn from the center of the Earth to a point 39.3 degrees north of the equator and 76.6 degrees west of Greenwich will pass through Baltimore. Latitude, denoted φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... In geography, the equator is an imaginary line drawn around a planet, halfway between the poles, where the surface of the roughly spherical planet is parallel to the axis of rotation. ... Map of Earth showing curved lines of longitude Longitude, sometimes denoted λ, describes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a north-south line called the Prime Meridian. ... This page is about Greenwich in England. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... City nickname: Charm City Location in the state of Maryland Founded 30 July 1729 County Independent city Mayor Martin OMalley ( Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 1,214. ...


The equator is obviously an important part of this coordinate system, it represents the zeropoint of the latitude angle, and the halfway point between the poles. The equator is the fundamental plane of the geographic coordinate system. All spherical coordinate systems define such a fundamental plane. The fundamental plane in a spherical coordinate system is a plane which divides the sphere into two hemispheres. ...


Lines of constant latitude are called parallels. They trace circles on the surface of the Earth, but the only parallel that is a great circle is the equator (latitude=0 degrees). Lines of constant longitude are called meridians. The meridian passing through Greenwich is the Prime Meridian (longitude=0 degrees). Unlike parallels, all meridians are great circles, and meridians are not parallel: they intersect at the north and south poles. The term Parallel has a number of important meanings: Parallel (geometry) occurs in geometry. ... A great circle is a circle on the surface of a sphere that has the same diameter as the sphere, dividing the sphere into two equal hemispheres. ... Meridian is: Meridian (astronomy): an imaginary circle perpendicular to the horizon. ... The Prime Meridian, Greenwich The Prime Meridian is the meridian (line of longitude) passing through the Royal Greenwich Observatory, Greenwich, England; it is the meridian at which longitude is 0 degrees. ...


This article originates from Jason Harris' Astroinfo which comes along with KStars, a Desktop Planetarium for Linux/KDE. See http://edu.kde.org/kstars/index.phtml External links KStars project webpage Categories: KDE stubs | KDE ... This article is about Linux-based operating systems, GNU/Linux, and related topics. ... KDE (K Desktop Environment) is a free desktop environment and development platform built with Trolltechs Qt toolkit. ...


To be merged:


Latitude and longitude are arbitrary measurements used to describe any point on the Earth, or similar globe. Borrowing from theories of ancient Babylonians, later expanded by the famous Greek thinker and geographer Ptolemy, a full circle is assigned 360 degrees. Latitude is the term for the distance from the middle of the circle, or, in the case of the Earth, the equator. The equator is designated 0 degrees, with each pole being 90 degrees. Longitude is the horizontal measurement--current convention places the zero degree point at Greenwich, England (also known as the Prime Meridian), with 180 degrees being on the opposite point on the globe. Earth, also known as the Earth or Terra, is the third planet outward from the Sun. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ... This article is about the geographer and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Latitude, denoted φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... In geography, the equator is an imaginary line drawn around a planet, halfway between the poles, where the surface of the roughly spherical planet is parallel to the axis of rotation. ... For other uses of the word pole, see Pole (disambiguation). ... Map of Earth showing curved lines of longitude Longitude, sometimes denoted λ, describes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a north-south line called the Prime Meridian. ... This page is about Greenwich in England. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Official language None; English is de facto Capital London Capitals coordinates 51° 30 N, 0° 10 W Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831... The Prime Meridian, Greenwich The Prime Meridian is the meridian (line of longitude) passing through the Royal Greenwich Observatory, Greenwich, England; it is the meridian at which longitude is 0 degrees. ...


Lines of longitude are all of the same length whereas those of latitude vary in length.


Third dimension

To completely specify a location on, in, or above the Earth, one has to specify also the elevation / height position. This can e.g. be expressed relative to a datum such as mean sea level (above mean sea level) or the geoid. The distance to the Earth's center is a practical coordinate both for very deep positions and for positions in space. This article describes a concept from cartography and geodesy. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ... A geoid is a close representation, physical model, of the figure of the Earth. ...


The elevation specifies the vertical position of the Earth surface. Elevation has several related meanings: Geography The elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or possibly some other fixed point). ...


Various elevation / height coordinates either with respect to the surface or some other datum are altitude, height, and depth. Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum, called zero level. ... Height is a measurement of the distance from the bottom to the top of something which is upright. ... Depth can describe many different concepts both abstract and concrete, and such concepts can be either qualitative or quantitative in nature. ...


See also

A geographic information system (GIS) is a system for managing data that has a spatial specialized form of an information system. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... Methods to obtain geographic coordinates of a place include: Looking at a printed map or atlas, either ones you own or at a library Using a GPS satellite navigator Looking at a website built by GPS users, e. ... Geographic coordinates consist of latitude and longitude. ... A geocode is a geographical code to identify a point or area at the surface of the earth. ... Tropic of Cancer is also the name of a novel by Henry Miller, first published in 1934. ... Tropic of Capricorn is also the name of a novel by Henry Miller, first published in 1939. ... Great circle distance is the shortest distance between any two points on the surface of the Earth measured along a path on the surface of the Earth (as opposed to going through the Earths interior). ... A map projection is any of many methods used in cartography (mapmaking) to represent the two-dimensional curved surface of the earth or other body on a plane. ...

External links


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