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Encyclopedia > Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer

Chaucer: Illustration from Cassell's History of England, circa 1902.
Born c. 1343
Died October 25, 1400 (Aged c.57)
Occupation Authorpoetphilosopher, bureaucratdiplomat

Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343October 25, 1400) was an English author, poet, philosopher, bureaucrat courtier, and diplomat. Although he wrote many works, he is best remembered for his unfinished frame narrative The Canterbury Tales. Sometimes called the father of English literature, Chaucer is credited by some scholars as being the first author to demonstrate the artistic legitimacy of the vernacular English language, rather than French or Latin. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Geoffrey Chaucer was an English author, poet, philosopher, bureaucrat courtier, and diplomat. ... Download high resolution version (800x977, 61 KB)Geoffrey Chaucer Illustration from Cassells History of England - Century Edition - published circa 1902 Scan byTagishsimon, 23rd June 2004 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Events Magnus II of Sweden abdicates from the throne of Norway in favor of his son Haakon VI of Norway. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... This article is about work. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... Many regard William Shakespeare as the greatest English poet. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Events Magnus II of Sweden abdicates from the throne of Norway in favor of his son Haakon VI of Norway. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... Many regard William Shakespeare as the greatest English poet. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... A royal or noble court, as an instrument of government broader than a court of justice, comprises an extended household centered on a patron whose rule may govern law or be governed by it. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... A frame story (also frame tale, frame narrative, etc) is a narrative technique whereby a main story is composed, at least in part, for the purpose of organizing a set of shorter stories, each of which is a story within a story. ... For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Life

Chaucer as a pilgrim from the Ellesmere manuscript DB
Chaucer as a pilgrim from the Ellesmere manuscript DB

Chaucer was born in 1343 in London, although the exact date and location of his birth are not known. His father and grandfather were both London vintners and before that, for several generations, the family were merchants in Ipswich. His name is derived from the French chausseur, meaning shoemaker. In 1324 John Chaucer, Geoffrey's father, was kidnapped by an aunt in the hope of marrying the twelve year old boy to her daughter in an attempt to keep property in Ipswich. The aunt was imprisoned and the £250 fine levied suggests that the family was financially secure, upper middle-class, if not in the elite. John married Agnes Copton, who in 1349 inherited property including 24 shops in London from her uncle, Hamo de Copton, who is described as the "moneyer" at the Tower of London. Image File history File links Summary http://www. ... Image File history File links Summary http://www. ... The term vintner is applied to wine merchants as well as (erroneously) winemakers. ... For other uses, see Ipswich (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Events January 9 - The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing bubonic plague. ...    This article is a stub. ...


There are no details of Chaucer's early life and education but compared to his near contemporary poets, William Langland and The Pearl Poet, his life is well documented, with nearly five hundred written items testifying to his career. The first time he is mentioned is in 1357, in the household accounts of Elizabeth de Burgh, the Countess of Ulster, when his father's connections enabled him to become the noblewoman's page. He also worked as a courtier, a diplomat, and a civil servant, as well as working for the king collecting and inventorying scrap metal. In 1359, in the early stages of the Hundred Years' War, Edward III invaded France and Chaucer travelled with Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, Elizabeth's husband, as part of the English army. In 1360, he was captured during the siege of Rheims, becoming a prisoner of war. Edward contributed £16 as part of a ransom, and Chaucer was released. Chaucer was then known as the prisoner. Langlands Dreamer: from an illuminated initial in a Piers Plowman manuscript held at Corpus Christi College, Oxford William Langland is the conjectured author of the 14th-century English dream-vision Piers Plowman. ... The Pearl Poet is the name given to the author of Pearl, an alliterative poem written in Middle English. ... Elizabeth de Burgh, Duchess of Clarence, suo jure Countess of Ulster, born 1332, died 1363. ... The title of Earl of Ulster has been created several times in the Peerages of Ireland and the United Kingdom. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, (November 29, 1338 – October 7, 1368) was the second son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... The history of the British Army spans three centuries and numerous European, colonial and world wars. ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) is a city of north-eastern France, 98 miles east-northeast of Paris. ...


After this, Chaucer's life is uncertain, but he seems to have travelled in France, Spain, and Flanders, possibly as a messenger and perhaps even going on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. Around 1366, Chaucer married Philippa (de) Roet. She was a lady-in-waiting to Edward III's queen, Philippa of Hainault, and a sister of Katherine Swynford, who later (ca. 1396) became the third wife of Chaucer's friend and patron, John of Gaunt. It is uncertain how many children Chaucer and Philippa had, but three or four are the numbers most widely agreed upon. His son, Thomas Chaucer, had an illustrious career, chief butler to four kings, envoy to France, and Speaker of the House of Commons. Thomas' great-grandson (Geoffrey’s great-great-grandson), John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, was the heir to the throne designated by Richard III before he was deposed. Geoffrey's other children probably included Elizabeth Chaucy, a nun; Agnes, an attendant at Henry IV's coronation; and another son, Lewis Chaucer. For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website santiagodecompostela. ... Events Births Anne of Bohemia, Queen consort of Richard II of England. ... Philippa Roet was the second daughter of Payne (Gilles) Roet of Hainault. ... Philippa of Hainault Philippa of Hainault (~1314 - August 15, 1369) was the Queen consort of Edward III of England. ... Coat of arms designed for Katherine Swynford: three gold Catherine wheels (roet means wheel) on a red background. ... Events September 25 - Bayazid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ... John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (June 24, 1340 - February 3, 1399), the third surviving son of King Edward III of England, gained his name because he was born at Ghent in 1340. ... Thomas Chaucer ( 1367–1434), was the Speaker of the British House of Commons on three occasions and son of Geoffrey Chaucer and Philippa (de) Roet. ... The Chief Butler of England is an office of Grand Sergeanty associated with the feudal Manor of Kenninghall in Norfolk. ... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln (1462/1464 - 1487) was the eldest son of John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk and Elizabeth of York. ... Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ...


Chaucer is presumed to have studied law in the Inner Temple (an Inn of Court) at about this time, although definite proof is lacking. It is recorded that he became a member of the royal court of Edward III as a valet, yeoman, or esquire on 20 June 1367, a position which could entail any number of jobs. He travelled abroad many times, at least some of them in his role as a valet. In 1368, he may have attended the wedding of Lionel of Antwerp to Violante, daughter of Galeazzo II Visconti, in Milan. Two other literary stars of the era who were in attendance were Jean Froissart and Petrarch. Around this time Chaucer is believed to have written The Book of the Duchess in honor of Blanche of Lancaster, the late wife of John of Gaunt, who died in 1369. Combined coat of arms of the four Inns of Court. ... British barristers wearing traditional dress. ... Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony The British Royal Family is shared between the Commonwealth Realms; this article focuses on the perspective of United Kingdom. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Yeoman is a word with several modern and historical meanings. ... This article is about the title. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Battle of Najera, Peter I of Castile restored as King. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... Galeazzo II Visconti. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... Jean Froissart (~1337 - ~1405) was one of the most important of the chroniclers of medieval France. ... From the c. ... John of Gaunt Blanche, Duchess of Lancaster The Book of the Duchess is a dream vision narrative poem written by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... Blanche of Lancaster (March 25, 1345 - September 12, 1369) was an English noblewoman, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster by his wife Isabel de Beaumont. ... John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (June 24, 1340 - February 3, 1399), the third surviving son of King Edward III of England, gained his name because he was born at Ghent in 1340. ...


Chaucer travelled to Picardy the next year as part of the military expedition, and visited Genoa and Florence in 1373. It is on this Italian trip that it is speculated he came into contact with medieval Italian poetry, the forms and stories of which he would use later. One other trip he took in 1377 seems shrouded in mystery, with records of the time conflicting in details. Later documents suggest it was a mission, along with Jean Froissart, to arrange a marriage between the future Richard II and a French princess, thereby ending the Hundred Years War. If this was the purpose of their trip, they seem to have been unsuccessful, as no wedding occurred. Coat of arms of Picardy Picardy (French: Picardie) is an historical province of France, in the north of France. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Events Bristol is made an independent county. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... // A Dante Alighieri B Angelo Barile Bruno Barilli Luigi Bartolini C Dino Campana Vincenzo Cardarelli Dario Chioli Girolamo Comi F Franco Fortini G Margherita Guidacci Luca Ghiselli J Piero Jahier L Mario Luzi M Alda Merini Grazyna Miller Eugenio Montale O Arturo Onofri P Cesare Pavese Q Salvatore Quasimodo U... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Jean Froissart (~1337 - ~1405) was one of the most important of the chroniclers of medieval France. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ...


In 1378, Richard II sent Chaucer as an envoy/secret dispatch to the Visconti and to Sir John Hawkwood, English Man-at Arms/Soldier for Hire, in Milan. It is on the person of John Hawkwood that Chaucer based his Knight's Character. The Knight, based on his description/dress and appearance, looks exactly like a soldier for hire/mercenary would have looked in the fourteenth century. Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ...

A 19th century depiction of Chaucer. For three near-contemporary portraits of Chaucer see here.
A 19th century depiction of Chaucer. For three near-contemporary portraits of Chaucer see here.

A possible indication that his career as a writer was appreciated came when Edward III granted Chaucer a gallon of wine daily for the rest of his life for some unspecified task. This was an unusual grant, but given on a day of celebration, St. George's Day, 1374, when artistic endeavours were traditionally rewarded, it is assumed to have been another early poetic work. It is not known which, if any, of Chaucer's extant works prompted the reward but the suggestion of poet to a king places him as a precursor to later poets laureate. Chaucer continued to collect the liquid stipend until Richard II came to power, after which it was converted to a monetary grant on 18 April 1378. (derived from Image:Geoffrey_Chaucer. ... (derived from Image:Geoffrey_Chaucer. ... This article is about the King of England. ... St Georges Day (April 23) is celebrated in several nations of whom Saint George is the patron saint, including England, Georgia, Portugal, and Catalonia. ... Events June 24 - Dancing mania begins in Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), possibly due to ergotism King Gongmin is assassinated and King U ascends to the Goryeo throne Births April 11 - Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, heir to the throne of England (died 1398) Leonardo Bruni, Italian humanist (died 1444... A Poet Laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government and often expected to compose poems for state occasions and other government events. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ...


Chaucer obtained the very substantial job of Comptroller of the Customs for the port of London, which Chaucer began on 8 June 1374. He must have been suited for the role as he continued in it for twelve years, a long time in such a post at that period. His life goes undocumented for much of the next ten years but it is believed that he wrote (or began) most of his famous works during this time period. He was mentioned in law papers of 4 May 1380, involved in the raptus of Cecilia Chaumpaigne. What raptus means, rape or possibly kidnapping, is unclear, but the incident seems to have been resolved quickly and did not leave a stain on Chaucer's reputation. It is not known if Chaucer was in the city of London at the time of the Peasants' Revolt (the Tower of London was stormed in 1381). Look up comptroller in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 24 - Dancing mania begins in Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), possibly due to ergotism King Gongmin is assassinated and King U ascends to the Goryeo throne Births April 11 - Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, heir to the throne of England (died 1398) Leonardo Bruni, Italian humanist (died 1444... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow resist a large invasion by the Blue Horde, Lithuania and Ryazan, stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... The end of the revolt: Wat Tyler killed by Walworth while Richard II watches, and a second image of Richard addressing the crowd The Peasants Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion, or the Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe and is a...


While still working as comptroller, Chaucer appears to have moved to Kent, being appointed as one of the commissioners of peace for Kent, at a time when French invasion was a possibility. He is thought to have started work on The Canterbury Tales in the early 1380s (the Pilgrims' Way used by his fictional characters on their way to Canterbury Cathedral passes through Kent). He also became a Member of Parliament for Kent in 1386. There is no further reference after this date to Philippa, Chaucer's wife, and she is presumed to have died in 1387. He survived the political upheavals caused by the Lords Appellants despite the fact that Chaucer knew well some of the men executed over the affair. For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ... The Pilgrims Way is reputedly the route taken by pilgrims to the shrine of Thomas Becket from Winchester in Hampshire to Canterbury in Kent, England. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Year 1386 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... The Lords Appellant were a group of powerful barons who came together during the 1380s to seize political control of England from King Richard II. The group was so called because its members claimed simply to be appealing to the King for good government (their major complaint was Richards...


On 12 July 1389, Chaucer was appointed the clerk of the king's works, a sort of foreman organizing most of the king's building projects. No major works were begun during his tenure, but he did conduct repairs on Westminster Palace, St. George's Chapel, Windsor, continue building the wharf at the Tower of London, and build the stands for a tournament held in 1390. It may have been a difficult job but it paid well: two shillings a day, over three times his salary as a comptroller. In September 1390, records say that he was robbed, and possibly injured, while conducting the business, and it was shortly after, on 17 June 1391, that he stopped working in this capacity. Almost immediately, on 22 June, he began as deputy forester in the royal forest of North Petherton, Somerset. This was no sinecure, with maintenance an important part of the job, although there were many opportunities to derive profit. It is believed that Chaucer stopped work on the Canterbury Tales sometime towards the end of this decade. is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... The Clerk of the Works or Clerk of Works (often abbreviated CoW) is a person employed by the client on the site of a building construction project to represent his interests and verify that the design brief and quality standards are complied with. ... In construction, the foreman is the worker or tradesman who is in charge of the construction crew. ... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... St Georges Chapel, Windsor St. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... Events Births December 27 - Anne de Mortimer, claimant to the English throne (died 1411) Domenico da Piacenza, Italian dancemaster (died 1470) John Dunstable, English composer (died 1453) Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Swedish statesman and rebel leader (died 1436) Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (died 1447) John VIII Palaeologus Byzantine Emperor (died 1448) Deaths... This article is about coinage. ... Events Births December 27 - Anne de Mortimer, claimant to the English throne (died 1411) Domenico da Piacenza, Italian dancemaster (died 1470) John Dunstable, English composer (died 1453) Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Swedish statesman and rebel leader (died 1436) Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (died 1447) John VIII Palaeologus Byzantine Emperor (died 1448) Deaths... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... July 18 - Battle of the Kondurcha River - Timur defeats Tokhtamysh in the Volga. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A royal forest has been a concept of land management England since the late eleventh century. ... , North Petherton is a small town in Somerset, England, situated on the edge of the eastern foothills of the Quantocks, and close to the edge of the Somerset Levels. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... A sinecure (from Latin sine, without, and cura, care) means an office which requires or involves little or no responsibility, labour, or active service. ...


Soon after the overthrow of his patron Richard II in 1399, Chaucer vanished from the historical record. He is believed to have died of unknown causes on 25 October 1400 but there is no firm evidence for this date, as it comes from the engraving on his tomb, which was built more than one-hundred years after Chaucer's death. There is some speculation—most recently in Terry Jones' book Who Murdered Chaucer?: A Medieval Mystery—that he was murdered by enemies of Richard II or even on the orders of his successor Henry IV. However, as of yet there is no solid evidence to support this claim. Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... Terence Graham Parry Jones (born in Colwyn Bay, Wales, on February 1, 1942) is a British comedian, screenwriter and actor, film director, childrens author, popular historian, political commentator and TV documentary host. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ...


The new king (Henry IV) did renew the grants assigned to Chaucer by Richard, but in The Complaint of Chaucer to his Purse, Chaucer hints that the grants might not have been paid. The last mention of Chaucer in the historical record is on 5 June 1400, when some monies owing to him were paid. Chaucer was buried in Westminster Abbey in London, as was his right owing to the jobs he had performed and the new house he had leased nearby on 24 December 1399. In 1556 his remains were transferred to a more ornate tomb, making Chaucer the first writer interred in the area now known as Poets' Corner. is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Poets corner Poets Corner is the name traditionally given to a section of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey due to the number of poets, playwrights and writers now buried and commemorated there. ...


Works

Chaucer's first major work, The Book of the Duchess, was an elegy for Blanche of Lancaster (who died in 1369). It is possible that this work was commissioned by her husband John of Gaunt, as he granted Chaucer a £10 annuity on 13 June 1374. This would seem to place the writing of The Book of the Duchess between the years 1369 and 1374. Two other early works by Chaucer were Anelida and Arcite and The House of Fame. Chaucer wrote many of his major works in a prolific period when he held the job of customs comptroller for London (1374 to 1386). His Parlement of Foules, The Legend of Good Women and Troilus and Criseyde all date from this time. Also it is believed that he started work on The Canterbury Tales in the early 1380s. Chaucer is best known as the writer of The Canterbury Tales, which is a collection of stories told by fictional pilgrims on the road to the cathedral at Canterbury; these tales would help to shape English literature. John of Gaunt Blanche, Duchess of Lancaster The Book of the Duchess is a dream vision narrative poem written by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... Blanche of Lancaster (March 25, 1345 - September 12, 1369) was an English noblewoman, daughter of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster by his wife Isabel de Beaumont. ... Anelida and Arcite is a 357 line poem by Geofrey Chaucer. ... The House of Fame is a poem by Geoffrey Chaucer, it is one of his early works, probably written between 1379 and 1380. ... The Parlement of Foules (also known as the Parliament of Fowls, Parlement of Briddes, Assembly of Fowls or Assemble of Foules) is a poem by Geoffrey Chaucer (1343?-1400) made up by approximately 700 lines. ... The Legend of Good Women is a poem in the form of a dream vision by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... Troilus and Criseyde is Geoffrey Chaucers poem in rhyme royal re-telling the tragic love story of Troilus, a Trojan prince, and Criseyde. ... For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...


The Canterbury Tales contrasts with other literature of the period in the naturalism of its narrative, the variety of stories the pilgrims tell and the varied characters who are engaged in the pilgrimage. Many of the stories narrated by the pilgrims seem to fit their individual characters and social standing, although some of the stories seem ill-fitting to their narrators, perhaps as a result of the incomplete state of the work. Chaucer drew on real life for his cast of pilgrims: the innkeeper shares the name of a contemporary keeper of an inn in Southwark, and real-life identities for the Wife of Bath, the Merchant, the Man of Law and the Student have been suggested. The many jobs Chaucer held in medieval society—page, soldier, messenger, valet, bureaucrat, foreman and administrator—probably exposed him to many of the types of people he depicted in the Tales. He was able to shape their speech and satirize their manners in what was to become popular literature among people of the same types. For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ...


Chaucer's works are sometimes grouped into, first a French period, then an Italian period and finally an English period, with Chaucer being influenced by those countries' literatures in turn. Certainly Troilus and Criseyde is a middle period work with its reliance on the forms of Italian poetry, little known in England at the time, but to which Chaucer was probably exposed during his frequent trips abroad on court business. In addition, its use of a classical antiquity|classical subject and its elaborate, courtly language sets it apart as one of his most complete and well-formed works. In Troilus and Criseyde Chaucer draws heavily on his source, Bocaccio, and on the late Latin philosopher Boethius. However, it is The Canterbury Tales, wherein he focuses on English subjects, with bawdy jokes and respected figures often being undercut with humour, that has cemented his reputation. Troilus and Criseyde is Geoffrey Chaucers poem in rhyme royal re-telling the tragic love story of Troilus, a Trojan prince, and Criseyde. ...


Chaucer also translated such important works as Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy and The Romance of the Rose by Guillaume de Lorris (extended by Jean de Meun). However, while many scholars maintain that Chaucer did indeed translate part of the text of The Romance of the Rose as Roman de la Rose, others claim that this has been effectively disproved. Many of his other works were very loose translations of, or simply based on, works from continental Europe. It is in this role that Chaucer receives some of his earliest critical praise. Eustache Deschamps wrote a ballade on the great translator and called himself a "nettle in Chaucer's garden of poetry". In 1385 Thomas Usk made glowing mention of Chaucer, and John Gower, Chaucer's main poetic rival of the time, also lauded him. This reference was later edited out of Gower's Confessio Amantis and it has been suggested by some that this was because of ill feeling between them, but it is likely due simply to stylistic concerns. Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other people of the same name, see Boethius (disambiguation). ... Guillaume de Lorris (born 12XX) was a French epic poet, and was the author of the first section of the Romance of the Rose. ... Mirth and Gladness lead a Dance in this miniature from a manuscript of the Roman de la Rose in the Bodleian Library (MS Douce 364, folio 8r). ... The Romaunt of the Rose is a partial translation into Middle English of the French allegory, the Roman de la Rose. ... Eustache Deschamps (1328-1415) was a medieval French poet. ... Thomas Usk (died March 4, 1388) was appointed the under-sheriff of London by Richard II in 1387. ... John Gower shooting the world, a sphere of earth, air, and water (from an edition of his works c. ...


One other significant work of Chaucer's is his Treatise on the Astrolabe, possibly for his own son, that describes the form and use of that instrument in detail. Although much of the text may have come from other sources, the treatise indicates that Chaucer was versed in science in addition to his literary talents. Another scientific work discovered in 1952, Equatorie of the Planetis, has similar language and handwriting compared to some considered to be Chaucer's and it continues many of the ideas from the Astrolabe. The attribution of this work to Chaucer is still uncertain... A Treatise on the Astrolabe is a medieval essay on the astrolabe by Chaucer. ... A 16th century astrolabe. ...


Influence

Linguistic

Portrait of Chaucer from Thomas Hoccleve, who personally knew Chaucer, so it is probably an accurate depiction

Chaucer wrote in continental accentual-syllabic metre, a style which had developed since around the twelfth century as an alternative to the alliterative Anglo-Saxon metre. Chaucer is known for metrical innovation, inventing the rhyme royal, and he was one of the first English poets to use the five-stress line, a decasyllabic cousin to the iambic pentameter, in his work, with only a few anonymous short works using it before him. The arrangement of these five-stress lines into rhyming couplets, first seen in his Legend of Good Women, was used in much of his later work and became one of the standard poetic forms in English. His early influence as a satirist is also important, with the common humorous device, the funny accent of a regional dialect, apparently making its first appearance in The Reeve's Tale. Image File history File links Summary http://www. ... Image File history File links Summary http://www. ... Thomas Occleve (or Hoccleve) (1368 - 1450?), English poet, was born probably in 1368/9, for, writing in 1421/2 he says he was fifty-three years old (). He ranks, like his more voluminous and better known contemporary Lydgate, among those poets who have a historical rather than intrinsic importance in... In literature, meter or metre (sometimes known as prosody) is a term used in the scansion (analysis into metrical patterns) of poetry, usually indicated by the kind of feet and the number of them. ... The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse. ... Old English poetry is based upon one system of verse construction which was used for all poems. ... Rhyme royal is a rhyming stanza form that was introduced into English poetry by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... Insert non-formatted text hereIambic pentameter is a meter in poetry. ... For the Angel episode, see Couplet (Angel episode). ... The Legend of Good Women is a poem in the form of a dream vision by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... The Reeves Prologue and Tale is the third story to be told in Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ...


The poetry of Chaucer, along with other writers of the era, is credited with helping to standardize the London Dialect of the Middle English language from a combination of the Kentish and Midlands dialects. This is probably overstated; the influence of the court, chancery and bureaucracy—of which Chaucer was a part—remains a more probable influence on the development of Standard English. Modern English is somewhat distanced from the language of Chaucer's poems owing to the effect of the Great Vowel Shift some time after his death. This change in the pronunciation of English, still not fully understood, makes the reading of Chaucer difficult for the modern audience, though it is thought by some that the modern Scottish accent is closely related to the sound of Middle English. The status of the final -e in Chaucer's verse is uncertain: it seems likely that during the period of Chaucer's writing the final -e was dropping out of colloquial English and that its use was somewhat irregular. Chaucer's versification suggests that the final -e is sometimes to be vocalised, and sometimes to be silent; however, this remains a point on which there is disagreement. When it is vocalised, most scholars pronounce it as a schwa. Apart from the irregular spelling, much of the vocabulary is recognisable to the modern reader. Chaucer is also recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary as the first author to use many common English words in his writings. These words were probably frequently used in the language at the time but Chaucer, with his ear for common speech, is the earliest manuscript source. Acceptable, alkali, altercation, amble, angrily, annex, annoyance, approaching, arbitration, armless, army, arrogant, arsenic, arc, artillery and aspect are just some of those from the first letter of the alphabet. Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Standard English is a nebulous term generally used to denote a form of the English language that is thought to be normative for educated users. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Great Vowel Shift was a major change in the pronunciation of the English language that took place in the south of England between 1200 and 1600. ... Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...


Literary

Chaucer's early popularity is attested by the many poets who imitated his works. John Lydgate was one of earliest imitators who wrote a continuation to the Tales. Many of the manuscripts of Chaucer's works contain material from these admiring poets and the later romantic era poets' appreciation of Chaucer was coloured by their not knowing which of the works were genuine. 17th and 18th century writers, such as John Dryden, admired Chaucer for his stories, but not for his rhythym and rhyme, as few critics could then read Middle English and the text had been butchered by printers, leaving a somewhat unadmirable mess.[1] It was not until the late 19th century that the official Chaucerian canon, accepted today, was decided upon; largely as a result of Walter William Skeat's work. One hundred and fifty years after his death, The Canterbury Tales was selected by William Caxton to be one of the first books to be printed in England. Chaucer: Illustration from Cassells History of England, circa 1902 Chanticleer the rooster from an outdoor production of Chanticleer and the Fox at Ashby_de_la_Zouch castle Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. ... John Lydgate (1370?-1451?); Monk and poet, born in Lidgate, Suffolk, England. ... Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Walter William Skeat (November 21, 1835 - 1912), English philologist, was born in London on the 21st of November 1835, and educated at Kings College, Highgate Grammar School, and Christs College, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow in July 1860. ... “Caxton” redirects here. ...


Chaucer's English

Although Chaucer's language is much closer to modern English than the text of Beowulf, it differs enough that most publications modernise (and sometimes bowdlerise) his idiom. Following is a sample from the prologue of the "Summoner's Tale" that compares Chaucer's text to a modern translation: This article is about the epic poem. ... Bowdlerise is a term inspired by Thomas Bowdler. ... The Summoners Tale is one of The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. ...

Line Original Translation
This frere bosteth that he knoweth helle, This friar boasts that he knows hell,
And God it woot, that it is litel wonder; And God knows that it is little wonder;
Freres and feendes been but lyte asonder. Friars and fiends are seldom far apart.
For, pardee, ye han ofte tyme herd telle For, by God, you have ofttimes heard tell
How that a frere ravyshed was to helle How a friar was taken to hell
In spirit ones by a visioun; In spirit, once by a vision;
And as an angel ladde hym up and doun, And as an angel led him up and down,
To shewen hym the peynes that the were, To show him the pains that were there,
In al the place saugh he nat a frere; In the whole place he saw not one friar;
Of oother folk he saugh ynowe in wo. He saw enough of other folk in woe.
Unto this angel spak the frere tho: To the angel spoke the friar thus:
Now, sire, quod he, han freres swich a grace "Now sir," said he, "Are friars in such good grace
That noon of hem shal come to this place? That none of them come to this place?"
Yis, quod this aungel, many a millioun! "Yes," said the angel, "many a million!"
And unto sathanas he ladde hym doun. And the angel led him down to Satan.
--And now hath sathanas,--seith he,--a tayl He said, "And Satan has a tail,
Brodder than of a carryk is the sayl. Broader than a large ship's sail.
Hold up thy tayl, thou sathanas!--quod he; Hold up your tail, Satan!" he said.
--shewe forth thyn ers, and lat the frere se "Show your arse, and let the friar see
Where is the nest of freres in this place!-- Where the nest of friars is in this place!"
And er that half a furlong wey of space, And before half a furlong of space,
Right so as bees out swarmen from an hyve, Just as bees swarm from a hive,
Out of the develes ers ther gonne dryve Out of the devil's arse there drove
Twenty thousand freres on a route, Twenty thousand friars on a route,
And thurghout helle swarmed al aboute, And they swarmed all over hell,
And comen agayn as faste as they may gon, And came again as fast as they had gone,
And in his ers they crepten everychon. And every one crept back into his arse.
He clapte his tayl agayn and lay ful stille. He clapped his tail again and lay very still.[2]

Monuments and tributes

A building has been named in Chaucer's honour at the United Kingdom Civil Service School.


Historical reception and representation

Manuscripts

As early as 1400, Chaucer's courtly audience grew to include members of the rising literate, middle and merchant classes, which included many Lollard sympathizers who would have been inclined to read Chaucer as one of their own, particularly in his satirical writings about priests and various religions. We would not have so many manuscripts of Chaucer's works today if this group of readers had not created a great demand for them. Lollardy or Lollardry was the political and religious movement of the Lollards in late 14th century and early 15th century England. ...


Printed books

Later on, representations of Chaucer began to circle around two co-existing identities: 1) a courtier and a king's man, an international humanist familiar with the classics and continental greats; 2) a man of the people, a plain-style satirist and a critic of the church. All things to all people (barring some sensitive moralists), for a combination of mixed aesthetic and political reasons, Chaucer was held in high esteem by high and low audiences--certainly a boon for printers and booksellers. [http://www.uwm.edu/Library/special/exhibits/clastext/clspg073.htm The sixteenth-century folio editions of Chaucer's Works were seminal events in the construction of this national literary forefather who could be read in support of both radical and conservative positions as well as different historical narratives: a popular, reformation from below and a court-controlled reformation from above.So it was then abandoned.


In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Chaucer was printed more than any other English author, and he was the first author to have his works collected in comprehensive single-volume editions in which a Chaucer canon began to cohere. Some scholars contend that that sixteenth-century editions of Chaucer's Works set the precedent for all other English authors in terms of presentation, prestige and success in print. These editions certainly established Chaucer's reputation, but they also began the complicated process of reconstructing and frequently inventing Chaucer's biography and the canonical list of works attributed to him.


William Caxton's two folio editions of The Canterbury Tales were published in 1478 and 1483 (an online edition of Caxton's Canterbury Tales is maintained by De Montfort University) . Richard Pynson, the King's Printer for about twenty years, was the first to collect and sell something that resembled an edition of the collected works of Chaucer, introducing in the process five previously printed texts that are not Chaucer's. (The collection is actually three separately printed texts, or collections of texts, bound together as one volume.) There is a likely connection between Pynson's product and William Thynne's a mere six years later. Thynne had a successful career from the 1520s until his death in 1546, when he was one of the masters of the royal household. His editions of Chaucers Works in 1532 and 1542 were the first major contributions to the existence of a widely recognized Chaucerian canon. Thynne represents his edition as a book sponsored by and supportive of the king who is praised in the preface by Sir Brian Tuke. Thynne's canon brought the number of apocryphal works associated with Chaucer to a total of 28, even if that was not his intention. As with Pynson, once included in the Works, pseudepigraphic texts stayed within it, regardless of their first editor's intentions. “Caxton” redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ... Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... De Montfort University (DMU) is a British university situated in Leicester, England. ... Richard Pynson, one of the first printers of English books, was born in 1448 in Normandy and may have been a glover [1](Plomer, 1922/23, pp. ... The Queens Printer (or Kings Printer when the monarch is male) is a position defined by letters patent under the royal prerogative in the United Kingdom. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Pseudepigrapha (Greek pseudos = false, epi = after, later and grapha = writing (or writings), latterly or falsely attributed, or down right forged works, describes texts whose claimed authorship is unfounded in actuality. ...


Probably the most significant aspect of the growing apocrypha is that, beginning with Thynne's editions, it began to include medieval texts that made Chaucer appear as a proto-Protestant Lollard, primarily the Testament of Love and The Plowman's Tale. As "Chaucerian" works that were not considered apocryphal until the late nineteenth century, these medieval texts enjoyed a new life, with English Protestants carrying on the earlier Lollard project of appropriating existing texts and authors who seemed sympathetic--or malleable enough to be construed as sympathetic--to their cause. The official Chaucer of the early printed volumes of his Works was construed as a proto-Protestant as the same was done, concurrently, with William Langland and Piers Plowman. The famous Plowman's Tale did not enter Thynne's Works until the second, 1542 edition. Its entry was surely facilitated by Thynne's inclusion of Thomas Usk's Testament of Love in the first edition. The Testament of Love imitates, borrows from, and thus resembles Usk's contemporary, Chaucer. (Testament of Love also appears to borrow from Piers Plowman.) Since the Testament of Love mentions its author's part in a failed plot (book 1, chapter 6), his imprisonment, and (perhaps) a recantation of (possibly Lollard) heresy, all this was associated with Chaucer. (Usk himself was executed as a traitor in 1388.) Interestingly, John Foxe took this recantation of heresy as a defense of the true faith, calling Chaucer a "right Wiclevian" and (erroneously) identifying him as a schoolmate and close friend of John Wycliffe at Merton College, Oxford. (Thomas Speght is careful to highlight these facts in his editions and his "Life of Chaucer.") No other sources for the Testament of Love exist--there is only Thynne's construction of whatever manuscript sources he had. Lollardy or Lollardry was the political and religious movement of the Lollards in late 14th century and early 15th century England. ... There are actually two pseudo-Chaucerian texts called The Plowmans Tale. ... Langlands Dreamer: from an illuminated initial in a Piers Plowman manuscript held at Corpus Christi College, Oxford William Langland is the conjectured author of the 14th-century English dream-vision Piers Plowman. ... Page from a 14th century Psalter, showing drolleries on the right margin and a plowman at the bottom. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Thomas Usk (died March 4, 1388) was appointed the under-sheriff of London by Richard II in 1387. ... Events Beginning of prosecution of Lollards in England The Battle of Otterburn between England and Scotland A Chinese army under Xu Da sacks Karakorum Births September 14 - Claudius Claussön Swart, Danish geographer September 29 - Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, second son of Henry IV of England (d. ... John Foxe, line engraving by George Glover, first published in the 1641 edition of Actes and Monuments John Foxe (1516–April 8, 1587) is remembered as the author of the famous Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... Insert non-formatted text here Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity... and of the Merton College College name The House of Scholars of Merton Named after Walter de Merton Established 1264 Sister college Peterhouse, Cambridge Warden Prof. ...


John Stow (1525-1605) was an antiquarian and also a chronicler. His edition of Chaucer's Works in 1561 brought the apocrypha to more than 50 titles. More were added in the seventeenth century, and they remained as late as 1810, well after Thomas Tyrwhitt pared the canon down in his 1775 edition. The compilation and printing of Chaucer's works was, from its beginning, a political enterprise, since it was intended to establish an English national identity and history that grounded and authorized the Tudor monarchy and church. What was added to Chaucer often helped represent him favourably to Protestant England. John Stow (c. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Thomas Tyrwhitt (March 27, 1730 - August 15, 1786) was an English classical scholar and critic. ...


In his 1598 edition of the Works, Speght (probably taking cues from Foxe) made good use of Usk's account of his political intrigue and imprisonment in the Testament of Love to assemble a largely fictional "Life of Our Learned English Poet, Geffrey Chaucer." Speght's "Life" presents readers with an erstwhile radical in troubled times much like their own, a proto-Protestant who eventually came around the king's views on religion. Speght states that "In the second year of Richard the second, the King tooke Geffrey Chaucer and his lands into his protection. The occasion wherof no doubt was some daunger and trouble whereinto he was fallen by favouring some rash attempt of the common people." Under the discussion of Chaucer's friends, namely John of Gaunt, Speght further explains: Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ...

Yet it seemeth that [Chaucer] was in some trouble in the daies of King Richard the second, as it may appeare in the Testament of Loue: where hee doth greatly complaine of his owne rashnesse in following the multitude, and of their hatred of him for bewraying their purpose. And in that complaint which he maketh to his empty purse, I do find a written copy, which I had of Iohn Stow (whose library hath helped many writers) wherein ten times more is adjoined, then is in print. Where he maketh great lamentation for his wrongfull imprisonment, wishing death to end his daies: which in my iudgement doth greatly accord with that in the Testament of Love. Moreover we find it thus in Record.

Later, in "The Argument" to the Testament of Love, Speght adds: An argument in literature is a brief summary, often in prose, of a poem or section of a poem or other work. ...

Chaucer did compile this booke as a comfort to himselfe after great griefs conceiued for some rash attempts of the commons, with whome he had ioyned, and thereby was in feare to loose the fauour of his best friends.

Speght is also the source of the famous tale of Chaucer being fined for beating a Franciscan friar in Fleet Street, as well as a fictitious coat of arms and family tree. Ironically--and perhaps consciously so--an introductory, apologetic letter in Speght's edition from Francis Beaumont defends the unseemly, "low," and bawdy bits in Chaucer from an elite, classicist position. Francis Thynne noted some of these inconsistencies in his Animadversions, insisting that Chaucer was not a commoner, and he objected to the friar-beating story. Yet Thynne himself underscores Chaucer's support for popular religious reform, associating Chaucer's views with his father William Thynne's attempts to include The Plowman's Tale and The Pilgrim's Tale in the 1532 and 1542 Works. The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... Fleet Street in 2005 Fleet Street is a famous street in London, England, named after the River Fleet. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... A family tree is generally the totality of ones ancestors represented as a tree structure, or more specifically, a chart used in genealogy. ... Sketch of Francis Beaumont Francis Beaumont (1584 – March 6, 1616) was a dramatist in the English Renaissance theatre, most famous for his collaborations with John Fletcher. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ...


The myth of the Protestant Chaucer continues to have a lasting impact on a large body of Chaucerian scholarship. Though it is extremely rare for a modern to scholar to suggest Chaucer supported a religious movement that didn't exist until more than a century after his death, the predominance of this thinking for so many centuries left it for granted that Chaucer was at least extremely hostile toward Catholicism. This assumption forms a large part of many critical approaches to Chaucer's works, including neo-Marxism.


Alongside Chaucer's Works, the most impressive literary monument of the period is John Foxe's Acts and Monuments.... As with the Chaucer editions, it was critically significant to English Protestant identity and included Chaucer in its project. Foxe's Chaucer both derived from and contributed to the printed editions of Chaucer's Works, particularly the pseudepigrapha. Jack Upland was first printed in Foxe's Acts and Monuments, and then it appeared in Speght's edition of Chaucer's Works. Speght's "Life of Chaucer" echoes Foxe's own account, which is itself dependent upon the earlier editions that added the Testament of Love and The Plowman's Tale to their pages. Like Speght's Chaucer, Foxe's Chaucer was also a shrewd (or lucky) political survivor. In his 1563 edition, Foxe "thought it not out of season . . . to couple . . . some mention of Geoffrey Chaucer" with a discussion of John Colet, a possible source for John Skelton's character Colin Clout. John Foxe, line engraving by George Glover, first published in the 1641 edition of Actes and Monuments John Foxe (1516–April 8, 1587) is remembered as the author of the famous Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... William Tyndale, just before being burnt at the stake, cries out Lord, ope the King of Englands eies in this woodcut from an early edition of Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... John Colet John Colet, (January 1467 – September 10, 1519), was an English churchman and educational pioneer. ... John Skelton (c. ... The Shepheardes Calendar was Edmund Spensers first attempt at poetry. ...


Probably referring to the 1542 Act for the Advancement of True Religion, Foxe says he "marvel[s] to consider . . . how the bishops, condemning and abolishing all manner of English books and treatises which might bring the people to any light of knowledge, did yet authorise the works of Chaucer to remain still and to be occupied; who, no doubt, saw into religion as much almost as even we do now, and uttereth in his works no less, and seemeth to be a right Wicklevian, or else there never was any. And that, all his works almost, if they be thoroughly advised, will testify (albeit done in mirth, and covertly); and especially the latter end of his third book of the Testament of Love . . . . Wherein, except a man be altogether blind, he may espy him at the full : although in the same book (as in all others he useth to do), under shadows covertly, as under a visor, he suborneth truth in such sort, as both privily she may profit the godly-minded, and yet not be espied of the crafty adversary. And therefore the bishops, belike, taking his works but for jests and toys, in condemning other books, yet permitted his books to be read." The Act for the Advancement of True Religion () was an Act passed by the Parliament of England on 12 May, 1543. ...


It is significant, too, that Foxe's discussion of Chaucer leads into his history of "The Reformation of the Church of Christ in the Time of Martin Luther" when "Printing, being opened, incontinently ministered unto the church the instruments and tools of learning and knowledge; which were good books and authors, which before lay hid and unknown. The science of printing being found, immediately followed the grace of God; which stirred up good wits aptly to conceive the light of knowledge and judgment: by which light darkness began to be espied, and ignorance to be detected; truth from error, religion from superstition, to be discerned."


Foxe downplays Chaucer's bawdy and amorous writing, insisting that it all testifies to his piety. Material that is troubling is deemed metaphoric, while the more forthright satire (which Foxe prefers) is taken literally.


List of works

The following major works are in rough chronological order but scholars still debate the dating of most of Chaucer's output and works made up from a collection of stories may have been compiled over a long period.


Major works

Mirth and Gladness lead a Dance in this miniature from a manuscript of the Roman de la Rose in the Bodleian Library (MS Douce 364, folio 8r). ... The Roman de la Rose is a late medieval French work of fiction in allegorical dream form. ... John of Gaunt Blanche, Duchess of Lancaster The Book of the Duchess is a dream vision narrative poem written by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... The House of Fame is a poem by Geoffrey Chaucer, it is one of his early works, probably written between 1379 and 1380. ... Anelida and Arcite is a 357 line poem by Geofrey Chaucer. ... The Parlement of Foules (also known as the Parliament of Fowls, Parlement of Briddes, Assembly of Fowls or Assemble of Foules) is a poem by Geoffrey Chaucer (1343?-1400) made up by approximately 700 lines. ... For other people of the same name, see Boethius (disambiguation). ... This early printed book has many hand-painted illustrations depicting Lady Philosophy and scenes of daily life in fifteenth-century Ghent (1485) Consolation of Philosophy (Latin: Consolatio Philosophiae) is a philosophical work by Boethius written in about the year 524 AD. It has been described as the single most important... Boece is Geoffrey Chaucers translation into Middle English of The Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius. ... Troilus and Criseyde is Geoffrey Chaucers poem in rhyme royal re-telling the tragic love story of Troilus, a Trojan prince, and Criseyde. ... The Legend of Good Women is a poem in the form of a dream vision by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ... A Treatise on the Astrolabe is a medieval essay on the astrolabe by Chaucer. ...

Short poems

  • An ABC
  • Chaucers Wordes unto Adam, His Owne Scriveyn
  • The Complaint unto Pity
  • The Complaint of Chaucer to his Purse
  • The Complaint of Mars
  • The Complaint of Venus
  • A Complaint to His Lady
  • The Former Age
  • Fortune
  • Gentilesse
  • Lak of Stedfastnesse
  • Lenvoy de Chaucer a Scogan
  • Lenvoy de Chaucer a Bukton
  • Proverbs
  • To Rosemounde
  • Truth
  • Womanly Noblesse

Poems dubiously ascribed to Chaucer

  • Against Women Unconstant
  • A Balade of Complaint
  • Complaynt D'Amours
  • Merciles Beaute
  • The Visioner's Tale
  • The Equatorie of the Planets - A rough translation of a Latin work derived from an Arab work of the same title. It is a description of the construction and use of what is called an 'equatorium planetarum', and was used in calculating planetary orbits and positions (at the time it was believed the sun orbited the Earth). The similar Treatise on the Astrolabe, not usually doubted as Chaucer's work, plus Chaucer's name as a gloss to the manuscript are the main pieces of evidence for the ascription to Chaucer. However, the evidence Chaucer wrote such a work is questionable, and as such is not included in The Riverside Chaucer. If Chaucer did not compose this work, it was probably written by a contemporary.

A Treatise on the Astrolabe is a medieval essay on the astrolabe by Chaucer. ...

Works mentioned by Chaucer, presumed lost

  • Of the Wreched Engendrynge of Mankynde, possible translation of Innocent III's De miseria conditionis humanae
  • Origenes upon the Maudeleyne
  • The book of the Leoun - The Book of the Leon is mentioned in Chaucer's retraction at the end of The Canterbury Tales. It is likely he wrote such a work; one suggestion is that the work was such a bad piece of writing it was lost, but if so, Chaucer would not have included it in the middle of his retraction. Indeed, he would not have included it at all. A likely source dictates it was probably a 'redaction of Guillaume de Machaut's 'Dit dou lyon,' a story about courtly love, a subject which Chaucer scholars agree he frequently wrote about (Le Romaunt de Rose).

Pope Innocent III (c. ... Guillaume de Machaut (around 1300 – 1377), was a French composer and poet of the late Medieval era. ...

Pseudepigraphies and works plagiarizing Chaucer

The Pilgrims Tale is significantly connected with The Plowmans Tale and remains the most mysterious of the pseudo-Chaucerian texts. ... There are actually two pseudo-Chaucerian texts called The Plowmans Tale. ... Lollardy or Lollardry was the political and religious movement of the Lollards in late 14th century and early 15th century England. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The frontispiece of Reyner Wolfes edition of Pierce the Ploughmans Crede, printed in 1553 Pierce the Ploughmans Crede is an alliterative poem of 855 lines, savagely lampooning the four orders of friars. ... Thomas Occleve (or Hoccleve) (1368 - 1450?), English poet, was born probably in 1368/9, for, writing in 1421/2 he says he was fifty-three years old (). He ranks, like his more voluminous and better known contemporary Lydgate, among those poets who have a historical rather than intrinsic importance in... Thomas Usk (died March 4, 1388) was appointed the under-sheriff of London by Richard II in 1387. ... Jack Upland or Jack up Lande (ca. ... God Spede the Plough is the name of an early sixteenth-century manuscript text that borrows twelves stanzas from Chaucers Monks Tale. ...

Chaucer in popular culture

  • In the movie A Knight's Tale, Paul Bettany plays Chaucer, as a gambling addicted writer who becomes the herald for the title character's knight in Medieval jousting tournaments.
  • In Neil Gaiman's The Sandman story Men of Good Fortune (collected in The Doll's House), Chaucer appears briefly in a tavern in fourteenth-century England. He is listening to a companion dismiss The Canterbury Tales as "filthy tales in rhyme about pilgrims".
  • Comedian Bill Bailey does a 'three men go into a pub' joke in the style of Geoffrey Chaucer called "Chaucer Pubbe Gagge".

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Neil Richard Gaiman (IPA: ) (born November 10, 1960[2]) is an English author of science fiction and fantasy short stories and novels, graphic novels, comics, and films. ... The Sandman is a comic book series written by Neil Gaiman. ... For other uses, see Bill Bailey (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ "From The Preface to Fables Ancient and Modern". The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Stephen Greenblatt. 8th ed. Vol. C. New York, London: Norton, 2006. 2132-33. pg. 2132
  2. ^ Original e-text available online at the University of Virginia website[1], trans. Wikipedia.

Sources

  • The Riverside Chaucer, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press (1987) ISBN 0192821091
  • Chaucer: Life-Records, Martin M. Crow and Clair C. Olsen. (1966)

See also

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Geoffrey Chaucer

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Middle English is the name given by historical philologists to the diverse forms of the English language spoken in England from around the 12th to the 15th centuries— from after the Norman invasion by William the Conqueror in 1066 to the mid to late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard... Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. ... Chaucer College Canterbury is an independent college for Japanese students and other students, founded in 1992 by Hiroshi Kawashima on the Canterbury campus of the University of Kent in the United Kingdom. ... Affiliations University Alliance Association of Commonwealth Universities European University Association Website http://www. ... , North Petherton is a small town in Somerset, England, situated on the edge of the eastern foothills of the Quantocks, and close to the edge of the Somerset Levels. ... 2984 Chaucer is a small main belt asteroid, which was discovered by Edward L. G. Bowell in 1981. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Knights Tale is the first tale from Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... John V. Fleming was the Louis W. Fairchild 24 Professor of English and Comparative Literature at Princeton University. ...

External links

Educational institutions Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... In Our Time can refer to a number of things: In Our Time — the BBC Radio 4 programme hosted by Melvin Bragg In Our Time — a collection of short stories by Ernest Hemingway In Our Time — a collection of cartoons and essays by Tom Wolfe In Our... old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ...


Harvard redirects here. ...

Geoffrey Chaucer
The Canterbury Tales
General Prologue | The Knight's Tale | The Miller's Tale | The Reeve's Tale | The Cook's Tale | The Man of Law's Tale | The Wife of Bath's Tale | The Friar's Tale | The Summoner's Tale | The Clerk's Tale | The Merchant's Tale | The Squire's Tale | The Franklin's Tale | The Physician's Tale | The Pardoner's Tale | The Shipman's Tale | The Prioress' Tale | Chaucer's Tale of Sir Topas | The Tale of Melibee | The Monk's Tale | The Nun's Priest's Tale | The Second Nun's Tale | The Canon's Yeoman's Tale | The Manciple's Tale | The Parson's Tale | Chaucer's Retraction
Other works
The Book of the Duchess | The House of Fame | Anelida and Arcite | The Parliament of Fowls | Boece | The Romaunt of the Rose | Troilus and Criseyde | The Legend of Good Women | Treatise on the Astrolabe
Persondata
NAME Chaucer, Geoffrey
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION English author and poet
DATE OF BIRTH c. 1343
PLACE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH October 25, 1400
PLACE OF DEATH

For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ... The first lines from the General Prologue at the openng folio of the Hengwrt manuscript. ... The Knights Tale is the first tale from Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... This article is about the second of Chaucers Canterbury Tales. ... The Reeves Prologue and Tale is the third story to be told in Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... This is a tale from Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... The Man of Laws Tale is the fifth of the Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer (1387). ... The opening page of The Wife of Baths Tale from the Ellesmere manuscript of The Canterbury Tales, circa 1405-1410. ... The Friars Tale is one of The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer, told by Huberd the friar. ... The Summoners Tale is one of The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... The Clerks Tale is the first tale of Group E in Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... The Merchant The Merchants Prologue and Tale is one of Geoffrey Chaucers Canterbury Tales. ... The Squires Tale is a tale in Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... The Franklins Tale is one of The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... The Physicians Tale is one of the Canterbury Tales written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century. ... The term pardoner referred to a person offering indulgences officially recognized by the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Shipmans Tale is one of The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... The Prioress Tale follows The Shipmans Tale in Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... Sir Topas is Chaucers tale in The Canterbury Tales (1387). ... The Tale of Melibee is one of The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... The Monks Tale is one of The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... The tale of Chanticleer and the Fox is a beast fable popularized by the 14th century Middle English poet Geoffrey Chaucer. ... Told by a nun concerned only with spiritual matters, this tale is focuses on the woman now known as Saint Cecilia. ... The Canons Yeomans Tale is one of The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... The Manciples Tale is part of Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... This is the last tale from Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... Chaucers Retraction is the final section of The Canterbury Tales. ... John of Gaunt Blanche, Duchess of Lancaster The Book of the Duchess is a dream vision narrative poem written by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... The House of Fame is a poem by Geoffrey Chaucer, it is one of his early works, probably written between 1379 and 1380. ... Anelida and Arcite is a 357 line poem by Geofrey Chaucer. ... The Parlement of Foules (also known as the Parliament of Fowls, Parlement of Briddes, Assembly of Fowls or Assemble of Foules) is a poem by Geoffrey Chaucer (1343?-1400) made up by approximately 700 lines. ... Boece is Geoffrey Chaucers translation into Middle English of The Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius. ... The Romaunt of the Rose is a partial translation into Middle English of the French allegory, the Roman de la Rose. ... Troilus and Criseyde is Geoffrey Chaucers poem in rhyme royal re-telling the tragic love story of Troilus, a Trojan prince, and Criseyde. ... The Legend of Good Women is a poem in the form of a dream vision by Geoffrey Chaucer. ... A Treatise on the Astrolabe is a medieval essay on the astrolabe by Chaucer. ... Events Magnus II of Sweden abdicates from the throne of Norway in favor of his son Haakon VI of Norway. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Geoffrey Chaucer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5192 words)
In 1324 John Chaucer, Geoffrey's father, was kidnapped by an aunt in the hope of marrying the twelve year-old boy to her daughter in an attempt to keep property in Ipswich.
Chaucer was buried in Westminster Abbey in London as was his right owing to the jobs he had performed and the new house he had leased nearby on 24 December 1399.
Chaucer is known for metrical innovation, inventing the rhyme royal, and he was one of the first English poets to use the five-stress line, the iambic pentameter, in his work, with only a few anonymous short works using it before him.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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