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Encyclopedia > Genus

In the binomial nomenclature used worldwide, the name of an organism is composed of two parts: its genus (plural: genera) name (always capitalized) and a species modifier (known as the "epithet"). An example is Homo sapiens, the name for the human species (Latin for "wise man") which belongs to the genus Homo. Image File history File links Information. ... Look up genus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ...

Each genus must have a designated type species (see Type (zoology)). The generic name is permanently associated with the type specimen of its type species. Should this specimen turn out to be assignable to another genus, the genus name linked to it becomes a junior synonym, and the remaining taxa in the now-invalid genus need to be reassessed. See scientific classification and nomenclature Codes for more details of this system. Also see type genus. Type specimens When a new species is discovered, more important than creating a new and unique name for the species is developing a reasonably detailed description. ... In zoological nomenclature, a type is a specimen or a taxon. ... Type specimens When a new species is discovered, more important than creating a new and unique name for the species is developing a reasonably detailed description. ... In zoological nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names that pertain to the same taxon, for example two names for the same species. ... A taxon (plural taxa) is an element of a taxonomy, e. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... The Nomenclature Codes (or the Codes of nomenclature) are the rulebooks that govern biological nomenclature. ... Type specimens When a new species is discovered, more important than creating a new and unique name for the species is developing a reasonably detailed description. ...

The boundaries between genera are historically subjective, but with the advent of phylogenetics, it is increasingly common for all taxonomic ranks (at least) below the class level to be restricted to demonstrably monophyletic groupings, as has been the aim since the advent of evolutionary theory. Indeed, in the better-researched groups like birds and mammals, most genera are clades already. Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ...

Rules-of-thumb for delimiting a genus are outlined e.g. in Gill et al. (2005). According to these, a genus should fulfill 3 criteria to be descriptively useful:

  • monophyly - all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together;
  • reasonable compactness - a genus should not be expanded needlessly; and
  • distinctness - in regards of evolutionarily relevant criteria, i.e. ecology, morphology, or biogeography; note that DNA sequences are a consequence rather than a condition of diverging evolutionarily lineages except in cases where they directly inhibit gene flow (e.g. postzygotic barriers).

Neither the ICZN nor the ICBN require such criteria for extablishment of a genus; they rather cover the formalities of what makes a description valid. Therefore, there has been for long a vigorous debate about what criteria to consider relevant for generic distinctness. At present, most of the classifications based on phenetics - overall similarity - are being gradually replaced by new ones based on cladistics (e.g., use of Reptilia and Amphibia in taxonomy is discouraged), though phenetics was only of major relevance for a comparatively short time around the 1960s before it turned out to be unworkable. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine), and typically these are... In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another. ... Evolution is change in populations of organisms over generations. ... The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in classifying all animals according to taxonomic judgment. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature is the set of rules according to which plants are given their formal botanical names (scientific names). ... In biology, phenetics, also known as numerical taxonomy, is an attempt to classify organisms based on overall similarity, usually in morphology or other observable traits, regardless of their phylogeny or evolutionary relation. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

The three criteria given above are almost always fulfillable for a given clade. An example where at least one is crassly violated no matter what the generic arrangement is are the dabbling ducks of the genus Anas, which are paraphyletic in regard to the extremely distinct moa-nalos. Considering them distinct genera (as is usually done) violates criterion 1, including them in Anas violates criterion 2 and 3, and splitting up Anas so that the mallard and the American black duck are in distinct genera violates criterion 3. † See also Diving duck The dabbling ducks are a group of ten genera and about 55 species of ducks, including some of the most familiar Northern Hemisphere species. ... Species Some 40-50; see text. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Genera Chelychelynechen Thambetochen Ptaiochen The Moa-nalos are an extinct group of aberrant ducks that used to live on the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies See Mexican Duck, Anas, and article text The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos[1]), also known as the wild duck, is a dabbling duck which breeds throughout the temperate and sub-tropical areas of North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. ... Binomial name Anas rubripes Brewster, 1902 The American Black Duck (Anas rubripes) is a large-sized dabbling duck. ...

Many genera are divided into subgenera (singular subgenus). In biology, a subgenus is a taxonomic grade intermediate between genus and species. ...

A genus in one kingdom is allowed to bear a name that is in use as a genus name or other taxon name in another kingdom. Although this is discouraged by both the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature there are some five thousand such names that are in use in more than one kingdom. For instance, Anura is the name of the order of frogs but also is the name of a genus of plants (although not current: it is a synonym); and Aotus is the genus of golden peas and night monkeys; Oenanthe is the genus of wheatears and water dropworts, and Prunella is the genus of accentors and self-heal. Ernst Haeckels presentation of a three-kingdom system (Plantae, Protista, Animalia) in his 1866 Generelle Morphologie der Organismen). ... The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in classifying all animals according to taxonomic judgment. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is the set of rules that governs plant nomenclature, i. ... Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia The Anura is the order of animals in the class Amphibia that includes frogs and toads. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ... In botanical nomenclature, the synonym of a botanical name is a name that also applies to this same taxon. ... Aotus is both a plant and an animal: It is one of the genera for the golden peas in Fabaceae (bean family) It is the genus for the night monkeys in Nyctipithecidae The name means earless in both cases: the monkey is missing external ears, and the pea is missing... Species Aotus carinata Aotus cordifolia Aotus ericoides Aotus genistoides Aotus gracillima Aotus intermedia Aotus lanigera Aotus mollis Aotus passerinoides Aotus phylicoides Aotus procumbens Aotus subglauca Aotus subspinescens Aotus tietkensii Ref: ILDIS Version 6. ... Type species Simia trivirgata Humboldt, 1811 Species Aotus lemurinus Aotus hershkovitzi Aotus trivirgatus Aotus vociferans Aotus miconax Aotus nancymae Aotus azarae The Night monkeys, also known as the Owl monkeys or Douroucoulis, are the members of the genus Aotus of New World monkeys (monotypic in family Aotidae). ... Oenanthe is the name of two genera: the wheatear genus of birds the water dropwort genus of plants This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Binomial name See text Species See text The wheatears, genus Oenanthe, were formerly considered to be members of the thrush family Turdidae. ... See Oenanthe for the bird genus of this name. ... Prunella is the scientific name of a genus of birds: see Accentor and Dunnock Prunella is also the scientific name of a genus of plants: see Self-heal This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Genus Prunella (Vieillot, 1816) The accentors are in the only bird family, Prunellidae, which is completely endemic to the Palearctic. ... Species Seven species, including: Prunella grandiflora (Large Self-heal Prunella laciniata (Cut-leaf Self-heal Prunella vulgaris (Common Self-heal) The self-heals are a genus of seven species of herbaceous plants in the family Lamiaceae. ...

Obviously, within the same kingdom one generic name can apply to only one genus. This explains why the platypus genus is named OrnithorhynchusGeorge Shaw named it Platypus in 1799, but the name Platypus had already been given to the pinhole borer beetle by Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst in 1793. Names with the same form but applying to different taxa are called homonyms. Since beetles and platypuses are both members of the kingdom Animalia, the name Platypus could not be used for both. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach published the replacement name Ornithorhynchus in 1800. Binomial name (Shaw, 1799) Platypus range (indicated by darker shading)[3] The Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is a semi-aquatic mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania. ... George Shaw. ... Suborders Adephaga Archostemata Myxophaga Polyphaga See subgroups of the order Coleoptera Beetles are the most diverse group of insects. ... Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Herbst (1743 - 1807) was a German naturalist and entomologist. ...

A couple of the lesser-known forms of Genus are: Caltha and Carica

See also

Look up Genus in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of life on the planet earth, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. ... Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Linnaean taxonomy is a method of classifying living things originally devised by, and named for, Carl Linnaeus although it has changed considerably since his time. ...


External links

  • Nomenclator Zoologicus: Index of all genus and subgenus names in zoological nomenclature from 1758 to 2004.
Taxonomic ranks
v  d  e
Domain or Magnorder
Superkingdom Superphylum/Superdivision Superclass Superorder Superfamily Superspecies
Kingdom Phylum/Division Class Order Family Tribe Genus Species
Subkingdom Subphylum Subclass Cohort Suborder Subfamily Subtribe Subgenus Subspecies
Branch Infraphylum Infraclass Legion Infraorder Infraspecies
Microphylum Parvclass Parvorder

  Results from FactBites:
genus@Everything2.com (384 words)
The genus of a surface is a topological invariant that is (roughly) the number of holes in the surface, usually denoted as g.
For example, the genus of a coffee cup or a torus is 1, whilst the genus of a sphere is 0.
Subaltern genus Logic, a genus which may be a species of a higher genus, as the genus denoted by quadruped, which is also a species of mammal.
PlanetMath: genus of topological surface (241 words)
The genus is a topological invariant of surfaces.
It is one of the oldest known topological invariants and, in fact, much of topology has been created in order to generalize this notion to more general situations than the topology of surfaces.
This is version 26 of genus of topological surface, born on 2002-08-15, modified 2006-09-11.
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