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Encyclopedia > Gentrification
In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. Haight-Ashbury itself has now fully gentrified, and the San Francisco bohemia moved on to other parts of the city like the Lower Haight, the Mission District, and SoMa, all of which are themselves gentrifying.
In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. Haight-Ashbury itself has now fully gentrified, and the San Francisco bohemia moved on to other parts of the city like the Lower Haight, the Mission District, and SoMa, all of which are themselves gentrifying.

Gentrification, or urban gentrification, is a phenomenon in which low-cost, physically deteriorated neighborhoods undergo physical renovation and an increase in property values, along with an influx of wealthier residents who may displace the prior residents.[1][2] Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 453 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Haight Ashbury, San Francisco, USA / Personal picture taken by user Urban, 2004 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 453 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Haight Ashbury, San Francisco, USA / Personal picture taken by user Urban, 2004 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Categories: US geography stubs | San Francisco neighborhoods ... The Lower Haight, sometimes known as the Haight-Fillmore, is a neighborhood in San Francisco, California. ... Mission Theatre on Mission Street The Mission or the Mission District is the name of a neighborhood in San Francisco, California. ... This article is about the Vedic plant and ritual. ... A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community located within a larger city or suburb. ... Renovation is the process of restoring or improving a structure. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ...


Proponents of gentrification focus on the benefits of urban renewal, such as renewed investment in physically deteriorating locales, improved access to lending capital for low-income mortgage seekers as their property values increase, increased rates of lending to minority and first-time home purchasers to invest in the now-appreciating area and improved physical conditions for renters.[3] Often initiated by private capital, gentrification has been linked to reductions in crime rates, increased property values, increased tolerance of sexual minorities[4], and renewed community activism.[citation needed]


Critics of gentrification often cite the human cost to the neighborhood's lower-income residents when debating the topic. They expound that the increases in rent often spark the dispersal of communities whose members find that housing in the area is no longer affordable. [citation needed] Additionally, the increase in property taxes may sometimes force or give incentive for homeowners to sell their homes and seek refuge in less expensive neighborhoods. While those who view gentrification as a positive phenomenon praise its effect on neighborhood's crime rates, those with different paradigms believe that the crime has not truly been reduced, but merely shifted to different lower-income neighborhoods. Property tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the target of the tax. ...

Contents

Phenomenon

Gentrification can be a contentious issue.[5] It highlights the complex issues surrounding the instability of renting homes: people might be forced to move away from newly desirable areas because the landlords increase rents. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...


Demographic changes often occur because an increase in average income causes a decline in the proportion of ethnic minorities, a reduction in the size of the households, and low-income families are replaced by “up and coming” singles and couples.[citation needed] In American cities, the new, wealthier demographic of the neighborhood can sometimes resemble the original populace for which the neighborhood was constructed. In these cases, gentrification represents the reversal of the white flight phenomenon. White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ...


Real estate markets can also change due to large increases in rent and home prices, increases in the number of evictions, increases in ownership of formerly rented homes, and new development of upscale housing. The use of the land in the area may also change, as formerly industrial areas become converted to office and/or residential use (lofts). New retail and restaurants are built, eventually followed by luxury housing. This often brings with it a change in culture and character. Neighborhoods prior to gentrification often have a unique style formed by their longtime residents. As these residents become displaced by newcomers, ideas about what is attractive change, and standards for architecture, urban landscape, and public norms (including behavior, noise, and nuisance) change as well (Grant). Loft apartments are apartments that are generally built into former industrial buildings. ...


Property owners can also feel the effects of gentrification through increases in property taxes. Property taxes are typically based on a percentage of a property's assessed value. As property values increase in a given neighborhood, municipalities will typically reassess the values of properties within gentrifying communities resulting in higher property taxes for the neighborhood's long-term owners. If the owners cannot afford the tax increases, they are forced to sell (or, if they own a multi-family dwelling, they may pass the increases on to tenants in the form of higher rents). Property tax, millage tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. ...


Etymology

"Gentrification" derives from "gentry", meaning the people of gentle birth, good breeding, or high social position, as in the landed gentry. Sociologist Ruth Glass coined the term in 1964 to mean the influx of wealthier individuals into cities or neighborhoods who replace working or lower-classes already living there. She defined it by using London districts such as Islington as her example: This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Islington (disambiguation). ...

One by one, many of the working class quarters of London have been invaded by the middle-classes—upper and lower. Shabby, modest mews and cottages—two rooms up and two down—have been taken over, when their leases have expired, and have become elegant, expensive residences [...]. Once this process of 'gentrification' starts in a district it goes on rapidly until all or most of the original working-class occupiers are displaced and the whole social character of the district is changed. Glass, R. (1964). London: aspects of change. Londen: Macgibbon & Kee.

Theories on gentrification

Urban renewal

The most simplistic reason for gentrification may be that, increasingly, locations in city centers have attracted affluent post-baby boomer professionals and/or their empty nester parents.[citation needed] This New Urbanist movement may be more or less socially driven. If a depressed urban area has a transportation hub, pedestrian accessibility and social interaction, it may be considered more desirable than the sprawl and car-dependent lifestyle of the average suburban community.[citation needed] Downtown Honolulu in Hawaii, United States, an example of an urban downtown district Central business district (CBD) and downtown are terms referring to the commercial heart of a city. ... For the video game, see Baby Boomer (video game). ... Empty nest syndrome is a general feeling of depression and loneliness that parents feel when one or more of their children leave home. ... The New urbanism is an American urban design movement that arose in the early 1980s. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Urban sprawl (also: suburban sprawl) is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ...


For the average urban working-class renter, buses and trains are vital to their livelihood. The ideal is different for the wealthy newcomers, who like the advantage of a car for longer commutes, but walk or use public transportation when traveling to the closer shops, cafes, and boutiques.[citation needed] “Autobus” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ...


Production-side theory

Early explanations of gentrification saw a conflict between production-side and consumption-side arguments. The production-side argument, which is associated primarily with the work of geographer Neil Smith, explains gentrification through economics and the relationships between flows of capital and the production of urban space. Smith argued that low rents on the urban periphery during the two decades after World War II led to a continuous movement of capital toward the development of suburban areas. This caused a 'devaluation' of inner-city capital, resulting in the substantial abandonment of inner-city properties in favour of those in the periphery, and a consequent fall in the price of inner-city land relative to rising land prices in the suburbs. From this, Smith put forth his rent-gap theory, which describes the disparity between "the actual capitalized ground rent (land value) of a plot of land given its present use and the potential ground rent that might be gleaned under a 'higher and better' use".[6] In economics, consumption refers to the final use of goods and services to provide utility. ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... Neil Smith is Distinguished Professor of Anthropology and Geography and Director of the Center for Place, Culture and Politics at the Graduate Center, City University of New York. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... Devaluation is a reduction in the value of a currency with respect to other monetary units. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ...


Smith believed that the rent-gap theory was the fundamental explanation for the process of gentrification. He argued that when the rent-gap was wide enough, developers, landlords, and other people with a vested interest in the development of land would see the potential profit to be had in reinvesting in inner-city properties and redeveloping them for new inhabitants. Such redevelopment effectively closes the rent-gap and leads to higher rent, mortgage and lease rates. A real estate developer (American English) or property developer (British English) makes improvements of some kind to real property, thereby increasing its value. ... A landlord, is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, or real estate which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called the tenant. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The de-industrialization of the inner-city is seen as a prerequisite, precipitating a decline in the number of blue-collar jobs available for the urban working class and thus a loss of investment capital available to maintain the physical stock of urban neighborhoods. De-industrialization is often coupled with the growth of a divided white collar employment sector, one part of which is engaged in professional/managerial positions which follow the spatial centralization of capital. This is a product of corporations requiring spatial proximity to reduce decision-making time. A blue-collar worker is a working class employee who performs manual or technical labor, such as in a factory or in technical maintenance trades, in contrast to a white-collar worker, who does non-manual work generally at a desk. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... White-collar workers perform tasks which are less laborious yet often more highly paid than blue-collar workers, who do manual work. ... This article is about work. ... The tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). ... This article is about people called professionals. ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ...


Consumption-side theory

The consumption-side theory, on the other hand, has gained more force as an explanation for gentrification.[citation needed] Supporters of this argument generally view the characteristics of gentrifiers themselves to be of greater importance in the understanding of gentrification. The post-industrial city, as defined in the Dictionary of Human Geography, is one with an "employment profile focused on advanced services…, [with a] profile that is materialized in a downtown skyline of office towers, arts and leisure sites, and political institutions. Its middle-class ambiance may be reflected in a distinctive politics charged with a responsible social ethos…the demand for more amenities, for greater beauty and a better quality of life in the arrangement of our cities" (616).


David Ley has been one of the foremost thinkers in purporting this idea of a city that is becoming more and more influenced by the emerging "new middle class". Ley defines as a subset of this sector a "cultural new class," made up of artists, cultural professionals, teachers, and other professionals outside of the private sector (1994, 56). And, although not particularly dwelt upon in Ley’s articles, these are the first stage gentrifiers who prepare the way for the embourgeoisment of the inner city (and, in effect, the more conservative politics) that often follows them—conservative politics which often lead to decreased funding for affordable housing, stricter laws dealing with the homeless and other people affected negatively by their original displacement by the creative class. This sentiment can also be found in Zukin’s "second-wave" observations in the artist’s lofts in Manhattan, who, when her building went "co-op" in 1979, "bade good-bye to the manufacturers, an artist, and several residents who could not afford the market prices at which our lofts were sold," residents who were replaced by lawyers and accountants, retailers and investment bankers (1989, xiv). This same process can be seen still today, as "artists move into otherwise undesirable buildings, usually make significant improvements to their spaces and their surrounding areas. Everyone benefits from these tenuous and uneasy…arrangements. Then landlords, suddenly aware that they are sitting on gold mines, rush to cash in" (Cash 2001, 39). The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


Whereas Smith and other Marxists often take a structural approach in their explanations of gentrification, Ley’s work instead frames gentrification as a natural outgrowth of the rise of professional employment in the CBD and the predilection of the creative class to an urbane urban lifestyle. Ley, when studying this class through case studies of Canadian cities, concentrates instead on the diversity of this class, especially the liberal ideas that often find voice in its politics (see Ley’s 1980 article "Liberal Ideology and the Post-Industrial City" which describes then deconstructs the TEAM committee’s strive to make Vancouver a "livable city"). Ley’s work, and that of Rose, Beauregard, Mullins, Moore, and others who have built upon Ley’s theories by arguing that "gentrifiers and their social and cultural characteristics was of crucial importance for an understanding of gentrification," has been criticized by Hamnett, however, as not going far enough, and not incorporating the "supply of dwellings and the role of developers/speculators in the process" (Hamnett 1991, 186, 187).


Globalization

A concept that has received much consideration is the idea of globalization and the city’s role in this new economic environment, where urban centers are ranked by their ability to function in a climate where national borders are becoming less and less important. Academics have studied these de-industrialized "global cities," trying to both characterize them theoretically and empirically. John Friedman, who laid down a hypothetical framework on which to build a study of global cities, used as one of the components to his seven part theory the emergence of a bifurcated service industry in major cites, which is comprised of "on the one hand, a high percentage of professionals specialized in control functions and, on the other, a vast army of low-skilled workers engaged in … personal services … [that] cater to the privileged classes for those whose sake the world city primarily exists" (1986, 322). That the last three components of his theory deals with the increased immigration to fill this demand, the class and spatial polarization that results from this, and the inability of the global city to deal with these rapidly growing "social costs" is no mistake (1986, 323-328). Friedman places his vision of the global city squarely in a class context, a context that has been expanded on by Sassen and others. This polarization inherent in increasingly global cities can illuminate the theory that concerns itself specifically with the causes of gentrification. Indeed, a 2006 analysis found increased spatial polarization (segregation) by income across U.S. metropolitan areas, with middle-income neighborhoods in decline relative to low- and high-income areas (Booza et al 2006). A KFC franchise in Kuwait. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Sassen could refer to: Maan Sassen, a Dutch politician Saskia Sassen, an American sociologist/economist Willem Sassen, a Dutch journalist who interviewed Adolf Eichmann This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Geographical segregation exists whenever the proportions of population rates of two or more populations are not homogenous throughout a defined space. ...


Gentrification cannot be separated from the economic climate in which it occurs. The advent of the new economy outlined above has led to substantial growth and centralization of high-level work in producer services: a "new urban economic core of banking and service activities that comes to replace the older, typically manufacturing oriented, core" (Sassen 1995, 65). This new core sees older, middle-class retailers "replaced by upmarket boutiques and restaurants catering to new high-income urban elites" (Sassen 1995, 66). Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... New Economy was a term coined in late 1990s by pundits to describe what some thought was an evolution of the United States and other developed countries from an industrial/manufacturing-based wealth producing economy into a service sector asset based economy from globalization and currency manipulation by governments and... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... A drawing of a self-service store Retailing consists of the sale of goods/merchandise for personal or household consumption either from a fixed location such as a department store or kiosk, or away from a fixed location and related subordinated services (Definition of the WTO (last page). ...


Demographic shifts

The emergence of a 'service sector' class, that is, a group of people—generally between the ages of 25 and 45—with a high disposable income and post-graduate education with professions in fields such as Law, Medicine, Finance, Media and the Arts in the urban core that they want to be close to, is one of the primary tenets of the consumption-side theory of gentrification. This is not to be confused, however, with service jobs such as being a janitor, day-laborer, housekeeper, nanny, or working in a fast food business, which are also technically services, but require few skills and little education. This emergence is partly a manifestation of the shift in much of the Western world from a manufacturing-based economy to a post-industrial, service-based economy. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... A post-industrial society is a society in which an economic transition has occurred from a manufacturing based economy to a service based economy, a diffusion of national and global capital, and mass privatization. ... Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments. ...


Demographically speaking, Western cities are seeing a growing percentage of 25–45 year-olds in the inner-city (urban) core. Other demographic shifts are occurring as well; there is a lessening of gendered divisions of labour, and people are waiting longer to get married and have children (c.f., the Double Income No Kids syndrome). Additionally, urban researchers are seeing an increase in the number of single women professionals living alone in gentrified areas. Division of labour is the specialisation of cooperative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase efficiency of output. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Yuppie. ...


This also leads to the lack of affordable housing in these areas for residents who are not in a high-income bracket, and leads to several generations of a low-income family living in the same dwelling because youths who would have moved out upon graduating high-school can't afford to live in their own unless they're in the market for luxury condominiums. See the Freeter phenomena. This article refers to a form of housing. ... Freeters (Japanese: フリーター) is a Japanese expression for not full time or unemployed people between the age of 15 and 34, excluding housewives and students. ...


In the UK, ever-rising house prices have meant that many middle-class people under age 40 either inherit or simply receive a substantial amount of money from a parent—enough to buy a house outright in the sort of area traditionally vulnerable to gentrification. Gentrification, as an aspect of gender studies discourse, has not been studied extensively, but researchers have discovered that women and gay men have had at least some impact on the gentrifying process in older, inner-city neighborhoods. Moreover, women are seen to be gentrifying in response to different patriarchal structures; they are seen as being potentially forced by oppressive class relations related to their gender into moving into the inner-city, as opposed to deciding on moving there as a result of locational preference. The breakdown of traditional gender roles as higher education becomes more accessible to women has also contributed to the movement of single women into the inner-city. Gender studies is a theoretical work in the social sciences or humanities that focuses on issues of sex and gender in language and society, and often addresses related issues including racial and ethnic oppression, postcolonial societies, and globalization. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... A patriarch (from Greek: patria means father; arché means rule, beginning, origin) is a male head of an extended family exercising autocratic authority, or, by extension, a member of the ruling class or government of a society controlled by senior men. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ...


In London, a large proportion of gentrified housing originally was built for middle class occupants. Occupation by working class people mainly came about between the two World Wars, when the middle classes left for the suburbs. In Islington, four story houses are much more common than two story cottages.


Gentrification usually increases property value in an area. This is a positive development for city officials (by raising tax revenue, which is often dependent on property values), the middle class, as well as existing resident owner-occupiers. Unfortunately this same rise in property value can be devastating to those in lower income groups, when children of such residents find they can no longer afford to live in certain neighborhoods. As a result, there tend to be very strongly opposed views on gentrification, with some seeing it leading to healthier, more vibrant cities, and others seeing it as destroying poor communities. A real estate appraisal is a service performed by a licensed or certified appraiser, who develops an opinion of value based upon the highest and best use of real property. ...


The role of certain social groups

The urban middle-class typically does not begin to occupy new neighborhoods all at once. In many cases, more economically marginal subgroups of "trend-setters"—often referred to in popular literature as "urban pioneers" (Smith 1996, 26) although that term carries with it racist aspersions (Smith 1996, 13)—are the first to arrive in gentrifying areas. Although these groups may not have high incomes, their high educational or occupational status (i.e., high cultural capital) qualify them as marginally bourgeois. In many cases, these individuals are young and live in non-family households, and thus have a higher tolerance for perceived urban ills (such as crime, poor-quality schools, lack of amenities like shops and parks, and the presence of disadvantaged racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic groups) that may dissuade middle-class families. This article is about the socio-economic class from a global vantage point. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Cultural capital (le capital culturel) is a sociological term used by Pierre Bourdieu. ...


As the number of "trend-setters" grows, they create amenities valued by the bourgeoisie, particularly service establishments such as new bars, restaurants, and art galleries that serve the gentrifying group's demographic, residents with a similar outlook and greater amounts of capital may follow. This group, in turn, further adds amenities and investment to the area, increases local property values, and paves the way for more risk-averse investors and residents. The first newcomers, priced out of their newly fashionable neighborhood, move on to adjacent areas, where the process often begins anew. In this theory, the classic sector model of urban residential succession—essentially that neighborhoods "trickle down" from one socioeconomic group to another, with the wealthiest residents moving linearly outward from the Central Business District—works in reverse, but the "invasion-succession" process proceeds in a remarkably similar fashion. Proposed in 1939 by economist Homer Hoyt, the sector model also known as the Hoyt model in urban land use and demography modified the concentric zone model of city development. ... The Central Business District of Sydney, Australia. ...


Gentrification does not require these intermediary steps, but such a succession greatly facilitates the process. In other instances, as with the London Docklands and other CBD-adjacent urban renewal projects, or in instances of comprehensive public housing redevelopment (as at Cabrini-Green in Chicago), government and large developers can invade the area with sufficient capital to skip the steps entirely. In still other recent instances, a Community Development Corporation has been so successful at stabilizing an urban neighborhood that it becomes desirable for the middle class; examples include Roxbury, Massachusetts, Near South Side, Chicago and Harlem, New York City. The Central Business District of Sydney, Australia. ... Cabrini-Green is one of the most notorious and infamous housing projects in the world. ... A Community Development Corporation (CDC) is a non-profit group accountable to local residents that engages in a wide range of physical, economic and human development activities. ... Roxbury is a neighborhood within Boston, Massachusetts USA. It was one of the first towns founded in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 and became a city in 1846 until it was annexed to Boston on January 5, 1868. ... The Near South Side is an officially designated community area (neighborhood) in Chicago, Illinois, USA located just south of the downtown central business district, the Loop, which is itself a community area. ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Artists, bohemians, hipsters

Traditionally the largest African-American community in the U.S., Bedford-Stuyvesant in New York City is now undergoing the rapid gentrification of (mostly white) artists and bohemians.

The method by which an urban "artist colony" is transformed into an affluent neighborhood has been well documented for many years. Artists and subcultural students (more recently nicknamed "hipsters," but also including the hippies of earlier years) often seek out devaluated urban neighborhoods for their low prices and for their sense of authenticity or "grit" (Lloyd, 89). As the bohemian character of the area grows, it appeals "not only to committed participants but also to sporadic consumers" (Lloyd, 104); eventually, those "sporadic" consumers edge out the earlier arrivals. Christopher Mele described the process with hippies in New York City's East Village in the 1960s: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 622 KB) Brownstones in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 622 KB) Brownstones in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn. ... Bedford Stuyvesant (aka Bed-Stuy) is a neighborhood in central Brooklyn, New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... See also Artist collective An art colony or artists colony is a place where arts practitioners, usually visual artists and craftspeople, live and interact with one another. ... The word hipster is usually applied to middle class and upper class young people of North America and Europe and also in few cities of Latin America and Asia. ... Singer of a modern Hippie movement in Russia The hippie subculture was a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread around the world. ... The term bohemian was first used in the nineteenth century to describe the non-traditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists, writers, musicians, and actors in major European cities. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Looking south from 6th Street down Second Avenue, one of the main thoroughfares through the East Village. ...

By the early 1960s, the Beats' enclave of Greenwich Village had been... commercialized by middle-class onlookers... Between 1964 and 1968, dozens of specialty shops that catered to the hippies had opened along St. Mark's Place... In addition to students and hippies, the neighborhood's countercultural atmosphere attracted copywriters, editorial workers, fashion designers, and commercial artists... Although the youthful movement criticized middle-class values and lifestyles, its members, nonetheless, were of largely middle-class origin living in one of the poorest working-class districts in the city. (Mele, 159-169)

Through the 1960s and 1970s, lofts in SoHo were converted en masse to house artists, hippies, and others (Zukin 121-3). As those neighborhoods continued to escalate in price and social status, the artists moved on to Park Slope, Brooklyn and Hoboken, New Jersey, and today (and their followers, the hipsters) to Williamsburg, Brooklyn. Emerging areas where hipsters are being displaced to run along the BMT Canarsie Line (L) and IND Crosstown Line (G) of the New York City Subway system due in large part to their proximity to Williamsburg. Beats redirects here. ... A Manhattan loft is a one room residence in a formerly commercial building. ... Cast-iron architecture in Greene Street SoHo is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... A typical Park Slope block in spring. ... Map of New Jersey highlighting Hoboken Image of Hoboken taken by NASA (red line shows where Hoboken is). ... The word hipster is usually applied to middle class and upper class young people of North America and Europe and also in few cities of Latin America and Asia. ... Williamsburg is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, bordering Greenpoint, Bed-Stuy, and Bushwick. ... Services that use the BMT Canarsie Line through Manhattan have been colored gray since 1979. ... Eighth Avenue to Rockaway Parkway The L 14th Street–Canarsie Local is a rapid transit service of the New York City Subway, running local along the full length of the BMT Canarsie Line at all times. ... The Crosstown Line is a rapid transit line of the IND division of the New York City Subway. ... The G Brooklyn-Queens Crosstown Local is a service of the New York City Subway. ... Times Square–42nd Street station entrance The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority , an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and also known as MTA New York City Transit. ...


Similar examples can be found in many cities around the world with large numbers of jobs in media, fashion, and other creative trades.


Gay men

Manuel Castells's seminal work on gay men as "gentrifiers" in San Francisco has revealed a pattern replicated, to some degree, in other North American cities, as "many [gays] were single men, did not have to raise a family (in urban schools of questionable quality), were young, and connected to a relatively prosperous service economy" (Castells, 1983, p. 160). Many gay and lesbian people leave their towns and neighborhoods of origin to start a new life and form a new community after coming out. Manuel Castells (full Spanish name: Manuel Castells Oliván[1]; born 1942 in Hellín, Albacete, Spain) is a sociologist, particularly associated with research into the information society and communications. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Coming out (disambiguation). ...


The PBS documentary Flag Wars [1] outlined the tension between an urban African-American community in the old silk stocking district of Columbus, Ohio and the mainly white gays and lesbians moving in, who were accused of gentrification and racism.


Real estate trends can push out poorer gay people, as in San Francisco's Polk District; radical queer activists saw the value of an impoverished neighborhood as a refuge for the economically, sexually and socially marginalized, while others saw renovations and increased real estate values as signs of improvement in the neighborhood.[2] A gay neighborhood might be termed a gay ghetto.[citation needed] The word queer has traditionally meant strange or unusual, but it is also currently often used in reference to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and asexual communities. ... A gay village (sometimes called a gay ghetto or gay enclave) is usually an urban geographic location with generally recognized boundaries where a large number of gay and lesbian people, as well as bisexuals and transsexuals live, and usually contains a number of gay bars, clubs and pubs, restaurants and...


Attempts to control gentrification

Community organizing

In many cases, existing residents of gentrifying neighborhoods have organized into grassroots groups to develop political and social strategies to retain affordable housing in their communities. Many such organizations arose in the 1960s, particularly using tactics inspired by Saul Alinsky. Some, like the Young Lords street gang active in Chicago's then-heavily Puerto Rican neighborhod of Lincoln Park, used direct action techniques like sit-ins and occupation of vacant land. In many other neighborhoods, neighborhood institutions have founded community development corporations to give the community an active role in neighborhood development. In many cases, though, even a well-organized community cannot muster enough resources to counter gentrification. Community organizing is a process by which people are brought together to act in common self-interest. ... Saul Alinsky off the cover of Let Them Call Me Rebel: Saul Alinsky, His Life and Legacy by Sanford D. Horwitt. ... The Young Lords, later Young Lords Organization and in New York (notably Spanish Harlem), Young Lords Party, was a Puerto Rican Hispanic nationalist group in several United States cities, notably New York City and Chicago. ... Lincoln Park may refer to several towns, neighborhoods, parks, and census-designated places in the United States, as well as a national park in Australia and a public park in Mexico City. ...


Inclusionary zoning

Cities have responded to gentrification in different ways. Inclusionary zoning is an increasingly popular method of stemming gentrification, employed by cities, in an attempt to create affordable housing units in urban areas. Through inclusionary zoning, developers are either required or provided with incentives (such as higher build-outs) to develop a certain percentage of affordable housing units. Because inclusionary zoning is such a relatively new concept, there have been few studies regarding its effect on limiting gentrification. Inclusionary zoning, also know as inclusionary housing, refers to city planning ordinances that require a given share of new construction be affordable to people with low to moderate incomes. ...


Zoning ordinances

In addition to the gradual exclusion of poorer residents from gentrifying neighborhoods, another detrimental aspect of gentrification can be the impact on non-residential uses, such as entertainment and industrial uses with effects contrary to the expectations of upmarket residents moving in. Often a neighborhood will become popular because of its nightlife and live music scene, or because of the presence of light industrial or arts and crafts activities. But newer residents may complain about levels of noise from such activities. Planning authorities then make noise mitigation or operational requirements that can place severe limitations or financial burdens that force such uses to move out. In New Zealand, this issue is referred to as reverse sensitivity, and a novel approach has been developed whereby the land use zones can be used to identify likely reverse sensitivity issues. The onus is then placed on developers wishing to build projects in such areas to construct dwellings in such a way to mitigate the impacts of new uses on existing residents. Reverse sensitivity is a term from the New Zealand planning system. ...


Community land trusts

Since gentrification is exacerbated by speculation in land prices, removing land from the open market can effectively keep property prices from rising and thereby prevent displacement. The most common formal mechanism for doing so is a community land trust; many inclusionary zoning ordinances are now written to place the "inclusionary" units into a land trust. Many linguistically isolated urban neighborhoods are able to keep out speculators informally, simply by not advertising available properties on the open (primary language) market and instead trading properties only by word of mouth.[citation needed] Redefining the Commons: Locking In Value through Community Land Trusts. ... Inclusionary zoning, also know as inclusionary housing, refers to city planning ordinances that require a given share of new construction be affordable to people with low to moderate incomes. ... A land trust is an agreement whereby one party (the trustee) agrees to hold ownership of a piece of real property for the benefit of another party (the beneficiary). ...


Rent control

In response to gentrification pressure, some cities pass rent control ordinances. Rent control allows existing tenants to remain, but does not directly affect the overall increase in underlying property prices. For example, the formerly downscale southwestern section of Santa Monica, California and the eastern section of West Hollywood, California became gentrified despite rent control. This is partly due to changes to the law that forbade extending rent control prices from one tenancy to the next. Since many forms of rent control allow landlords to set higher prices for newer residents while forcing them to keep prices low for long-time residents, this may encourage landlords to rent to residents they hope will leave sooner. Another unintended consequence is landlord harassment, where the owner or manager of a property makes living conditions uncomfortable for long-term residents in the hope that they will vacate voluntarily, thus avoiding costly legal expenses. Without rent control, a neighborhood undergoing gentrification may change rapidly because landlords could quickly raise rents on long-time residents and displace them from the neighborhood. Some evidence exists[citation needed] to demonstrate that the 1994 abolition of rent control in Boston, Massachusetts and some surrounding suburbs (via statewide ballot) sped up gentrification in that area, although strong economic growth in the following years is probably a large factor. Rent control refers to laws or ordinances that set price controls on the renting of residential housing. ... A local ordinance is a law usually found in a municipal code. ... For other uses, see Santa Monica (disambiguation). ... Nickname: WeHo Location of Los Angeles County in California and West Hollywood within Los Angeles County Country United States State California County Los Angeles Incorporated 1984  - City Council John Heilman (mayor) Sal Guarriello John J. Duran Abbe Land Jeffrey Prang Area    - City  1. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Boston redirects here. ...


Attempts to amplify gentrification

Sharon Zukin refers to a somewhat contradictory "Artistic Mode of Production" wherein patrician capitalists seek to revaluate (that is, gentrify) urban space through the recruitment and retention of artists; that is, by subtle or overt means of encouraging artists to occupy, say, former industrial facilities (1989, 176). This has become public policy in some cities. In UK cities like Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Liverpool, the actions of regional development agencies, in tandem with private speculators, have attempted to artificially stimulate the process of gentrification. In Jackson, Michigan, the city council has approved the redevelopment of a long-closed 19th century state prison by approving the construction of low rent housing within its walls and making artists loft space available in adjacent abandoned industrial buildings. Property developers have noticed that taking a building they eventually wish to re-develop and offering it cheaply to artists for a few years can impart a 'hip' feel to the surrounding area. , Newcastle upon Tyne (usually shortened to Newcastle) is a large city in Tyne and Wear, England. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Jackson within Jackson County, Michigan Country United States State Michigan County Jackson Government  - Mayor Jerry Ludwig Area  - City  11. ...


In the US, municipal governments tend to use tax incentives such as "tax increment financing" (TIF), or, such as in the "Arts Move" program of Chattanooga, Tennessee, municipal governments will partner with non-profit organizations and Public Private Partnerships to offer to artists subsidized home loans at a discounted interest rate if they move into gentrifying neighborhoods.[3] Under a TIF program, economic activity in a target blighted area will be jump started with government spending, usually on physical infrastructure. Property values, and therefore property tax revenues, are then expected to rise. Under TIF's, all increased tax revenues, for a set number of years, go to the TIF administration entity, and can only be spent on additional improvements within the TIF district. Often TIF funds will be provided as direct subsidies to private sector developers. Infrastructure improvements, subsidies, and rising property values all combine to encourage additional private sector investment. Chattanooga is a city located in United States of America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Public-private partnership (PPP) is a variation of privatization in which elements of a service previously run solely by the public sector are provided through a partnership between the government and one or more private sector companies. ...


Case Studies of gentrification

Darien Street, Philadelphia

Though the process of gentrification can be slow, and depressing for its original residents, it is a fascinating chain of events. There are several case studies done on areas undergoing gentrification. Gentrification Amid Urban Decline: Strategies for America's older cities, by Michael Lang, contains a story about Darien Street. This case study is done to show the process and impacts of gentrification.


Darien Street is a small alley street in Bella Vista, a highly populated neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Most of the houses on the street date back to 1885, and were built for artisans, or craftsmen, that lived in the area. Darien Street was considered a “back street” because it did not (and still does not) connect to any main streets in the city, and was not even paved for most of its existence. Bella Vista, Italian for beautiful sight, is a neighborhood in the South Philadelphia section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ...


In its early days, Darien Street housed only Italian families. After World War II however, there was talk of a crosstown expressway and the Italian families moved out. These low-rent homes then became inhabited by poor African American families. By the early 1970s, Darien Street was at its lowest point, and the houses were worth hardly anything. Many of the houses were abandoned because of broken heaters and caved in roofs[7]. The houses on Darien Street were very small – about 15 feet wide and 15 feet deep. Each home was three stories tall, with one room on each floor. The largest yard is 8 feet deep. Even with its decay, Darien Street held a unique charm with European echoes. The houses all had some different features to give the street more character. The street was also safe for children to play on, since there were no passing cars. The nearness of all the homes made for a potentially close-knit atmosphere. Darien Street was located just south of the center of the city, giving it great location; it was also inexpensive and would not have been hard to renovate.


Thus, the first home was rehabilitated in 1977; it was a corner home and was sold to a school teacher. He completely redid the home, and moved in. In the next few years, most white middle-class men began to move into the abandoned houses. In 1979, the first displacement occurred. Two years later, five of seven families were displaced. The two remaining families rented homes, and expected to be displaced soon.


Gentrification Amid Urban Decline went in to great detail about Darien Street, but it was published in 1982, so that is where Darien Street’s story ends[8]. Lang gives statistics to show his final findings on Darien Street: in five years, the street changed from seven black households and one white household to two black households and eleven white households. The average rent rose 587% – from $85 to $500 a month. Homes previously sold for $5,000 were sold in 1981 for $35,000. Of the five black households displaced, Lang informs his readers that three families found better houses within two blocks, one family left the state, and one family moved five blocks away into a public housing project.


The benefits of the gentrification of Darien Street include increased tax flow and improved housing. The drawbacks of gentrification were the worry of the displacees[9].


References

  1. ^ http://m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?va=gentrification
  2. ^ http://www.answers.com/gentrification&r=67
  3. ^ http://www.fanniemaefoundation.org/programs/hff/v2i1-reinvestment.shtml
  4. ^ "Betsky, A (1997) Queer space : architecture and same-sex desire, New York : William Morrow & Co. (ISBN 0688143016)"
  5. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/11/11/AR2005111100820.html?nav=rss_opinion/columns
  6. ^ Smith, 1987b, p. 462.
  7. ^ Lang 17.
  8. ^ Lang 17–8.
  9. ^ Lang 18–9.

Sources

  • Booza, Jason, Cutsinger, Jackie, and Galster, George. "Where Did They Go? The Decline of Middle-Income Neighborhoods in Metropolitan America." Brookings Institution, July 28, 2006. [4]
  • Cash, Stephanie. “Landlords put a squeeze on Brooklyn artists.” Art in America v. 89 (3), pp. 39-40.
  • Castells, M. (1983) "Cultural identity, sexual liberation and urban structure: the gay community in San Francisco" in M. Castells, The City and the Grassroots: A Cross-Cultural Theory of Urban Social Movements (Edward Arnold, London) pp. 138–170.
  • Friedman, John. “The world-city hypothesis.” From World Cities in a World-System, Paul L. Knox and Peter J. Taylor (eds), Cambridge UP, 1995, pp. 317-331. (originally published 1986)
  • Grant, Benjamin. "What is Gentrification?" PBS.org 2003. 12 November 2006 <http://www.pbs.org/pov/pov2003/flagwars/special_gentrification.html>.
  • Hamnett, Chris. “The blind men and the elephant: the explanation of gentrification.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 1991, v. 16, pp. 173-189.
  • Hamnett, Chris. "Gentrifiers or lemmings? A response to Neil Smith.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 1992, v. 17, pp 116-119.
  • Knox, Paul L. “The restless urban landscape: Economic and Sociocultural change and the transformation of metropolitan Washington, DC.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 1991, v. 81, pp. 181-209.
  • Lang, Michael. Gentrification Amid Urban Decline. Massachusetts: Ballinger Publishing Company, 1982.
  • Ley, David. “Alternative explanations for inner-city gentrification: a Canadian assessment.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 1986, v. 76, pp. 521-535.
  • Ley, David. “Gentrification and the politics of the new middle class.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 1994, v. 12, pp. 53-74.
  • Ley, David. “Reply: the rent-gap revisited.” Annals of the Association of the American Geographers 1987, v. 77, pp. 465-468.
  • Lloyd, Richard. Neo-Bohemia. Routledge, 2006. ISBN 0-415-95182-8
  • Maag, Christopher. "In Cincinnati, Life Breaths Anew in Riot-Scarred Area". New York Times.com 2006. 25 November 2006 <http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/25/us/25cincy.html?em&ex=1164603600&en=dfab95c25ea61a91&ei=5087%0A>.
  • Mele, Christopher. Selling the Lower East Side. Univ of Minnesota, 2000. ISBN 0-8166-3182-4
  • Moore, Keith. "From redline to renaissance". Salon.com, August 2, 1999.
  • "Over-the-Rhine". Wikipedia.org 2006. 22 November 2006 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Over-the-Rhine>.
  • "Over-the-Rhine Directory". iRhine.com 2004. 25 November 2006 <http://www.irhine.com/ directory/ ?category=5>.
  • Papayis, Marilyn Adler. “Sex and the revanchist city: zoning out pornography in New York.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 2000, v. 18, pp. 341-353.
  • Rose, Demaris. “Rethinking gentrification: beyond the uneven development of marxist theory.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 1984, v. 2, pp. 47-74.
  • Sassen, Saskia. “On concentration and centrality in the global city.” From World Cities in a World-System, Paul L. Knox and Peter J. Taylor (eds), Cambridge UP, 1995 pp. 63-75.
  • Smith, N. (1987) "Gentrification and the rent-gap", Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77 (3) pp. 462–465.
  • Smith, N. (1996) The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City. (Routledge, London)
  • Zukin, Sharon. Loft Living. Rutgers UP, 1989. ISBN 0-8135-1389-8 (originally published 1982)

The Brookings Institution is a United States nonprofit public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C.. Described in 1977, by TIME magazine as as the nations pre-eminent liberal think tank,[1] the institution is devoted to public service through research and education in the social sciences, particularly... Salon. ...

See also

Urban Renewal redirects here. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ... Black flight is the term for the sociological trend of lower class, middle class, and upper midle-class African-Americans moving away from predominately black or mixed culture inner city areas to suburban areas and outlying edge cities of new home construction. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Cingapura project is a low-cost housing initiative in São Paulo, Brazil. ...

External links

Look up gentrification in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Gentrify - The site dedicated to urban renewal, up and coming neighborhoods, tips for finding affordable city living, and discussion on the phenomenon of gentrification.
  • "What Can I Do About Gentrification?" - A realistic short guide from Neighbors Project to what younger city residents can do about gentrification in their neighborhood.
  • Gentrification Web - detailed resource used a source for this article
  • Understanding Gentrification from the City of Port Phillip (Victoria, Australia) website
  • Flag Wars - documentary about Ohio gentrification in Columbus, detailing conflicts of race and homophobia
  • Selling the Lower East Side – official site for Christopher Mele's book, includes full text of Chapters 2–9.
  • South African shack dwellers' movement
  • The Cleansing of San Francisco, San Francisco Bay Guardian, October 7, 1998. - Series of articles on the gentrification of San Francisco during the dot com boom.
  • "I'm the enemy!" by Carol Lloyd, Salon.com, October 29, 1999.
  • "Defending the barrio" by Cassi Feldman, San Francisco Bay Guardian, October 18, 2000.
  • "Warning: Gentrification in Progress" by J.A. Lobbia, Village Voice, July 4, 2001.
  • "Gentrification: Artists and Yuppies Working Together" by Dan Knauss, Riverwest Currents, July 2002.
  • "The New Harlem" by Rivka Gewirtz Little, Village Voice, September 18, 2002.
  • "Loft Living" by Chanel Lee, Village Voice, November 13, 2002.
  • "Hipsters Defend Brooklyn" by Sarah Ferguson, Village Voice, April 3, 2005.
  • "After the Murmur" by Tim Kingston, San Francisco Bay Guardian, August 18, 2006.
  • "Hipster Invasion" by David Downs, East Bay Express, August 30, 2006.
    • Responses to "Hipster Invasion"
  • "Interview with Neil Smith about gentrification in Berlin and state revanchism in Germany" October 20, 2007

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gentrification Encyclopedia Article @ LandCompany.com (Land Company) (4412 words)
Once this process of 'gentrification' starts in a district it goes on rapidly until all or most of the original working-class occupiers are displaced and the whole social character of the district is changed.
The most simplistic reasons for gentrification may be that post-baby boomer professionals and/or their empty nester parents, having realized the business potential, beauty, and convenience of centralized locales in city centers, re-awaken to the reason they were built in the first place.
Gentrification, as an aspect of gender studies discourse, has not been studied extensively, but researchers have discovered that women and gay men have had at least some impact on the gentrifying process in older, inner-city neighbourhoods.
Gentrification - Free Encyclopedia (670 words)
At a more specific level, however, gentrification refers to the physical, social, economic, and cultural phenomenon whereby working-class and/or inner-city neighbourhoods are converted into more affluent middle-class communities, as by remodelling buildings, resulting in increased property values and in the displacement of the poor.
Gentrification is intertwined with change; not only do the buildings, themselves, undergo renovation and beautification, but so too do the people, as such neighbourhoods often see an influx of highly educated, highly skilled, and highly paid residents moving in.
In response to gentrification pressure, cities in which there are more renters than owners often pass rent control ordinances.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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