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Encyclopedia > Genre
For the gay men's lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine).

A genre (pronounced /ˈdʒɑːnrə/, from French "kind" or "sort", from Latin: genus (stem gener-)) is a loose set of criteria for a category of composition; the term is often used to categorize literature and speech, but is also used for any other form of art or utterance. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... December 2005 cover of Genre magazine Genre magazine (ISSN 1074-5246)is New York city-based monthly periodical written for gay men. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... An utterance is a complete unit of talk, bounded by silence. ...


Genres are vague categories with no fixed boundaries. Genres are formed by sets of conventions, and many works cross into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. The scope of the word "genre" is sometimes confined to art and culture, particularly literature, but it has a long history in rhetoric as well. In genre studies the concept of genre is not compared to originality. Rather, all works are recognized as either reflecting on or participating in the conventions of genre. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... Genre studies are a structuralist approach to literary criticism, film criticism, and other cultural criticism. ...

Contents

Subgenre and Hybrid Forms

Genres are often divided into subgenres. Literature, for example, is divided into three basic kinds of literature, which are the classic genres of Ancient Greece: poetry, drama, and prose. Poetry may then be subdivided into epic, lyric, and dramatic. Subdivisions of drama includes foremost comedy and tragedy, while eg. comedy itself has subgenres, including farce, comedy of manners, burlesque, satire, and so on. However, any of these terms would be called "genre", and its possible more general terms implied. For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... This article is about the art form. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... // Lyric poetry refers to either poetry that has the form and musical quality of a song, or a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings, which may or may not be set to music. ... Verse drama is any drama written as verse to be spoken; another possible general terms is poetic drama. ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... Look up farce in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The comedy of manners satirizes the manners and affectations of a social class, often represented by stock characters, such as the miles gloriosus in ancient times, the fop and the rake during the Restoration, or an old person pretending to be young. ... In literary criticism, the term burlesque is employed as a term in genre criticism, to describe any imitative work that derives humor from an incongruous contrast between style and subject. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ...


Genre also has a rich tradition in speech-making and criticism. Classical rhetoricians in Greece suggested that there were three primary genres of speech: forensic, deliberative, and epideictic. Forensic speeches are informative, aiming to establish something that happened. Deliberative speeches try to persuade an audience. Epideictic speeches praise or blame a person, value, or event. As with literary genres, there are subgenres that exist under each of these over-arching genres: apologia, funeral orations, and the after-dinner speech might be considered three sub-genres of epideictic rhetoric.


Hybrid forms of different terms have been used, like a prose poem or a tragicomedy. Science fiction has many recognized subgenres; a science fiction story may be rooted in real scientific expectations as they are understood at the time of writing (see Hard science fiction). A more general term, coined by Robert A. Heinlein, is "speculative fiction," an umbrella term covering all such genres that depict alternate realities. Even fiction that depicts innovations ruled out by current scientific theory, such as stories about or based on faster-than-light travel, are still science fiction, because science is a main subject in the piece of art. Prose poetry is prose that breaks some of the normal rules of prose discourse for heightened imagery or emotional effect. ... Tragicomedy refers to fictional works that blend aspects of the genres of tragedy and comedy. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Hard science fiction is a category of science fiction characterized by an emphasis on scientific or technical detail, or on scientific accuracy, or on both. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Speculative fiction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Faster-than-light (also superluminal or FTL) communications and travel are staples of the science fiction genre. ...


Age categories

Most genres of fiction may also be segmented by the age of the intended reader:

Basic Characteristics There is some debate as to what constitutes childrens literature. ... Young adult fiction (often abbreviated at YA fiction) is fiction written for, published for, or marketed to adolescents, roughly ages 12 to 18. ...

Genre and audiences

Although genres are not precisely definable, genre considerations are one of the most important factors in determining what a person will see or read. Many genres have built-in audiences and corresponding publications that support them, such as magazines and websites. Books and movies that are difficult to categorize into a genre are likely to be less successful commercially. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The term may be used in categorising web pages, like "newspage" and "fanpage", with both very different layout, audience, and intention. Some search engines like Vivísimo try to group found web pages into automated categories in an attempt to show various genres the search hits might fit. A screenshot of a web page. ... Vivísimo is a privately held enterprise search software company in Pittsburgh that develops and sells software products to improve search on the web and in enterprises. ...


"Hierarchy of genres" in painting

In the field of painting, there exists a "hierarchy of genres" associated with the Académie française which once held a central role in academic art. These genres in hierarchical order are: For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... A hierarchy of genres is any formalization which ranks different types of genres in an art-form in terms of their value. ... The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... Birth of Venus, Alexandre Cabanel, 1863 Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies or universities. ...

These categories played an important role between the 17th century and the modern era, when painters and critics began to rebel against the many rules of the Académie française, including the Académie's preference for history painting. Categories: Art stubs | Painting ... Genre works, also called genre scenes or genre views, are pictorial representations in any of various media that represent scenes or events from everyday life, such as markets, domestic settings, interiors, parties, inn scenes, and street scenes. ... Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict the visual appearance of the subject, mostly a person, whereas the portrait is expected to show the essence of the subject. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A still life is a work of art which represents a subject composed of inanimate objects. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Genre in linguistics

In philosophy of language, figuring very prominently in the works of philosopher and literary scholar Mikhail Bakhtin. Bakhtin's basic observations were of "speech genres" (the idea of heteroglossia), modes of speaking or writing that people learn to mimic, weave together, and manipulate (such as "formal letter" and "grocery list", or "university lecture" and "personal anecdote"). In this sense genres are socially specified: recognized and defined (often informally) by a particular culture or community. The work of Georg Lukács also touches on the nature of literary genres, appearing separately but around the same time (1920s–1930s) as Bakhtin. Norman Fairclough has a similar concept of genre that emphasises the social context of the text: Genres are "different ways of (inter)acting discoursally" (Fairclough, 2003: 26) Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. ... Mikhail Bakhtin. ... In linguistics, the term heteroglossia describes the coexistence of distinct varieties within a single linguistic code. ... Georg Lukács (April 13, 1885 – June 4, 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher and literary critic in the tradition of Western Marxism. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... Norman Fairclough (1941 -) is emeritus Professor of Linguistics at Lancaster University. ...


However, this is just one way of conceiveing genre. Charaudeau & Maingueneau determine four different analytic conceptualisations of genre. A text's genre may be determined by its: 1. Linguistic function. 2. Formal traits. 3. Textual organisation. 4. Relation of communicative situation to formal and organisational traits of the text (Charaudeau & Maingueneau 2002: 278-80).


List of Genres

  • Historical: A real life event of a person or event. Often, they are written in a text book format.
    • Biography: A true life account of a real person. The story of their life is usually told from the main character's point of view.
      • Autobiography: The same thing as a biography, but the story is written by the person who is the subject of the story.
    • Historical Fiction: A story that takes place in the real world, with real world people, but with several made up elements.
  • Adventure: A story about a protagonist who journeys to epic or distant places to accomplish something. It can have many other genre elements mixed with it because it is a very open genre.
  • Action: A story, similar to Adventure, but the protagonist usually takes a risky turn, which leads to desperate situations. Action and Adventure are usually categorized together because they have a lot in common.
    • Superhero: A story about a person or creature who possesses supernatural abilities. Often, they use their abilities to protect or avenge people.
    • Military: A story about a war or battle that can either be historical or fictional. It usually follows the events a certain warrior goes through during the battle's events.
    • Spy: A story about a secret agent or military personal who is sent on a secret mission. Usually, they are equipped with special gadgets that prove useful during the mission. Usually, the secret agent's mission is not for battle.
    • Swashbuckler: A story about a protagonist who gets into risky situations. In the story, the protagonist is usually in fights against villains, using weapons. The single handed sword is most commonly used by the protagonists in this genre.
  • Science Fiction: A story about technology or the future. It is usually about machines or space travel, often lacking the reason the technology works. It commonly has action and adventure elements mixed in with it.
    • Military Science Fiction: A story about a war or battle against aliens, monsters or other nations. It usually has technology far superior to today's.
    • Space Opera: A story characterized by the extent of space travel and distinguished by the amount of time that protagonists spend in an active, spacefaring lifestyle.
    • Steam Punk: A story that takes place around the time steam technology was first coming into use. The industrial revolution is a common time frame steam punk stories take place in.
  • Fantasy: A story about magic and supernatural forces, rather than technology.
    • Science Fantasy: A story with mystical elements that are scientifically explainable.
    • High Fantasy: A story that takes place in a completely different world or universe, having different races, traditions and even religions. Often, there aren't any real world events that tie into the story.
  • Romance: A story about character's relationships, or engagements. It's a story about character development, rather than adventures.
  • Crime Fiction: A story about a crime that is being committed or was committed. It can also be an account of a criminal's life. It often falls into the Action genre.
    • Mystery: A story about a detective or person who has to solve a crime that was committed. They must figure out who committed the crime and why. Sometimes, the detective must figure out 'how' the criminal committed the crime if it seems impossible.
      • Murder Mystery: A story, similar to a mystery, but it focuses on one type of criminal case. Usually, there is a murder victim, and the detective must figure out who killed him, the same way he solves other crimes.
  • Drama: A story about character's and their personal or moral problems. Usually, the character's personal problems tie into a much larger story about their life, or somebody else's.
  • Comedy: A story that tells about a series of funny or comical events, intended to make the audience laugh. It can have a lot of genre cross overs, because it is very open.
  • Documentary: A story that re-tells events rather than create them. Usually, it is about true historic events.
    • Mockumentary: A story that isn't about true historical events. It is the opposite of a Documentary. It is usually about made up events.
  • Horror: A story that is told to deliberately scare the audience, through suspense, violence or shock.
    • Monster: A story about a monster, creature or mutant that terrorizes people. Usually, it fits into the horror genre.
      • Giant Monster: A story about a giant monster, similar to the monster genre. However, giant monster stories are about a monster big enough to destroy buildings. Some stories are about two giant monsters fighting each other.
    • Slasher: A story that usually has an antagonist, who is a serial killer or insane. The slasher usually kills his victims in the movie, by slowly creeping up to them, and quickly killing them with a sharp object. Then they walk away silently, leaving the victim dead.
  • Thriller: A story that is usually a mix of fear and excitement. It has traits from the action genre, but the suspense and terror almost makes it a horror. It usually has a dark theme, which also makes it similar to a drama.
    • Disaster-Thriller: A thriller story about mass peril, and the protagonist's job is to save a lot of people from a grim fate.
    • Psychological-Thriller: A thriller that is less about the action, and more about the mental health of the hero. The hero usually had mental problems that get in the way of his objective. Some Psychological Thrillers are also about complicated stories that try to deliberately confuse the audience.
    • Crime-Thriller: A thriller story that revolves around the life of detectives, mobs, or other groups associated with criminal events in the story.
    • Techo-Thriller: A thriller story whose theme is usually technology, or the danger behind the technology people use.

Genres unique to movies. History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ... Look up historical fiction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up adventure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... For other uses, see Superhero (disambiguation). ... SPY may refer to: SPY (spiders), ticker symbol for Standard & Poors Depository Receipts SPY (magazine), a satirical monthly, trademarked all-caps SPY (Ivory Coast), airport code for San Pédro, Côte dIvoire SPY (Ship Planning Yard), a U.S. Navy acronym SPY, short for MOWAG SPY, a... For other uses, see Swashbuckler (disambiguation). ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Starship Troopers by Robert A. Heinlein is a well-known example of military science fiction. ... Classic pulp space opera cover, with the usual cliché elements. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Science fantasy is a mixed genre of story which contains some science fiction and some fantasy elements. ... High fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with mystery_fiction. ... Look up mystery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Mockumentary (also known as a pseudo-documentary)[1], a portmanteau of mock and documentary, is a film and TV genre, or a single work of the genre. ... “Horror story” redirects here. ... This article is about the legendary creature. ... A self propelled Case Windrower. ... For other uses, see Antagonist (disambiguation). ... The thriller is a broad genre of literature, film, and television. ...

  • Animation: It's a genre that isn't about the story's contents. Its about the visual effects in movies instead.
    • Live Action: A genre that doesn't fall into animation. Its a way of filming movies, using real people, props and sets. However, the visual effects in some films have CGI, but the film still falls under live action, as long as the human characters are played by real people.
    • Traditional Animation: It's one of the oldest animation genres. Basically, its a way of animating a cartoon, by drawing and painting pictures. The drawings are different frames of animation, and when they are flipped at the right speed, they give the illusion of movement.
    • Stop Motion: A genre similar to Traditional Animation. However, instead of using hand drawn pictures, stop motions films are made with small figurines that have their picture taken millions of times. Flipping these pictures the same way as Traditional Animation, it looks like the small figurines are moving.
    • Computer Generated Images (CGI): A way of animating a cartoon on a computer modeling program. Models of characters or props are created on the computer, and then animated to do something specific. Then, when the animation is completely programed, the computer can play a completely computer generated movie. CGI is often used for the visual effects in Live Action films as well.
    • Puppetry: Although, it is technically Live Action, puppetry is a different way of animating a movie. Usually, there are small figurines (similar to stop motion), but the figurines are controlled and animated in real time. Puppetry can be found in Live Action films, similar to CGI.

Genres unique to television. The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... In film and video, live action refers to works that are acted out by flesh-and-blood actors, as opposed to animation. ... Traditional animation, also referred to as classical animation, cel animation, or hand-drawn animation, is the oldest and historically the most popular form of animation. ... Stop motion is an animation technique which makes things that are static appear to be moving. ... A puppeteer is a person who manipulates a puppet or marionette, either by the use of strings, wires or their hands, for a stage production or film. ...

  • Serial: A television show which is one continuous story. Each episode picks up from where the last one left off. The story may shift with a new season.
  • Game Show: A television show depicting a real contest, typically a quiz or physical challenge, with rewards in prizes or money. The players may include celebrities.
  • Reality Show: A television show, purportedly unscripted, featuring non-actors.
  • Sitcom: Short for Situation Comedy, a show about everyday life.

Genres unique to video games. Serials in television and radio are series, often in a weekly prime time slot, that rely on a continuing plot that unfolds in a serial fashion, episode by episode. ... Quiz show redirects here. ... // This article is about the genre of TV shows. ... A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ...

  • Shooter: A game where the main purpose is to fight and shoot guns to win.
    • First Person Shooter: A shooting game. In the game, the camera is actually in place of the character's eyes, so you are playing the game from his point of view.
    • Third Person Shooter:: A shooting game. In the game the camera is actually hovering over the playable character as you play.
  • Strategy: A game where the purpose is to strategize. You have an opponent with the same abilities as you, more or less, and to beat him, you must use your abilities in a much more tactical way.
    • Real Time Strategy (RTS): A strategy game where everybody plays at the same time, and races to think of a better strategy than the other players. Most of these video games are about military.
      • Massive Multiplayer Online Real Time Strategy (MMORTS): A Real Time Strategy game that is played online. Many players can sign on a play at the same time, creating empires and battling each other.
    • Turn Based Strategy: A strategy game where everybody takes turns. Once everybody has placed their units and military characters in the right spot they can't move again until the next turn begins.
  • Musical: A game where music is usually played. To win, the players must match the rhythm of the music by pushing the right button combination until their opponents are unable to keep up with them.
  • Simulation: A game where you must manage and develop a real world, or fictitious business. For example, in a game you might be asked the manage and build a zoo, and the game simulates this for you in as accurate a way as possible.
  • Puzzle: A game were you must solve puzzles in order to progress through the levels.
  • Platform: Usually, it is a game where the playable character must go around and collect key items that prove useful in game play. To collect these items, the character usually has to help non playable characters with basic tasks.
  • Fighting: A game where two or more playable characters fight. Each character usually has their own unique moves, and the goal of the game, usually, is to be the last man standing.
  • Side Scroller: A really basic type of game. Each playable character can only move in four directions. Up, down, left and right. They can't move forwards and backwards.
  • Role Playing Game {RPG}: A game that isn't about combat. It's a game where the player plays a character, and goes around pretending to be a real person in a fictitious world.
    • Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG): A game similar to a regular Role Playing Game, but it is a multiplayer. During this game, thousands of players can play the same game at the same time. Players sign on and play and have competitions with other players while the game is commencing.

Genres unique to music Shooter games cover a fairly broad spectrum of sub-genres that have the commonality of controlling a character who is usually armed with a firearm that can be freely aimed. ... A first-person shooter (FPS) is a computer or video game where the players on-screen view of the game world simulates that of the character, and there is some element of shooting involved. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand by its nature of being extensively premeditated, and often practically rehearsed. ... Dune 2 (1992), an early RTS A real-time strategy (RTS) game is a type of computer strategy game which does not have turns like conventional turn-based strategy video or board games. ... The Battle for Wesnoth turn-based strategy, released under the GPL. A turn-based game, also known as turn-based strategy, is a game where the game flow is partitioned into well-defined and visible parts, called turns or rounds. ... The art of singing and dancing in a prepared fictional play has been a time-honored tradition ranging to the early days of civilization. ... This article is about the general term. ... A puzzle undone, which forms a cube Puzzle cube; a type of puzzle For other uses, see Puzzle (disambiguation). ... A simple platform sequence from the game Wonder Boy Platform game, or platformer, is a video game genre characterized by jumping to and from suspended platforms or over obstacles. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about traditional role-playing games. ... ...

  • Classical: Music that was composed in the 18th and 19th centuries by popular artist, like Beethoven.
  • Folk: Musical adaptions of old stories that were passed from generation to generation. They were popular in the early 20th century.
  • Rock: Music that originated from Folk. It used newer electrical instruments instead of the classical woodwinds and stringed instruments. It first became popular in the mid 20th century because of famous bands, like The Beatles.
  • Heavy Metal: Similar to Rock. It usually uses the same electrical instruments, but the music is more pumped up and intense.
  • Pop: Usually, it refers to any popular music during the time period. It is commonly placed in the mid 20th century, along side Rock music. Usually, it has an intense 'groove' to the tone.
  • Blues: Gentle music that was common in the early 20th century. They almost always use woodwinds, and don't always need voices to go along with the melody.

This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the present. ... Folk can refer to a number of different things: It can be short for folk music, or, for folksong, or, for folklore; it may be a word for a specific people, tribe, or nation, especially one of the Germanic peoples; it might even be a calque on the related German... This article is about the genre. ... Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ... This article is about the genre of popular music. ... Blues music redirects here. ...

References

Charaudeau, P.; Maingueneau, D. & Adam, J. Dictionnaire d'analyse du discours Seuil, 2002


Fairclough, Norman. Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research Routledge, 2003


External links

Look up Genre in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Music genre - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3769 words)
Gospel is a musical genre characterised by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a religious nature, particularly Christian.
Some genre labels are quite vague, and may be contrived by critics; post-rock, for example, is a term devised and defined by Simon Reynolds.
Moreover, the use of genre labels may actually drive the development of new music (especially in a commercial context) insofar as it helps cultivate the interest and participation of a target audience in the early and middle stages of a musical trend.
Genre - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (494 words)
genre is a division of a particular form of art or utterance according to criteria particular to that form.
Genres are formed by sets of conventions, and many works cross into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions.
Bakhtin's basic observations were of "speech genres" (the idea of heteroglossia), modes of speaking or writing that people learn to mimic, weave together, and manipulate (such as "formal letter" and "grocery list", or "university lecture" and "personal anecdote").
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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