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Encyclopedia > Genotyping

Genotyping refers to the process of determining the genotype of an individual with a biological assay. Current methods of doing this include PCR, DNA sequencing, and hybridization to DNA microarrays or beads. The technology is intrinsic for test on father/motherhood and in clinical research for the investigation of disease-associated genes. Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An assay is a procedure where the concentration of a component part of a mixture is determined. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The term DNA sequencing encompasses biochemical methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, in a DNA oligonucleotide. ... Hybridisation is the process of combining complementary, single-stranded nucleic acids into a single molecule. ... It has been suggested that Gene chip technology be merged into this article or section. ...

Due to current technological limitations, almost all genotyping is partial. That is, only a small fraction of an individual’s genotype is determined. New innovations, like the Human-1 BeadChip developed by Illumina or mass-sequencing technologies, promise to provide whole-genome genotyping in the future.

Genotyping applies to a broad range of "individuals" including microorganisms. Viruses for instance, or bacteria, can be genotyped. Genotyping in this context may help in controlling the spreading of pathogens, by tracing the origin of outbreaks. This area is often referred to as molecular epidemiology or forensic microbiology. Stop editing pages god ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Molecular Epidemiology is a branch of public health that deals with the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and control of the disease in groups of relatives and populations. ...

The "individuals" can also be human beings. When testing for father-/motherhood for instance, scientists typically only need to look at 10 or 20 genomic regions (like Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) to determine relationship or lack thereof. That is a tiny fraction of the human genome, which consists of three billion or so nucleotides. DNA strand 1 differs from DNA strand 2 at a single base-pair location (a C/T polymorphism). ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ...

When genotyping transgenic organisms, a single genomic region may be all that scientists need to look at to determine the genotype. The mouse is the mammalian model of choice for much of medical research today. A single PCR assay is typically enough to genotype a transgenic mouse. Companies that provide mouse genotyping services include Taconic, GeneTyper,TransnetYX and Mouse Genotype LLC. A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been deliberately altered. ... This article is about the animal. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the animal. ...

See also

In the genetic analysis of families, a Mendelian error describes an allele in a child which could not have been received from any of their biological parents. ... Inheritance of quantitative traits refers to the inheritance of a phenotypic characteristic that varies in degree and can be attributed to the interactions between two or more genes and their environment (also called Polygenic inheritance). ... Genotyping provides a measurement of the genetic variation between members of a species. ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
Genotype (306 words)
Genotype is the genetic makeup encoded in an individual's DNA.
Genotype and phenotype are often not directly correlated; some genes are triggered only by special environmental conditions, and some phenotypes are the result of multiple genotypes.
The determination of genotype was pioneered by Gregor Mendel, the father of genetics.
Genotype - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (501 words)
The genotype is the specific genetic makeup (the specific genome) of an individual, in the form of DNA.
Typically, one refers to an individual's genotype with regard to a particular gene of interest and, in polyploid individuals, it refers to what combination of alleles the individual carries (see homozygous, heterozygous).
The distinction between genotype and phenotype is commonly experienced when studying family patterns for certain hereditary diseases or conditions, for example, hemophilia.
  More results at FactBites »



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