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Encyclopedia > Genotype

Genotype describes the genetic constitution of an individual, that is the specific allelic makeup of an individual, usually with reference to a specific character under consideration [1]. For instance, there are three possible genotypes for the human albino gene, and it has two allelic forms, dominant A and recessive a. Thus the three possible genotypes are AA (homozygous dominant), Aa (heterozygous), and aa (homozygous recessive). For the hard rock band, see Allele (band). ...


It is a generally accepted theory that inherited genotype, transmitted epigenetic factors, and non-hereditary environmental variation contribute to the phenotype of an individual. Epigenetic inheritance is the transmission of information from a cell or multicellular organism to its descendants without that information being encoded in the nucleotide sequence of the gene. ... For the scientific journal Heredity see Heredity (journal) Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characters from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ...


Non-hereditary DNA mutations are not classically understood as representing the individuals' genotype. Hence, scientists and doctors sometimes talk for example about the (geno)type of a particular cancer, that is the genotype of the disease as distinct from the diseased. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...

Contents

Genotype and genomic sequence

Main article: Genome

One's genotype differs subtly from one's genomic sequence. A sequence is an absolute measure of base composition of an individual, or a representative of a species or group; a genotype typically implies a measurement of how an individual differs or is specialized within a group of individuals or a species. So typically, one refers to an individual's genotype with regard to a particular gene of interest and, in polyploid individuals, it refers to what combination of alleles the individual carries (see homozygous, heterozygous). In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms contain more than one copy (ploidy) of their chromosomes. ... For the hard rock band, see Allele (band). ... Homozygote cells are diploid or polyploid and have the same alleles at a locus (position) on homologous chromosomes. ... Heterozygote cells are diploid or polyploid and have different alleles at a locus (position) on homologous chromosomes. ...


Genotype and phenotype

Main article: Phenotype

Any given gene will usually cause an observable change in an organism, known as the phenotype. The terms genotype and phenotype are distinct for at least two reasons: Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... The genotype-phenotype distinction refers to the fact that while genotype and phenotype of an organism are related, they do not necessarily coincide. ...

  1. To distinguish the source of an observer's knowledge (one can know about genotype by observing DNA; one can know about phenotype by observing outward appearance of an organism).
  2. Genotype and phenotype are not always directly correlated. Some genes only express a given phenotype in certain environmental conditions. Conversely, some phenotypes could be the result of multiple genotypes. The genotype is commonly mixed up with the Phenotype which describes the end result of both the genetic and the environmental factors giving the observed expression (e.g. blue eyes, hair colour, or various hereditary diseases).

A simple example to illustrate genotype as distinct from phenotype is the flower colour in pea plants (see [Gregor Mendel]). There are three available genotypes, PP (homozygous dominant), Pp (heterozygous), and pp (homozygous recessive). All three have different genotypes but the first two have the same phenotype (purple) as distinct from the third (white). Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ...


A more technical example to illustrate genotype is the single nucleotide polymorphism or SNP. A SNP occurs when corresponding sequences of DNA from different individuals differ at one DNA base, for example where the sequence AAGCCTA changes to AAGCTTA. This contains two alleles : C and T. SNPs typically have three genotypes, denoted generically AA Aa and aa. In the example above, the three genotypes would be CC, CT and TT. Other types of genetic marker, such as microsatellites, can have more than two alleles, and thus many different genotypes. DNA strand 1 differs from DNA strand 2 at a single base-pair location (a C/T polymorphism). ... A genetic marker is a known DNA sequences (e. ... A microsatellite is a short, noncoding DNA sequence (a Tandemly Repetitive DNA sequence) that is repeated many times within the genome of an organism. ...


Genotype and Mendelian inheritance

Main article: Mendelian inheritance

The distinction between genotype and phenotype is commonly experienced when studying family patterns for certain hereditary diseases or conditions, for example, haemophilia. Due to the diploidy of humans (and most animals), there are two [allele]s for any given gene. These [allele]s can be the same ([homozygous]) or different([heterozygous]), depending on the individual (see zygosity). With a [dominant] allele, the offspring is guaranteed to inherit the trait in question irrespective of the second allele. With a recessive allele, the phenotype depends upon the other allele. In the case of haemophilia and similarly recessive diseases a heterozygous individual is a carrier. This person has a normal phenotype but runs a 50-50 risk of passing his or her abnormal gene on to offspring. A homozygous dominant individual has a normal phenotype and no risk of abnormal offspring. A homozygous recessive individual has an abnormal phenotype and is guaranteed to pass the abnormal gene onto offspring. Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their children; it underlies much of genetics. ... A genetic disorder is a disease caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Genotype and genetics

Main article: Genetics

With careful experimental design, one can use statistical methods to correlate differences in the genotypes of populations with differences in their observed phenotype. These genetic association studies can be used to determine the genetic risk factors associated with a disease. They may even be able to differentiate between populations who may or may not respond favorably to a particular drug treatment. Such an approach is known as personalized medicine or pharmacogenetics. DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... The first statistician to consider a methodology for the design of experiments was Sir Ronald A. Fisher. ... A graph of a normal bell curve showing statistics used in educational assessment and comparing various grading methods. ... In probability theory and statistics, correlation, also called correlation coefficient, is a numeric measure of the strength of linear relationship between two random variables. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... A risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection but risk factors are not necessarily causal. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... For other meanings, see Drug (disambiguation). ... Personalized medicine is the use of detailed information about a patients genotype or level of gene expression and a patients clinical data in order to select a medication, therapy or preventative measure that is particularly suited to that patient at the time of administration. ... The terms pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics tend to be used interchangeably, and a precise, consensus definition of either remains elusive. ...


Genotype and mathematics

Main articles: Genetic programming and evolutionary algorithm

Inspired by the biological concept and usefulness of genotypes, computer science employs simulated genotypes in genetic programming and evolutionary algorithms. Such techniques can help evolve mathematical solutions to certain types of otherwise difficult problems. Genetic programming (GP) is an evolutionary algorithm based methodology inspired by biological evolution to find computer programs that perform a user-defined task. ... In artificial intelligence, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) is a subset of evolutionary computation, a generic population-based metaheuristic optimization algorithm. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Genetic programming (GP) is an evolutionary algorithm based methodology inspired by biological evolution to find computer programs that perform a user-defined task. ... In artificial intelligence, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) is a subset of evolutionary computation, a generic population-based metaheuristic optimization algorithm. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ...


Determining Genotype

Main article: Genotyping

Genotyping is the process of ellucidating the genotype of an individual with a biological assay. Also known as a genotypic assay, techniques include PCR, DNA fragment analysis, sequencing, and nucleic acid hybridization to microarrays or beads. Several common genotyping techniques include Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (t-RFLP)[1], Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP)[2], and Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA)[3]. DNA fragment analysis can also be used to determine such disease causing genetics abberations as Microsatellite Instability (MSI)[4], Trisomy [5] or Aneuploidy, and Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH)[6]. MSI and LOH in particular have been associated with cancer cell genotypes for colon, breast, and cervical cancer. The most common chromosomal aneuploidy is a trisomy of chromosome 21 which manifests itself as Down Syndrome. Current technological limitations typically allow only a fraction of an individual’s genotype to be determined efficiently. Genotyping refers to the process of determining the genotype of an individual with a biological assay. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Genotyping refers to the process of determining the genotype of an individual with a biological assay. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A restriction digest is a molecular biology procedure used to prepare DNA for analysis or other processing. ... The term DNA sequencing encompasses biochemical methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, in a DNA oligonucleotide. ... Hybridization is the process, discovered by Alexander Rich, of combining complementary, single-stranded nucleic acids into a single molecule. ... A DNA microarray (also DNA chip or gene chip in common speech) is a piece of glass or plastic on which pieces of DNA have been affixed in a microscopic array. ... In molecular biology, the term restriction fragment length polymorphism (or RFLP) is used in two related contexts: as a characteristic of DNA molecules (arising from their differing nucleotide sequences) by which they may be distinguished, and as the laboratory technique which uses this characteristic to compare DNA molecules. ... Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (TRFLP or sometimes T-RFLP) is a molecular biology technique initially developed for characterizing bacterial communities in mixed-species samples. ... Amplified fragment length polymorphism PCR, or AFLP-PCR (often AFLP), is a tool used in the study of genetics and in the practice of genetic engineering. ... Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a variation of the polymerase chain reaction that permits multiple targets to be amplified with only a single primer pair[1]. Each probe consists of a pair of primers that straddle the target site of interest and are subsequently ligated into a complete... Microsatellites are repeated sequences of DNA. Although the length of these microsatellites is highly variable from person to person, each individual has microsatellites of a set length. ... Aneuploidy is a change in the number of chromosomes that can lead to a chromosomal disorder. ... Loss of heterozygosity in a cell represents the loss of a single parents contribution to part of its genome. ...


References

Look up genotype, phenotype, inheritance, genome in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  1. ^ wiktionary:genotype retrieved 2007-Apr-22

  Results from FactBites:
 
Genotype (306 words)
Genotype is the genetic makeup encoded in an individual's DNA.
Genotype and phenotype are often not directly correlated; some genes are triggered only by special environmental conditions, and some phenotypes are the result of multiple genotypes.
The determination of genotype was pioneered by Gregor Mendel, the father of genetics.
Genotype - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (501 words)
The genotype is the specific genetic makeup (the specific genome) of an individual, in the form of DNA.
Typically, one refers to an individual's genotype with regard to a particular gene of interest and, in polyploid individuals, it refers to what combination of alleles the individual carries (see homozygous, heterozygous).
The distinction between genotype and phenotype is commonly experienced when studying family patterns for certain hereditary diseases or conditions, for example, hemophilia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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