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Encyclopedia > Genomics

Genomics is the study of an organism's entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in today's medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. Image File history File links Information. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ...


Genomics can be said to have appeared in the Rathore et al, 1980s, and took off in the 1990s with the initiation of genome projects for several biological species. A major branch of genomics is still concerned with sequencing the genomes of various organisms, but the knowledge of full genomes has created the possibility for the field of functional genomics, mainly concerned with patterns of [[gene expression]Rathore et al, ] during various conditions. The most important tools here are microarrays and bioinformatics. Study of the full set of proteins in a cell type or tissue, and the changes during various condition, is called proteomics. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Genome projects are scientific endeavours that aim to map the genome of a living being or of a species (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus), that is, the complete set of genes caried by this living being or virus. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... A DNA microarray Functional genomics is a field of molecular biology that attempts to make use of the vast wealth of data produced by genomic projects (such as genome sequencing projects) to describe gene (and protein!) functions and interactions. ... A DNA microarray (also DNA chip or gene chip in common speech) is a piece of glass or plastic on which pieces of DNA have been affixed in a microscopic array. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In 1972, Walter Fiers and his team at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology of the University of Ghent (Ghent, Belgium) were the first to determine the sequence of a gene: the gene for Bacteriophage MS2 coat protein.[1] In 1976, the team determined the complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA.[2] The first DNA-based genome to be sequenced in its entirety was that of bacteriophage Φ-X174; (5,368 bp), sequenced by Frederick Sanger in 1977[3]. The first free-living organism to be sequenced was that of Haemophilus influenzae (1.8 Mb) in 1995, and since then genomes are being sequenced at a rapid pace. A rough draft of the human genome was completed by the Human Genome Project in early 2001, creating much fanfare. Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Walter Fiers was born in Ieper (Belgium) in 1931. ... Ghent University (in Dutch, Universiteit Gent, abbreviated UGent) is one of the two large Flemish universities. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province East Flanders Arrondissement Ghent Coordinates , , Area 156. ... The bacteriophage MS2 or Bacillus phage M2 (Caudovirales, Podoviridae) infects Bacillus subtilis. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A bacteriophage (from bacteria and Greek phagein, to eat) is a virus that infects bacteria. ... The Phi-X174 phage was the first organism to have its genome sequenced. ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... Frederick Sanger, OM, CH, CBE, FRS (born 13 August 1918) is an English biochemist and a two time Nobel laureate in Chemistry. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Binomial name Haemophilus influenzae (Lehmann & Neumann 1896) Winslow 1917 Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffers bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... // The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a project to de-code (i. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


As of January 2005, the complete sequence was known of about 1,000 viruses, 220 bacterial species and roughly 20 eukaryote organisms, of which about half are fungi. [4] Most of the bacteria whose genomes have been completely sequenced are problematic disease-causing agents, such as Haemophilus influenzae. Of the other sequenced species, most were chosen because they were well-studied model organisms or promised to become good models. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has long been an important model organism for the eukaryotic cell, while the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been a very important tool (notably in early pre-molecular genetics). The worm Caenorhabditis elegans is an often used simple model for multicellular organisms. The zebrafish Brachydanio rerio is used for many developmental studies on the molecular level and the flower Arabidopsis thaliana is a model organism for flowering plants. The Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) and the spotted green pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) are interesting because of their small and compact genomes, containing very little non-coding DNA compared to most species. [5] [6] The mammals dog (Canis familiaris), [7] brown rat (Rattus norvegicus), mouse (Mus musculus), and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) are all important model animals in medical research. Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Binomial name Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Binomial name Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 [1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... Binomial name Caenorhabditis elegans Maupas, 1900 Caenorhabditis elegans (IPA: ) is a free-living nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, which lives in temperate soil environments. ... Wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite stained to highlight the nuclei of all cells Multicellular organisms are organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... Binomial name Danio rerio (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) The Zebra Danio or Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio or Danio rerio) is a tropical fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae). ... Binomial name Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ... This article is about the genus of pufferfish Takifugu; for the Japanese dish, see fugu. ... Binomial name Tetraodon nigrovirdis Marion de Procé, 1822 The green spotted puffer, Tetraodon nigroviridis, is a tropical fish found in India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand [1]. These fish can grow up to 6in (15cm). ... For other members of the dog family, see Canidae. ... Binomial name Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) The Brown Rat or Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) is one of the most well-known and common rats, and also one of the largest. ... Binomial name Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 Mus musculus is the common house mouse. ... Binomial name Pan troglodytes Blumenbach, 1799 The Common Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is a great ape. ...


See Also

Modern genomics has been deined in many ways: * The study of genomes. ...

References

  1. ^ Min Jou W, Haegeman G, Ysebaert M, Fiers W., Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the bacteriophage MS2 coat protein, Nature. 1972 May 12;237(5350):82-8
  2. ^ Fiers W et al., Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene, Nature, 260, 500-507, 1976
  3. ^ Sanger F, Air GM, Barrell BG, Brown NL, Coulson AR, Fiddes CA, Hutchison CA, Slocombe PM, Smith M., Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA, Nature. 1977 Feb 24;265(5596):687-95
  4. ^ Nationalencyklopedin, encyclopaedia in Swedish, the article Genom. Web edition, available only to subscribers
  5. ^ BBC article Human gene number slashed from Wednesday, 20 October, 2004
  6. ^ CBSE News, Thursday October 16, 2003
  7. ^ NHGRI, pressrelease of the publishing of the dog genome
Genomics topics
Genome project | Paleopolyploidy | Glycomics | Human Genome Project | Proteomics
Chemogenomics | Structural genomics | Pharmacogenetics | Pharmacogenomics | Toxicogenomics
Bioinformatics | Cheminformatics | Systems biology

  Results from FactBites:
 
Genome - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (974 words)
The study of the global properties of genomes of related organisms is usually referred to as genomics, which distinguishes it from genetics which generally studies the properties of single genes or groups of genes.
Since genomes and their organisms are very complex, one research strategy is to reduce the number of genes in a genome to the bare minimum and still have the organism in question survive.
Genomes are more than the sum of an organism's genes and have traits that may be measured and studied without reference to the details of any particular genes and their products.
Human Genome Project - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3032 words)
The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a project to map the human genome down to the nucleotide (or base pair) level and to identify all the genes present in it.
Due to widespread international cooperation and advances in the field of genomics (especially in sequence analysis), as well as huge advances in computing technology, a 'rough draft' of the genome was finished in 2000 (announced jointly by then US president Bill Clinton and British Prime Minister Tony Blair on June 26, 2000 [1]).
The Human Genome Diversity Project, spinoff research aimed at mapping the DNA that varies between human ethnic groups, which was rumored to have been halted, actually did continue and to date has yielded new conclusions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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