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Encyclopedia > Genome reduction

Genome reduction (Genome degradation) is the process by which a Genome is also a popular science book by Matt Ridley. In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). This includes both the genes and the non-coding sequences. More precisely, the genome... genome shrinks relative to its ancestor. Genomes fluctuate in size regularly, especially in Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria is also the fictional name of a warring nation under Benzino Napaloni as dictator, in the 1940 film The Great Dictator... Bacteria, but in some situations a genome has drastically lost content in some period.

The most This article is about biological evolution. For other possible meanings, see Evolution (disambiguation). Charles Darwin, the father of evolutionary theory Evolution generally refers to any process of change over time. In the context of life science, evolution is a change in the genetic makeup of a population of interbreeding individuals... evolutionary significant cases of genome reduction may be the Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. They include the animals, plants, and fungi, which are mostly multicellular, as well as various other groups called protists, many of which are unicellular. In contrast, other organisms such as bacteria lack... eukaryotic In cell biology, an organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell. Organelles were historically identified through the use of some form of microscopy and were also identified through the use of cell fractionation. A few large organelles probably originated from... organelles that are derived from bacteria. The In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. Mitochondria are sometimes described as cellular power plants because their primary purpose is to manufacture adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is used as a source of energy. The number of mitochondria found in different types of... mitochondrion and Plastids are a class of membrane-bound organelles found in plant and algal cells. In plants, they may differentiate into several forms, depending upon which function they need to play in the cell. Undifferentiated plastids (proplastids) may develop into any of the following plastids: Amyloplasts: for starch storage Chloroplasts: for... plastid. These organelles are descended from An endosymbiont (also known as intracellular symbiont) is any organism that lives within cells of another organism, i.e. forming an endosymbiosis (Greek: endo = inner and biosis = living). For instance, some nitrogen fixing bacteria (e.g. in Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium) live in plants, and several insect species contain obligate... endosymbionts, which could only survive within the host cell and which the host cell likewise needs for survival. Many mitochondria have less than 20 genes in their entire genome, whereas a free-living bacteria generally has at least 1000 genes. Many genes have been transfered to the host In cell biology, the nucleus (from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, kernel) is an organelle, found in the majority of eukaryotic cells, which contains most of the cells genetic material. Nuclei have two primary functions: to control chemical reactions within the cytoplasm and to store information needed for cellular division... nucleus, while others have simply been lost and their function replaced by host processes.

Other bacteria have become endosymbionts or obligate intracellular A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. A synonym of pathogen is infectious agent. The term pathogen is most often used for agents that disrupt the normal... pathogens and experienced extensive genome reduction as a result. This process seems to be dominated by Genetic drift is a mechanism of evolution that acts in concert with natural selection to change the characteristics of species over time. It is a stochastic effect that arises from the role of random sampling in the production of offspring. Like selection, it acts on populations, altering the frequency of... genetic drift resulting from small Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation and migration. It also takes account of population subdivision and population structure in space. As such, it is the theory that attempts to... population size, low Genetic recombination is the process by which the combination of genes in an organisms offspring becomes different from the combination of genes in that organism. This definition is commonly used in classical genetics, evolutionary biology, and population genetics. However, in molecular biology, recombination generally refers to the molecular process... recombination rates, and high This article is about mutation in biology, for other meanings see: mutation (disambiguation). Mutations are permanent, transmissible changes to the genetic material (usually DNA or RNA) of a cell. Mutations can be caused by copying errors in the genetic material during cell division and by exposure to radiation, chemicals, or... mutation rates, as opposed to Alternative meaning Natural Selection (computer game). Natural selection is the primary mechanism within the scientific theory of evolution, i.e. it alters the frequency of alleles within a population. It was first proposed as the main mechanism of evolution by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in 1858. Natural selection... selection for smaller genomes.

A Cyanobacteria (Greek: cyanos = blue) are a phylum of aquatic bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis. They are often referred to as blue-green algae, even though it is now known that they are not related to any of the other algal groups, which are all eukaryotes. Nonetheless, the description... cyanobacterium also shows signs of genome reduction, but with continued selection.

  Results from FactBites:
Genome reduction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (226 words)
Genome reduction (Genome degradation) is the process by which a genome shrinks relative to its ancestor.
Genomes fluctuate in size regularly, especially in Bacteria, but in some situations a genome has drastically lost content in some period.
The most evolutionary significant cases of genome reduction may be the eukaryotic organelles that are derived from bacteria.
  More results at FactBites »



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