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Encyclopedia > Genome

In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). This includes both the genes and the non-coding sequences. The term was coined in 1920 by Hans Winkler, Professor of Botany at the University of Hamburg, Germany, as a portmanteau of the words gene and chromosome. Biology (from Greek βίος λόγος, see below) is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. ... The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid — usually in the form of a double helix — that contains the genetic instructions monitoring the biological development of all cellular forms of life, and many viruses. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... In molecular biology, junk DNA is a collective label for the portions of the DNA sequence of a chromosome or a genome for which no function has yet been identified. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... Professor Hans Winkler (23 April 1877 - 22 November 1945) was a German botanist. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ... The University of Hamburg was founded on the 1 April 1919 by Wilhelm Stern and others. ... Look up Portmanteau word in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


More precisely, the genome of an organism is a complete DNA sequence of one set of chromosomes; for example, one of the two sets that a diploid individual carries in every somatic cell. The term genome can be applied specifically to mean the complete set of nuclear DNA (i.e., the "nuclear genome") but can also be applied to organelles that contain their own DNA, as with the mitochondrial genome or the chloroplast genome. When people say that the genome of a sexually reproducing species has been "sequenced," typically they are referring to a determination of the sequences of one set of autosomes and one of each type of sex chromosome, which together represent both of the possible sexes. Even in species that exist in only one sex, what is described as "a genome sequence" may be a composite from the chromosomes of various individuals. In general use, the phrase "genetic makeup" is sometimes used conversationally to mean the genome of a particular individual or organism. The study of the global properties of genomes of related organisms is usually referred to as genomics, which distinguishes it from genetics which generally studies the properties of single genes or groups of genes. In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a living complex adaptive system of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function as a more or less stable whole. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... Figure 1: Chromosome. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... A somatic cell is generally taken to mean any cell forming the body of an organism: the word somatic is derived from the Greek word sōma, meaning body. Somatic cells, by definition, are not germline cells . ... In cell biology, the nucleus (from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, kernel) is found in all eukaryotic cells and contains the nuclear genes which form most of the cells genetic material. ... In cell biology, an organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell. ... The mitochondrial genome is the genetic material of the mitochondria. ... The inside of a chloroplast Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Sexual reproduction is a type of reproduction that results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... An autosome is a non-sex chromosome. ... A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms genome and the use of the genes. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ...

Contents


Types of genomes

Most biological entities more complex than a virus sometimes or always carry additional genetic material besides that which resides in their chromosomes. In some contexts, such as sequencing the genome of a pathogenic microbe, "genome" is meant to include this auxiliary material, which is carried in plasmids. In such circumstances then, "genome" describes all of the genes and non-coding DNA that have the potential to be present. A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... Figure 1: Schematic drawing of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed. ...


In vertebrates such as humans, however, "genome" carries the typical connotation of only chromosomal DNA. So although human mitochondria contain genes, these genes are not considered part of the genome. In fact, mitochondria are sometimes said to have their own genome, often referred to as the "mitochondrial genome". Classes and Clades Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... The mitochondrial genome is the genetic material of the mitochondria. ...


Genomes and genetic variation

Note that a genome does not capture the genetic diversity or the genetic polymorphism of a species. For example, the human genome sequence in principle could be determined from just half the DNA of one cell from one individual. To learn what variations in DNA underlie particular traits or diseases requires comparisons across individuals. This point explains the common usage of "genome" (which parallels a common usage of "gene") to refer not to any particular DNA sequence, but to a whole family of sequences that share a biological context. In biology, polymorphism can be defined as the occurrence in the same habitat of two or more forms of a trait in such frequencies that the rarer cannot be maintained by recurrent mutation alone. ...


Although this concept may seem counter intuitive, it is the same concept that says there is no particular shape that is the shape of a cheetah. Cheetahs vary, and so do the sequences of their genomes. Yet both the individual animals and their sequences share commonalities, so one can learn something about cheetahs and "cheetah-ness" from a single example of either. Binomial name Acinonyx jubatus (Schreber, 1775) The Cheetah (from Hindi चीता cītā, derived from Sanskrit word chitraka meaning Speckled) (Acinonyx jubatus) is an atypical member of the cat family (Felidae) that hunts by speed rather than by stealth or pack tactics. ...


Minimal genomes

Since genomes and their organisms are very complex, one research strategy is to reduce the number of genes in a genome to the bare minimum and still have the organism in question survive. There is experimental work being done on minimal genomes for single cell organisms as well as minimal genomes for multicellular organisms (see Developmental biology). The work is both in vivo and in silico. By understanding the functioning of minimal organisms one hopes to add complexity incrementally leading to the understanding of multicellular diseases such as Cancer.(see #References) Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ... in silico is an expression used to mean performed on computer or via computer simulation. ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ...


Genome projects

Main article: Genome project Genome projects are scientific endeavours that aim to map the genome of a living being or of a species (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus), that is, the complete set of genes caried by this living being or virus. ...


The Human Genome Project was organized to map and to sequence the human genome. Other genome projects include mouse, rice, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the puffer fish, bacteria like E. coli, etc. The first genome project to be completed was the Phage Φ-X174, with only 5368 base pairs, which was sequenced by Fred Sanger in 1982. The first bacterial genome to be completed was that of Haemophilus influenzae, completed by a team at The Institute for Genomic Research in 1995. Many genomes have been sequenced by various genome projects. The cost of sequencing continues to drop, and it is possible that eventually an individual human genome could be sequenced for around several thousand dollars (US). The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A physical map, in genetics, tells you how much DNA separates two genes and is measured in basepairs, as opposed to a genetic map which tells you the positions of genes in relation to each other based on the frequency of crossing overs. ... In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... Binomial name Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 Mus musculus is the common house mouse. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice refers to two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southern & southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans[1]. (The term wild rice can refer to wild... Binomial name Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ... Genera Amblyrhynchotes Arothron Auriglobus Canthigaster Carinotetraodon Chelonodon Colomesus Contusus Ephippion Feroxodon Fugu Gastrophysus Javichthys Lagocephalus Liosaccus Marilyna Monotretus Omegaphora Pelagocephalus Polyspina Reicheltia Sphoeroides Takifugu Tetractenos Tetraodon Torquigener Tylerius Xenopterus The pufferfish, also called blowfish, swellfish, balloonfish are fish making up the family Tetraodontidae, within the order Tetraodontiformes. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ... The Phi-X174 phage was the first organism to have its genome sequenced. ... This article or section should be merged with Frederick Sanger Fred Sanger (born 1918), is an English biochemist, the winner of two Nobel prizes in Chemistry. ... Binomial name Haemophilus influenzae (Lehmann & Neumann 1896) Winslow 1917 Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffers bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. ... The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR), is a non-profit genomics research institute founded in 1992 by Craig Venter in Rockville, Maryland, United States. ... For the sense of sequencing used in electronic music, see the music sequencer article. ...


Compare: proteome The term proteome was coined by Mark Wilkins in 1995 (1) and is used to describe the entire complement of proteins in a given biological organism or system at a given time, i. ...


Comparison of different genome sizes

For an updated list of sequenced genomes and their sizes, visit the Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD) Genome size refers to the total amount of DNA contained within one copy of a genome. ...

Organism Genome size (base pairs)
Virus, Phage Φ-X174; 5386 - First sequenced genome
Virus, Phage λ 5×104
Archaeum, Nanoarchaeum equitans 5×105 - Smallest non-viral genome Dec, 2005
Bacterium, Buchnera aphidicola 6×105
Bacterium, Wigglesworthia glossinidia 7×105
Bacterium, Escherichia coli 4×106
Amoeba, Amoeba dubia 6.7×1011 - Largest known genome Dec, 2005
Plant, Arabidopsis thaliana 1.2×108 - First plant genome sequenced, Dec 2000
Plant, Fritillaria assyrica 1.3×1011
Fungus,Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2×107
Nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans 8×107
Insect, Drosophila melanogaster 1.3×108
Mammal, Homo sapiens 3×109

Note: The DNA from a single human cell has a length of ~1.8m. In molecular biology, two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds are called a base pair (often abbreviated bp). ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (Latin, poison) is a microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ... The Phi-X174 phage was the first organism to have its genome sequenced. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (Latin, poison) is a microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ... Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage) is a temperate bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli. ... Phyla / Classes Phylum Crenarchaeota Phylum Euryarchaeota     Halobacteria     Methanobacteria     Methanococci     Methanopyri     Archaeoglobi     Thermoplasmata     Thermococci Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota The Archaea are a major group of prokaryotes. ... Binomial name Nanoarchaeum equitans Nanoarchaeum equitans is a species of tiny microbe, discovered in 2002 in a hydrothermal vent off the coast of Iceland by Karl Stetter. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Binomial name Buchnera aphidicola Buchnera aphidicola a member of the Proteobacteria, is the primary endosymbiont of aphids (A. psium). ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Binomial name Wigglesworthia glossinidia Wigglesworthia glossinidia brevipalpis is a gram negative bacterium in the enterobacteriaceae family, related to E. coli, which lives in the gut of the tsetse fly. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 E. coli at 10,000x magnification Escherichia coli, usually abbreviated to E. coli, discovered by Theodor Escherich, a pediatrician and bacteriologist, is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of mammals. ... Amoeba is a genus of protozoa that moves by means of temporary projections called pseudopods, and is well-known as a representative unicellular organism. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... Binomial name Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... Divisions Chytridiomycota Deuteromycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota A fungus (plural fungi) is a eukaryotic organism that digests its food externally and absorbs the nutrient molecules into its cells. ... Binomial name Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Classes Adenophora    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms (Phylum Nematoda) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 20,000 different described species. ... Binomial name Caenorhabditis elegans Maupas, 1900 Caenorhabditis elegans (pronounced see-no-rab-DYE-tis) is a free-living nematode (one of the roundworms), about 1 mm in length, which lives in a temperate soil environment. ... Classes & Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrate animals of the Class Insecta, the largest and (on land) most widely-distributed taxon within the phylum Arthropoda. ... Binomial name Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a dipteran (two-winged) insect, and is the species of fruit fly that is most commonly used in genetic experiments; it is among the most important model organisms. ... Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla Pholidota Plesiadapiformes... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ...


Genome evolution

Genomes are more than the sum of an organism's genes and have traits that may be measured and studied without reference to the details of any particular genes and their products. Researchers compare traits such as chromosome number (karyotype), genome size, gene order, codon usage bias, and GC-content to determine what mechanisms could have produced the great variety of genomes that exist today (for recent overviews, see Brown 2002; Saccone and Pesole 2003; Benfey and Protopapas 2004; Gibson and Muse 2004; Reese 2004; Gregory 2005). Measure can mean: To perform a measurement. ... Karyogram of human male A karyotype is the complete set of all chromosomes of a cell of any living organism. ... Genome size refers to the total amount of DNA contained within one copy of a genome. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Codons are triplets of nucleotides that together specify an amino acid residue in a polypeptide chain. ... In genetics, the guanine-cytosine content (GC content) is the ratio of guanine and cytosine to the total number of nucleotides of a given genome. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Duplications play a major role in shaping the genome. Duplications may range from extension of short tandem repeats, to duplication of a cluster of genes, and all the way to duplications of entire chromosomes or even entire genomes. Such duplications are probably fundamental to the creation of genetic novelty. Schematic of a region of a chromosome before and after a duplication event Gene duplication occurs when an error in DNA replication leads to the duplication of a region of DNA containing a (generally functional) gene. ... The short tandem repeats (STR) are tandemly repeated DNA sequences of a pattern of length from 2 to 10 bp (for example (CA)n(TG)n in a genomics region) and the total size is lower than 100 bp. ... Polyploidy refers to cells or organisms that contain more than two copies of each of their chromosomes. ...


Horizontal gene transfer is invoked to explain how there is often extreme similarity between small portions of the genomes of two organisms that are otherwise very distantly related. Horizontal gene transfer seems to be common among many microbes. Also, eukaryotic cells seem to have experienced a transfer of some genetic material from their chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes to their nuclear chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material (i. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... The inside of a chloroplast Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ...


Other Omics & Ome pages

The term proteome was coined by Mark Wilkins in 1995 (1) and is used to describe the entire complement of proteins in a given biological organism or system at a given time, i. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Metabolome is the whole set of metabolic entities and small pathway motifs in a cell, tissue, organ, organisms, and species. ... Regulome refers to the whole set of regulation components in a cell, tissue, organ, organisms, and species. ... Functome refers to the whole set of functional entities in a cell, tissue, organ, organisms, and species. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Textome is the whole set of text elements that can be processed and mined for new information generation. ... The glycome is the collective identity of the entirety of carbohydrates in an organism. ... Eukaryome is the whole set of eukaryotic living organisms on Earth and their proteins. ... Bacteriome is the whole set of bacteria and their proteins. ...

Subfields of Genome

The human genome is the genome of Homo sapiens. ... Eukaryome is the whole set of eukaryotic living organisms on Earth and their proteins. ...

References

  • Benfey, P and Protopapas, AD (2004). Essentials of Genomics. Prentice Hall.
  • Brown, TA (2002). Genomes 2. Bios Scientific Publishers.
  • Gibson, G and Muse, SV (2004). A Primer of Genome Science (Second Edition). Sinauer Assoc.
  • Gregory, TR (ed) (2005). The Evolution of the Genome. Elsevier.
  • Reece, RJ (2004). Analysis of Genes and Genomes. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Saccone, C and Pesole, G (2003). Handbook of Comparative Genomics. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Werner, E. In silico multicellular systems biology and minimal genomes, Drug Discov Today. 2003 Dec 15;8(24):1121-7. PubMed

// Summary The Evolution of the Genome is a book edited by Dr. T. Ryan Gregory of the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, covering a wide range of topics in the study of genome evolution. ...

See also

The human genome is the genome of Homo sapiens. ... The mitochondrial genome is the genetic material of the mitochondria. ... Genome size refers to the total amount of DNA contained within one copy of a genome. ... Genome projects are scientific endeavours that aim to map the genome of a living being or of a species (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus), that is, the complete set of genes caried by this living being or virus. ... Genome degradation is the loss of genetic information within a genome. ... Genome reduction (Genome degradation) is the process by which a genome shrinks relative to its ancestor. ... Genome annotation is the process of attaching biological information to sequences. ... A genome screen is an overview of which genes are probably related to a certain disease or certain behaviour. ... Genome assembly refers to the process of taking a large number of short DNA sequences, all of which were generated by a shotgun sequencing project, and putting them back together to create a representation of the original chromosomes from which the DNA originated. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The genome and proteins of HIV have been the subject of extensive research in the twenty years since the discovery of the virus. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... A hypothetical phylogenetic tree of all extant organisms, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, showing the evolutionary history of the three domains of life, bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. ... Molecular systematics is a product of the traditional field of systematics and the growing field of bioinformatics. ... Molecular evolution is the process of the genetic material in populations of organisms changing over time. ... A gene family is a set of genes defined by presumed homology, i. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ...

External links

  • Animal genome size database
  • Plant genome size database
  • Genomes OnLine Database
  • The Genome News Network
  • NCBI Entrez Genome Project database
  • NCBI Genome Primer
  • BBC News - Final genome 'chapter' published
  • Software that maps an Artificial Genome sequence to a Network and to a Lineage tree

  Results from FactBites:
 
Genome - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (974 words)
The study of the global properties of genomes of related organisms is usually referred to as genomics, which distinguishes it from genetics which generally studies the properties of single genes or groups of genes.
Since genomes and their organisms are very complex, one research strategy is to reduce the number of genes in a genome to the bare minimum and still have the organism in question survive.
Genomes are more than the sum of an organism's genes and have traits that may be measured and studied without reference to the details of any particular genes and their products.
Human Genome Project - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3032 words)
The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a project to map the human genome down to the nucleotide (or base pair) level and to identify all the genes present in it.
Due to widespread international cooperation and advances in the field of genomics (especially in sequence analysis), as well as huge advances in computing technology, a 'rough draft' of the genome was finished in 2000 (announced jointly by then US president Bill Clinton and British Prime Minister Tony Blair on June 26, 2000 [1]).
The Human Genome Diversity Project, spinoff research aimed at mapping the DNA that varies between human ethnic groups, which was rumored to have been halted, actually did continue and to date has yielded new conclusions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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