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Encyclopedia > Genocides in history

Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people, as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life, calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group."[1] Significantly, this definition of genocide under international law does not include repression against political or economic groups. For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... For other uses, see Race. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual...


The preamble to the CPPCG not only states that "genocide is a crime under international law, contrary to the spirit and aims of the United Nations and condemned by the civilized world", but that "at all periods of history genocide has inflicted great losses on humanity".[1]


Determining what historical events constitute a genocide and which are merely criminal or inhuman behaviour is not a clear-cut matter. In nearly every case where accusations of genocide have circulated, partisans of various sides have fiercely disputed the interpretation and details of the event, often to the point of promoting wildly different versions of the facts. An accusation of genocide is certainly not taken lightly and will almost always be controversial. The following list of genocides and alleged genocides should be understood in this context and cannot be regarded as the final word on these subjects.

Contents

Alternative meanings of genocide

See also: genocide definitions

Much of the debate about genocides revolves around the proper definition of the word "genocide." The exclusion of social and political groups as targets of genocide in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide legal definition has been criticized by some historians and sociologists, for example M. Hassan Kakar in his book The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982[2] argues that the international definition of genocide is too restricted,[3] and that it should include political groups or any group so defined by the perpetrator and quotes Chalk and Jonassohn: "Genocide is a form of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority intends to destroy a group so defined by the perpetrator."[4] This is a list of scholarly and international legal definitions of genocide,[1] a word coined by Raphael Lemkin in 1944. ... The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. ...


According to R. J. Rummel, genocide has 3 different meanings. The ordinary meaning is murder by a government of people due to their national, ethnic, racial, or religious group membership. The legal meaning of genocide refers to the international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. This also includes nonkillings that in the end eliminate the group, such as preventing births or forcibly transferring children out of the group to another group. A generalized meaning of genocide is similar to the ordinary meaning but also includes government killings of political opponents or otherwise intentional murder. It is to avoid confusion regarding what meaning is intended that Rummel created the term democide for the third meaning.[5] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Democide is a term coined by political scientist R. J. Rummel for the murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide, politicide, and mass murder. Rummel created the term as an extended concept to include forms of government murder that are not covered by the legal definition...


Timeline of genocides and alleged genocides

Before 1490

Adam Jones explains, in his book Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction, that people throughout history have always had the ability to see other groups as alien; he quotes Chalk and Jonassohn: "Historically and anthropologically peoples have always had a name for themselves. In a great many cases, that name meant 'the people' to set the owners of that name off against all other people who were considered of lesser quality in some way. If the differences between the people and some other society were particularly large in terms of religion, language, manners, customs, and so on, then such others were seen as less than fully human: pagans, savages, or even animals. (Chalk and Jonassohn, The History and Sociology of Genocide, p. 28.)"[6]


Jones continues by saying that the less a people have in common with another group the easier it is for the aliens to be defined as less than human and from there it is but a short step to an argument that says if they are a threat, then they should "be eliminated in order that we may live (Them or us)."[7] But after making this assessment Jones continues "The difficulty, as Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn pointed out in their early study, is that such historical records as exist are ambiguous and undependable. While history today is generally written with some fealty to 'objective' facts, most previous accounts aimed rather to praise the writer's patron (normally the leader) and to emphasize the superiority of one's own gods and religious beliefs." [8]


Scholars of antiquity differentiate between gendercide in which males were killed, but the children (particularly the girls) and women were incorporated into the conqueror's society, Jones notes that "Chalk and Jonassohn provide a wide-ranging selection of historical events such as the Assyrian Empire’s root-and branch depredations in the first half of the first millennium BCE, and the destruction of Melos by Athens during the Peloponnesian War (fifth century BCE), a gendercidal rampage described by Thucydides in his 'Melian Dialogue'."[9] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article concerns the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom. ... Milos (formerly Melos, and before the Athenian genocide Malos) is a volcanic island in the Aegean Sea. ... Athenian War redirects here. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... The Melian dialogue is a passage found in Book V (85-113) of the History of the Peloponnesian War by the ancient Greek historian Thucydides. ...


The Old Testament not only describes the genocides of Amalekites and Midianites but justifies them through references to the word of God.[6] Jones quotes Jerusalem-based Holocaust Studies Professor Yehuda Bauer: "As a Jew, I must live with the fact that the civilization I inherited . . . encompasses the call for genocide in its canon."[10] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... According to the Book of Genesis and 1 Chronicles, Amalek (Arabic,عماليق,Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ) was the son of Eliphaz and the grandson of Esau (Gen. ... In the Bible, Midian (Hebrew: מִדְיָן, Standard Midyan Tiberian ; Arabic مدين; Strife; judgment) is a son of Abraham and his concubine Keturah (who according to midrash is Hagar). ... Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ...


Ben Kiernan, a Yale scholar, has labeled the destruction of Carthage at the end of the Third Punic War (149–146 BC) "The First Genocide".[11] Quoting Eric Margolis, Jones observes that in the 13th century the Mongol horsemen of Temüjin Genghis Khan were genocidal killers (génocidaires)[6] who were known to kill whole nations leaving nothing but empty ruins and bones.[12] Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Scipio Aemilianus Hasdrubal the Boetarch Strength 40,000 90,000 Casualties 17,000 62,000 The Third Punic War (149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Republic of... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... For the German pop band, see Dschinghis Khan Genghis Khan (1155/1162/1167–August 18, 1227) (Cyrillic: Чингис Хаан), (also spelled as Chingis Khan, Jenghis Khan, etc. ... This article is about the person. ...


1490 to 1914

Americas

Main article: Population history of American indigenous peoples#Genocide debate

From the 1490s when Christopher Columbus set foot on the Americas to the massacre of Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee by the United States milita, the indigenous population of the Western Hemisphere may have declined by as many as 100 million.[13] In Brazil alone the indigenous population has declined from a pre-Columbian high of an estimated 3 million to some 300,000 (1997).[14][15] Estimates of how many people were living in the Americas when Columbus arrived have varied tremendously; 20th century scholarly estimates ranged from a low of 8.4 million to a high of 112.5 million persons. This population debate has often had ideological underpinnings. Robert Royal writes that "estimates of pre-Columbian population figures have become heavily politicized with scholars who are particularly critical of Europe and/or Western civilization often favoring wildly higher figures."[16] Natives of North America. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Sioux (IPA ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... Belligerents Sioux United States Commanders Big Foot† James W. Forsyth Strength 120 men 230 women and children 500 men Casualties and losses 178 killed 89 wounded 150 missing 25 killed 39 wounded For other uses, see Wounded Knee (disambiguation). ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... The Indigenous peoples in Brazil (provoke indía gnas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior to its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ...


Scholars now believe that, among the various contributing factors, epidemic disease was the overwhelming cause of the population decline of the American natives.[17] After first contacts with Europeans and Africans, some believe that the death of 90 to 95% of the native population of the New World was caused by Old World diseases such as smallpox and measles.[18] For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medical term. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ...


Determining how many people died as a direct result of armed conflict between native Americans, and Europeans and their descendants, is difficult as accurate records were not always kept.


In his book American Holocaust, David Stannard argues that the destruction of the aboriginal peoples of the Americas, in a "string of genocide campaigns" by Europeans and their descendants, was the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world.[13][19] While no mainstream historian denies that death and suffering were unjustly inflicted by a number of Europeans upon a great many American natives, most scholars of the subject maintain that genocide, which is a crime of intent, was not the intent of European colonization. Historian Stafford Poole wrote: "There are other terms to describe what happened in the Western Hemisphere, but genocide is not one of them. It is a good propaganda term in an age where slogans and shouting have replaced reflection and learning, but to use it in this context is to cheapen both the word itself and the appalling experiences of the Jews to mention a major victim of this century."[20] David Edward Stannard is a writer and professor of American stidies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. ... The Reverend Stafford Poole, C.M., (born March 6, 1930) is a priest, full-time research historian, formerly a history professor and president of St. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ...


In 2003, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez urged Latin Americans to not celebrate the Columbus Day holiday. Chavez blamed Columbus for leading the way in the mass genocide of the Native Americans by the Spanish.[21] Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... Look up columbus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


United States of America

Authors such as the Holocaust expert David Cesarani have argued that the government and policies of the United States of America against certain indigenous peoples constituted genocide. David Cesarani states that "in terms of the sheer numbers killed, the Native American Genocide exceeds that of the Holocaust".[22] He quotes David E. Stannard, author of American Holocaust,[23] who speaks of the "genocidal and racist horrors against the indigenous peoples that have been and are being perpetrated by many nations in the Western Hemisphere, including the United States..."[24] He continues "Stannard was angered by what he perceived as a double standard in the United States towards 'worthy' and 'unworthy' victims. While Americans readily acknowledge the Nazi crimes against the Jews, he wrote, they continued to 'turn their backs on the even more massive genocide that for four grisly centuries... was perpetrated against the "unworthy" natives of the Americas.'" [25] Cesarani also writes of Stannard's and Ward Churchill's suspicion that the "ignorance of the Native American genocide was partly due to the enormous attention devoted to the Holocaust [in the United States]. Added to these cultural and political trends in the United States was the seemingly never-ending crisis in the Middle East... much of the debate over uniqueness, therefore, seems to be an overt product of partisan politics." [26] This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Professor David Cesarani (1956-) is an English historian who specialises in Jewish history, especially the Holocaust. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Professor David Cesarani (1956-) is an English historian who specialises in Jewish history, especially the Holocaust. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... David Edward Stannard is a writer and professor of American stidies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. ... Ward LeRoy Churchill (born October 2, 1947) is an American writer and political activist. ...


Michno estimates 21,586 dead, wounded, and captured civilians and soldiers for the period of 1850–1890 alone.[27]


In God, Greed, and Genocide: The Holocaust Through the Centuries, Grenke quotes Chalk and Jonassohn with regards to the Cherokee Trail of Tears that "an act like the Cherokee deportation would almost certainly be considered an act of genocide today". [28] The Indian Removal Act of 1830 led to the Trail of Tears. About 17,000 Cherokees — along with approximately 2,000 black slaves owned by Cherokees — were removed from their homes.[29] The number of people who died as a result of the Trail of Tears has been variously estimated. American doctor and missionary Elizur Butler, who made the journey with one party, estimated 4,000 deaths.[30] For the Norwegian musical group, see Trail of Tears (band); for the 2006 documentary, see The Trail of Tears: Cherokee Legacy. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... The Indian Removal Act, part of a U.S. government policy known as Indian Removal, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. ... For the Norwegian musical group, see Trail of Tears (band); for the 2006 documentary, see The Trail of Tears: Cherokee Legacy. ...


Argentina

The Conquest of the Desert was a military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, which was inhabited by indigenous peoples. The Conquest of the Desert (Spanish: Conquista del desierto) was a military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, which was inhabited by indigenous peoples. ... The Conquest of the Desert (Spanish: Conquista del desierto) was a military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, which was inhabited by indigenous peoples. ... Alejo Julio Argentino Roca Paz (July 17, 1843 - October 19, 1914) was an army general who served as President of Argentina from 12 October 1880 to 12 October 1886 and again from 12 October 1898 to 12 October 1904. ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ...


Jens Andermann has noted that the contemporary sources on that campaign indicate that it was a genocide by the Argentine government against the indigenous tribes.[31] Others perceive the campaign as intending to suppress specifically those groups of aboriginals that refused to submit to the white government and carried out attacks on the white and mestizo civilian settlements.[32] This recent argument – usually summarized as "Civilization or Genocide?"[33]– questions whether the Conquest of the Desert was really intended to exterminate the aborigines. For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Central New York City. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ...


Australia

Main article: Australian genocide debate

The Black War refers to a period of conflict between the British colonists and Tasmanian Aborigines in Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) in the early years of the 1800s. The conflict resulted in the almost complete obliteration of the Tasmanian Aboriginal population, though there are presently many thousands of individuals descended from Tasmanian Aborigines. The Tasmanians, estimated at 8,000 people in 1803, were reduced to a population of around 300 by 1833, although much of this has been attributed to the effect of diseases to which they had no natural immunity (including smallpox and syphilis).[34] Estimates of the total number of Tasmanian deaths at the hands of European settlers vary, with some estimates ranging as low as 118 in the period from 1803 until 1847.[35] The History wars are an ongoing public debate in Australia over the interpretation of the history of the European colonisation of Australia, and its impact on Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. ... Poster issued in Van Diemens Land during the Black War depicting Lieutenant-Governor Daveys policy of friendship and equal justice for settlers and Aborigines. ... The Tasmanian Aboriginals are the indigenous people of the island state of Tasmania, Australia. ... 1663 map of Van Diemens Land, showing the parts discovered by Tasman, including Storm Bay, Maria Island and Schouten Island. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... A picture of the last four Tasmanian Aborigines c. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ...


The "war" was never officially declared and this has led to variations in its dating. Some date the conflict to the very beginning of European settlement on the island in 1803. The conflict was most intense during the 1820s, which is the period most commonly referred to as the Black War. The conflict is generally seen to have ended in the 1830s, after the unsuccessful Black Line and the subsequent relocation of Aborigines to Flinders Island. The Black Line is a notorious incident that occurred in 1830 on Tasmania, or Van Diemens Land as it was then known. ... Municipality of Flinders, Tasmania Flinders Island is an island in the Bass Strait, located 20 km from the north-eastern tip of Tasmania, Australia. ...


Australian historians are split as to whether this was a genocide, this is often to do with if the "the term 'genocide' only applies to cases of deliberate mass killings of Aborigines by European settlers, or whether the term 'genocide' might also apply to instances in which many Aboriginal people were killed by the reckless or unintended actions and omissions of settlers."[36]


China

During the mid-nineteenth century, the Muslims and the Miao people of China revolted against the Qing Dynasty, most notably in the Dungan revolt (1862-1877) and the Panthay rebellion 1856-1873) in Yunnan. These little known revolts were suppressed by the Manchu government in a manner that amounts to genocide,[37][38][39][40] killing a million people in the Panthay rebellion[41][42], several million in the Dungan revolt[42] and five million in the suppression of Miao people in Guizhou.[42] A "washing off the Muslims"(洗回 (xi Hui)) policy had been long advocated by officials in the Manchu government.[43] There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Hmong, also known as Miao (Chinese: 苗: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mẹo or Hmông; Thai: ม้ง (mong) or แม้ว (maew)), are an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China (especially Guizhou) that cross into northern Southeast Asia (northern Vietnam and Laos). ... The Dungan Revolt is also known as the Hui Minorities War and the Muslim Rebellion. ... The Panthay Rebellion (known in Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Qiyi 杜文秀起义 (1856 - 1873) was a separatist movement of the Hui people, Chinese Muslims, against the imperial Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, China. ... Yunan redirects here. ... The Panthay Rebellion (known in Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Qiyi 杜文秀起义 (1856 - 1873) was a separatist movement of the Hui people, Chinese Muslims, against the imperial Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, China. ... The Dungan Revolt is also known as the Hui Minorities War and the Muslim Rebellion. ... The Hmong, also known as Miao (Chinese: 苗: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mẹo or Hmông; Thai: ม้ง (mong) or แม้ว (maew)), are an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China (especially Guizhou) that cross into northern Southeast Asia (northern Vietnam and Laos). ... (Simplified Chinese: 贵州; Traditional Chinese: è²´å·ž; pinyin: Gùizhōu; Wade-Giles: Kuei-chou; also spelled Kweichow) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


France

Main article: Revolt in the Vendée

In 1986 Reynald Secher wrote a controversial book entitled: A French Genocide: The Vendée, in which he argued that the actions of the French republican government during the revolt in the Vendée (1793–1796), a popular Royalist uprising against the Republican government during the French Revolution, was the first "modern" genocide.[44] Secher's claims, in addition to his political and religious affiliations, caused a minor uproar in France amongst scholars of modern French history, as mainstream authorities on the period—both French and foreign—published articles refuting Secher's claims (see below). In the rebellion, initially the Vendée rebels gained the upper hand, so on August 1, 1793 the Committee of Public Safety ordered General Jean-Baptiste Carrier to carry out a pacification of the region. The Republican army was reinforced and the Vendéan army was eventually defeated. Under orders from Committee of Public Safety in February 1794 the Republican forces launched their final "pacification" (the Vendée-Vengé or "Vendée Avenged")—twelve columns, the colonnes infernales ("infernal columns") under Louis-Marie Turreau, were marched through the Vendée, and, according to Secher, killed both rebels and civilians indiscriminately.[45][46] When the campaign dragged to an end in March 1796 the estimated dead, both Republican and Royalist, numbered between 117,000 and 500,000, out of a population of around 800,000.[47][48][49] Flag of the so-called Armée Royale et Catholique (Royal and Catholic Army) from Vendée Insigna of the royalist insurgents During the French Revolution, the 1793-1796 uprising in the Vendée, variously known as the Uprising, Insurrection, Revolt, Vendéan Rebellion, or Wars in the Vendée... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793-4) of the French Revolution. ... Jean-Baptiste Carrier (1756 - November 16, 1794) was a French Revolutionary. ...


Secher's allegation of genocide, Claude Langlois (of the Institute of History of the French Revolution) derides as "quasi-mythological".[50] Timothy Tackett of the University of California summarizes the case as such: "In reality... the Vendée was a tragic civil war with endless horrors committed by both sides—initiated, in fact, by the rebels themselves. The Vendéeans were no more blameless than were the republicans. The use of the word genocide is wholly inaccurate and inappropriate." [51] Hugh Gough (Professor of history at University College Dublin,) considers Secher's book an attempt at historical revisionism that is unlikely to have any lasting impact.[52] Peter McPhee roundly criticizes Secher, including the assertion of commonality between the functions of the Republican government and Communist totalitarianism. McPhee does this by pointing to what he considers to be a number of dubious assumptions and flawed methodology on Secher's part.[53] Other scholars who have published against Secher's thesis include: Julian Jackson (professor of history modern at the University of London),[54] and professors of modern history and related fields François Lebrun of the University of High-Brittany-Rennes II,[55] and of the University of Paris, I-Pantheon-Sorbonne, Paul Tallonneau[56] Claude Petitfrère,[57] and Jean-Clément Martin.[58] In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism has both a legitimate academic use and a pejorative meaning. ...


Peter McPhee says that the pacification the Vendée does not fit either the United Nations' CPPCG definition of genocide or that of Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn ("Genocide is a form of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority intends to destroy a group, as that group and membership in it are defined by the perpetrator") because the events happened in a civil war. So it was not a one-sided mass killing and the Committee of Public Safety did not intend to exterminate the whole population of Vendée as parts of the population were allied to the revolutionary government.[53] However in Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations Kurt Jonassohn writes "The reason we consider this a case of genocide is that exterminatory intent was clearly stated in the orders of several generals as well as in the several decrees passed by the government". [59] Further support for Secher come from Adam Jones, who wrote in Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction a summary of the Vendée uprising, citing Secher and others, supporting the view that it was a genocide,[60] and Pierre Chaunu, a professor of history at Paris IV-Sorbonne university.[citation needed] Other historians have employed the term "genocide" to describe the massacres made during the civil war in the republican camp, such as Jean Tulard.[61] Stéphane Courtois, a Director of Research at the CNRS who specializes in the history of Communism, tells of how Lenin compared the people of Vendée to the Cossacks, and expressed joy at subjecting them to the program Gracchus Babeuf, "the inventor of modern Communism", characterized as "populicide" in 1795 against the people of the Vendée.[62] British historian Ruth Scurr states that the actions of the revolutionaries, such as mass executions by grapeshot fired from cannons and group drownings in the Vendée, constitute crimes against humanity that they would today be held accountable for under the European human rights legislation they themselves pioneered.[63] The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. ... Stéphane Courtois is a French historian, currently employed as research director (i. ... The Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) is one of the most prominent scientific research institutions in France. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... This article needs cleanup. ... François-Noël Babeuf (November 23, 1760 - May 27, 1797), known as Gracchus Babeuf, was a French political agitator and journalist of the revolutionary period. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Democide is a term coined by political scientist R. J. Rummel for the murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide, politicide, and mass murder. Rummel created the term as an extended concept to include forms of government murder that are not covered by the legal definition... Grapeshot was a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons. ... Noyades were drownages superintended during the Reign of Terror at Nantes by the attorney Carrier, and effected by cramming some 90 priests in a flat-bottomed craft under hatches, and drowning them in mid-stream after scuttling the boat at a signal given, followed by another in which some 138... This article is in need of attention. ...


Secher attracted further controversy in 1991 with his publication Jews and Vendeans: From One Genocide to Another, comparing the fate of Royalist Vendeans with Jews in Nazi Germany. [64] Look up Royalist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


German South-West Africa

The Herero and Namaqua Genocide in German South-West Africa (present-day Namibia) in 1904–1907 is clearly the first organized state genocide as the UN Whitaker report (1985) concluded, the Herero were also the first ethnic group to be subjected to genocide in the 20th century.[65] Eighty percent of the total Herero population and 50 percent of the total Nama population were killed in a brutal scorched earth campaign led by German General Lothar von Trotha. Surviving Herero after the escape through the arid desert of Omaheke. ... Surviving Herero after the escape through the arid desert of Omaheke. ... Flag German South-West Africa (black), other German colonies in red Capital Windhoek (from 1891) Political structure Colony Governor  - 1898-1905 Theodor von Leutwein  - 1905-1907 Friedrich von Lindequist  - 1907-1910 Bruno von Schuckmann  - 1910-1915 Theodor Seitz Historical era The Scramble for Africa  - Established 7 August, 1884  - Genocide 1904... Lothar von Trotha Adrian Dietrich Lothar von Trotha (July 3, 1848 – 1920) was a German military commander most famous for his method of waging war during the Herero Wars in South-West Africa, which the German government has since admitted was a form of genocide. ...


British Ireland

War of the Three Kingdoms
See also: Cromwellian conquest of Ireland and Cromwellian Plantation

Towards the end of the War of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651) the English Rump Parliament sent the New Model Army to Ireland to pacify the country and to prevent Royalists loyal to Charles II from using Ireland as a base to threaten England. Initially under the command of Oliver Cromwell and later under other parliamentary generals, the New Model army set about the task with ruthless efficiency. Coupled to the war aim of securing the country for the English Parliament were several other interrelated objectives. Punitive confiscation of the lands of Irish families involved in fighting the parliamentary forces was implemented (there was a similar policy against Royalists in England who fought in the Second English Civil War). This became a continuation of the Elizabethan policy of encouraging Protestant settlement of Ireland, because New Model army soldiers—Protestant to a man and who were owed considerable back pay—could be paid in confiscated Irish lands rather than in cash raised through English parliamentary taxes.[66] Combatants English Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops English Parliamentarian New Model Army troops and allied Protestants in Ireland Commanders James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (1649 - Dec. ... Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland were established throughout the country by the confiscation of lands occupied by Gaelic clans and Hiberno-Norman dynasties, but principally in the provinces of Munster and Ulster. ... For other uses, see Three Kingdoms (disambiguation). ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... For the band, see New Model Army (band). ... Prince Rupert of the Rhine Cavaliers was the name used by Parliamentarians for the Royalist supporters of King Charles I during the English Civil War (1642–1651). ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The Roundheads was the nickname given to the supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... Belligerents Royalist Forces Parliamentary Forces: Commanders King Charles I Duke of Hamilton Earl of Norwich Baron Capel Oliver Cromwell Thomas Fairfax Thomas Horton The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of...


During the Interregnum (1651–1660), this policy was enhanced with the passing of the Act of Settlement of Ireland in 1652 whose goal was a further transfer of land from Irish to English hands.[66] The immediate war aims and the longer term policies of the English Parliamentarians resulted an attempt by the English to transfer the native Irish Catholic population to the western fringes of Ireland to make way for Protestant settlers. This policy has been summed up by a phrase attributed to Cromwell "To Hell or to Connaught" and has been seen by some historians as a form of ethnic cleansing, if not genocide.[67] The English Interregnum was the period of republican rule after the English Civil War between the regicide of Charles I in 1649 and the restoration of Charles II in 1660. ... The Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1662 was passed by the Long Parliament, who had taken power in England after the English Civil War, after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, itself in response to the Irish Rebellion of 1641. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ...


Great Irish Famine
Main article: Great Irish Famine

During the years of the Irish Famine, Ireland produced enough food, flax and wool not only to feed and clothe its nine million people, but enough for eighteen million. [68] In this sense the famine was artificial, not caused by a shortage of food but by the British government's choice not to close the ports as had been done in previous Irish crop blights; as John Mitchell put it, "The Almighty sent the potato blight...but the English created the famine." [68]. Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741). ...


Noted professor of International Law at the University of Illinois, Francis A. Boyle, finding that the British violated sections (a), (b), and (c) of Article 2 of the CPPCG and committed genocide, issued a formal legal opinion to the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on May 2, 1996, stating that "Clearly, during [the Irish Potato Famine] years [of] 1845 to 1850 the British government pursued a policy of mass starvation in Ireland with intent to destroy in substantial part the national, ethnical, and racial group commonly known as the Irish People." [69][70] Prominent international law professor Charles E. Rice of Notre Dame likewise issued a formal opinion, also based on Article 2, that the British had committed genocide.[71] A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... Francis Anthony Boyle, is a professor of international law at the University of Illinois College of Law. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... An 1849 depiction of Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine. ... Charles Edward Rice (born August 7, 1931), is an American legal scholar, Catholic apologist, and author of several books. ... For other universities and colleges named Notre Dame, see Notre Dame. ...


Contesting claims of genocide, Belfast-born and Cambridge-educated historian Peter Gray concludes that UK government policy "was not a policy of deliberate genocide", but a dogmatic refusal to admit that the policy was wrong which "amounted to a sentence of death to many thousands."; and Professor James S. Donnelly Jr., a historian at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, has written that "... it is also my contention that while genocide was not in fact committed, what happened during and as a result of the clearances had the look of genocide to a great many Irish..."[72] This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the city in England. ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ...


Records show that Ireland exported food, even increasing some food exports during the worst years of the Famine. When Ireland experienced a famine in 1782-83, ports were closed to keep Irish-grown food in Ireland to feed the Irish. Local food prices promptly dropped. Merchants lobbied against the export ban, but the government of the 1780s overrode their protests; that export ban did not exist in the 1840s.

Starving Irish family during the potato famine

Cecil Woodham-Smith, an authority on the Irish Famine, wrote in The Great Hunger; Ireland 1845-1849 that, "...no issue has provoked so much anger or so embittered relations between the two countries (England and Ireland) as the indisputable fact that huge quantities of food were exported from Ireland to England throughout the period when the people of Ireland were dying of starvation." Ireland remained a net exporter of food throughout most of the five-year famine. However Woodham-Smith does not accept that the famine amounted to genocide: "These misfortunes were not part of a plan to destroy the Irish nation; they fell on the people because the government of Lord John Russell was afflicted with an extraordinary inability to foresee consequences. It has been frequently declared that the parsimony of the British Government during the famine was the main cause of the sufferings of the people, and parsimony was certainly carried to remarkable lengths; but obtuseness, short-sightedness and ignorance probably contributed more." However Irish meteorologist Austin Bourke, in The use of the potato crop in pre-famine Ireland disputes some of Woodham-Smith's calculations, and notes that during December 1846 imports almost doubled. He opines that Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


“ it is beyond question that the deficiency arising from the loss of the potato crop in 1846 could not have been met by the simple expedient of prohibiting the export of grain from Ireland. ”


Irish historian Cormac O' Grada disagrees with the claim that the famine was genocide on two grounds: firstly, he writes, "genocide includes murderous intent and it must be said that not even the most bigoted and racist commentators of the day sought the extermination of the Irish" and that most people in Whitehall "hoped for better times in Ireland" and secondly accusations of genocide overlook or ignore "the enormous challenges facing relief efforts, both central, local, public and private". Cormac views that a case of neglect is easier to sustain than that of genocide[73]


Peaking around 8-9 million in the early 19th century, Ireland's population fell to around 4 million during the Famine, because of emigration and starvation.[74]


Genocide scholar W.D Rubinstein seems to agree with Cormac. In his book Genocide he wrote that:


"The Irish Famine cannot in truth be described as an example of genocide, but nor, in truth, was it nineteenth- century Britain's finest hour."


That late AJP Taylor, by contrast, viewed the Potato Famine as a genocide[75]


Russian Empire

Antero Leitzinger wrote in an article called "The Circassian Genocide", initially published in the Turkistan News, that a genocide committed against the Circassian nation by Czarist Russia in the 1800s has been almost entirely forgotten, and that it was the largest genocide of the nineteenth century.[76] Circassian ethnic cleansing is a modern term that refers to the anti-Circassian campaign by the Russian Empire in the early 1860s under Alexander II and continued in the later years. ... Construction of the Georgian Military Road through disputed territories was a key factor in the eventual Russian success A Scene from the Caucasian War, by Franz Roubaud Russian Invasion of the Caucasus, better known in Russia as the Caucasian War of 1817-1864, was a series of military actions of... Circassian language is used in a number of ways: as a synonym for the Adyghe language; as a synonym for the Kabardian language; as a term for a distinct language that includes both Adyghe and Kabardian. ...


1915 to 1950

In 1915, during World War I, the concept of Crimes against humanity was introduced into international relations for the first time when the Allied Powers sent a correspondence to the government of the Ottoman Empire, a member of the Central Powers, over massacres the Allies alleged were taking place within the Empire.[77] (For more details see the section Ottoman Empire (Turkey)). “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Kaiser Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers in World War I. European military alliances in 1914. ...


Nazi Germany and occupied Europe

Major deportation routes to the extermination camps in Europe.
Major deportation routes to the extermination camps in Europe.

Because the universal acceptance of international laws, defining and forbidding genocide was achieved in 1948, with the promulgation of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG), those criminals who were prosecuted after the war in international courts, for taking part in the Holocaust were found guilty of crimes against humanity and other more specific crimes like murder. Nevertheless the Holocaust is universally recognized to have been a genocide and the term, that had been coined the year before by Raphael Lemkin,[78] appeared in the indictment of the 24 Nazi leaders, Count 3, stated that all the defendants had "conducted deliberate and systematic genocide – namely, the extermination of racial and national groups..."[79] “Shoah” redirects here. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... This article details the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed against ethnic Poles during World War II. 3 million non-Jewish Polish citizens perished during the course of the war, most of them civilians, killed by the actions of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 766 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1438 × 1126 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 766 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1438 × 1126 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The extermination camps were the facilities set up by Nazi Germany in World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Rafael Lemkin (June 24, 1900—August 28, 1959) was a lawyer of Polish-Jewish descent. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ...


The term "the Holocaust" is generally used to describe the killing of approximately six million European Jews during World War II, as part of a program of deliberate extermination planned and executed by the National Socialist German Workers Party in Germany led by Adolf Hitler.[80] A majority of scholars do not include other groups in the definition of the Holocaust, reserving the term to refer only to the genocide of the Jews,[81] or what the Nazis called the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question." Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Hitler redirects here. ... This article is about the term with respect to the Jewish Question in World War II. For other uses, see Final Solution (disambiguation). ...


The Holocaust was accomplished in stages. Legislation to remove the Jews from civil society was enacted years before the outbreak of World War II. Concentration camps were established in which inmates were used as slave labour until they died of exhaustion or disease. Where the Third Reich conquered new territory in eastern Europe, specialized units called Einsatzgruppen murdered Jews and political opponents in mass shootings.[82] Jews and Roma were crammed into ghettos before being transported hundreds of miles by freight train to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, the majority of them were killed in gas chambers. Every arm of Germany's bureaucracy was involved in the logistics of the mass murder, turning the country into what one Holocaust scholar has called "a genocidal nation."[83] The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... Ghettos established by the Nazis in which Jews were confined, and later shipped to concentration camps. ... Extermination camps were two types of facilities that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become known as the Holocaust. ...


Other targets of the Nazi mass murder or "Nazi genocidal policy",[84] included Slavs (Poles, Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Serbs, and others), Roma (see Porajmos), mentally ill (see T-4 Euthanasia Program), Homosexuals and "sexual deviants", and political opponents. R. J. Rummel estimates that 16,315,000 people died as a result of genocide, just over 10.5 million Slavs, just under 5.3 million Jews, 258,000 Roma and 220,000 homosexuals.[85][86] Donald Niewyk suggests that the broadest definition would produce a death toll of 17 million.[87] A figure of 26 million is given in Service d'Information des Crimes de Guerre: Crimes contre la Personne Humain, Camps de Concentration. Paris, 1946, p. 197. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Language(s) Romani, languages of native region Religion(s) Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmark is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... Homosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire exclusively for another of the same sex. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

On May 24, 1915, the Allied Powers, Britain, France, and Russia, jointly issued a statement explicitly charging for the first time ever another government of committing "a crime against humanity" in reference to that regime's persecution of its Christian minorities including Armenians,Assyrians and Greeks among others [88]. Contrary to popular conception the Armenians were by far not the only ethnic minority to suffer as the Ottoman Empire dissolved and Assyrians and Greeks also suffered the genocidal depradations of the Young Turks while many researches consider these events to be part of the same policy of planned ethnoreligious purification of the Turkish state followed by the Young Turks [89]. Armenian Genocide photo. ... Bodies of Christians who perished during the Assyrian Genocide 40 Christians dying a day say Assyrian refugees - The Syracuse Herald, 1915. ... The historical Pontus region New York Times headlines which observes that the entire Christian population of Trabzon was wiped out. More relevant headlines[1] Pontic Greek Genocide[2][3][4] is a controversial term used to refer to the fate of Pontic Greeks during and in the aftermath of World... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the Turkish nationalist constitutionalist movement. ...


.. This joint statement stated:

"[i]n view of these new crimes of Turkey against humanity and civilization, the Allied Governments announce publicly to the Sublime Porte that they will hold personally responsible for these crimes all members of the Ottoman Government, as well as those of their agents who are implicated in such massacres".[77]

Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire often confusing the Sublime Porte and the High Porte. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...

Armenian Genocide

On 15 September 2005 a United States Congressional resolution on the Armenian Genocide "Calling upon the President to ensure that the foreign policy of the United States reflects appropriate understanding and sensitivity concerning issues related to human rights, ethnic cleansing, and genocide documented in the United States record relating to the Armenian Genocide, and for other purposes." found that: is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ...

  • "The Armenian Genocide was conceived and carried out by the Ottoman Empire from 1915 to 1923, resulting in the deportation of nearly 2,000,000 Armenians, of whom 800,000 men, women, and children were killed, 500,000 survivors were expelled from their homes, and which succeeded in the elimination of the over 2,500-year presence of Armenians in their historic homeland."[90]

The BBC reported that 16 December 2003, "The Swiss lower house of parliament has voted to describe the mass killings of Armenians during the last years of the Ottoman Empire as genocide. [...] Fifteen countries have now agreed to label the killings as genocide. They include France [in 2001], Argentina and Russia."[91] On 12 October 2006, French lawmakers "approved a bill making it a crime to deny that mass killings of Armenians in Turkey during and after World War I amounted to genocide. Turkey quickly objected, with its Foreign Ministry saying that the decision "dealt a heavy blow" to Turkish-French relations and 'created great disappointment in our country.'"[92] is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Assyrian Genocide

The Assyrian Genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo; Aramaic: ܩܛܠܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ, Turkish: Süryani Soykırımı) was committed against the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire near the end of the First World War by the Young Turks.[93] The Assyrian/Syriac population of northern Mesopotamia (Tur Abdin, Hakkari, Van, Siirt region in modern-day southeastern Turkey and Urmia region in northwestern Iran) was forcibly relocated and massacred by Ottoman (Turkish and Kurdish) forces between 1914 and 1920 under the regime of the Young Turks.[94] This genocide is considered to be a part of the same policy of extermination as the Armenian Genocide and Pontic Greek Genocide.The Assyro-Chaldean National Council stated in a December 4, 1922, memorandum that the total death toll is unknown, but it estimates that about 275,000 "Assyro-Chaldeans" died between 1914–1918.[95] Bodies of Christians who perished during the Assyrian Genocide 40 Christians dying a day say Assyrian refugees - The Syracuse Herald, 1915. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about the Turkish nationalist constitutionalist movement. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... An old church in Midyat Tur Abdin is a hilly region of south east Turkey incorporating the eastern half of Mardin Province, and Sirnak Province west of the Tigris, on the border with Syria. ... Hakkâri, formerly Çölemerik, is the capital city of the Hakkâri il, Turkey. ... This article is about the road vehicle. ... Siirt is the capital of Siirt Province in eastern Turkey. ... Urmia, officially Orumiyeh (Persian: ارومیه, Azeri: Urmu, UrumiyÉ™,Urmiye, Wurmê, Syriac: ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; previously called رضائیه, Rezaiyeh), is a district and a city located in northwestern Iran. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Turkish nationalist constitutionalist movement. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... The historical Pontus region New York Times headlines which observes that the entire Christian population of Trabzon was wiped out. More relevant headlines[1] Pontic Greek Genocide[2][3][4] is a controversial term used to refer to the fate of Pontic Greeks during and in the aftermath of World... Assyro-Chaldeans are a Semitic people from Northern Turkey. ...


Greek Genocide

Pontic Greek Genocide [96][97][98][99] [100] [101] is a term used to refer to the fate of the Pontic Greek population of the Ottoman Empire during and in the aftermath of World War I. It is used to refer to the determined persecutions, massacres, expulsions, and death marches of Pontic Greek populations in the historical region of Pontus, the southeastern Black Sea provinces of the Ottoman Empire, during the early 20th century by the Young Turk administration. G.W. Rendel of the British Foreign Office noted the massacres of Greeks in Pontus and elsewhere during the Turkish national movement,[102][103][104] which was organized against Greece's invasion of western Anatolia.[105]According to various sources the direct or indirect death toll of Greeks in Anatolia ranges from 300,000 to 360,000 men, women and children. The historical Pontus region New York Times headlines which observes that the entire Christian population of Trabzon was wiped out. More relevant headlines[1] Pontic Greek Genocide[2][3][4] is a controversial term used to refer to the fate of Pontic Greeks during and in the aftermath of World... The term Pontic Greeks, Pontian Greeks, Pontians or Greeks of Pontus (Greek: or , Turkish: ) can refer to Greeks specifically from the area of Pontus in the region of the former Empire of Trebizond on the Black Sea coast of Eastern Turkey, or in other cases more generally all Greeks from... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up massacre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Expulsion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Death march. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article is about the Turkish nationalist constitutionalist movement. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...


Turkish Denial

The Republic of Turkey government disputes this interpretation of events and maintains that crucial documents supporting the genocide thesis are actually falsifications.[106] Seen as historical revisionism by many historians, the topic is virtually taboo in Turkey. Laws like Article 301 are used to bring charges against people like the Turkish writer Orhan Pamuk, who had stated that "Thirty thousand Kurds and a million Armenians were killed in these lands and nobody but me dares to talk about it".[107] However, Turkish authorities do acknowledge that the issue should be left to the historians[108] and in an open letter by Prime Minister Erdogan to the U.S. President dated 10 April 2005, extended an "invitation to your country to establish a joint group consisting of historians and other experts from our two countries to study the developments and events of 1915 not only in the archives of Ottoman Empire, Turkey and Armenia but also in the archives of all relevant third countries and to share their findings with the international public".[109] Furthermore, in spite of vehement resistance by nationalist groups, an academic conference was held on September 24, 2005 in Istanbul to discuss the early 20th century massacre of Armenians.[110]. In their book Negotiating the Sacred: Blasphemy and Sacrilege in a Multicultural Society, Elizabeth Burns Coleman and Kevin White present a list of reasons explaining Turkey's inability to admit the genocides committed by the Young Turks [111] Historical revisionism is often a legitimate effort in which historians seek to broaden the awareness of certain historical events by re-examining conventional wisdom. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wikisource. ... Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Turkish nationalist constitutionalist movement. ...


Soviet Union

Victim of the Ukrainian Famine, 1933
Victim of the Ukrainian Famine, 1933

There are several documented instances of unnatural mass death occurring in the Soviet Union, mostly in the 1930s. These include the famine of 1931-34, which Ukrainians call the Holodomor, and lethal deportations of national minorities such as Tatars, Chechens, and Volga Germans. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Soviet Union was a single-party state where the Communist Party officially ruled the country according to the Soviet constitution [1]. All key positions in the institutions of the state were occupied by members of the Communist Party. ... Not by Their Own Will. ... Droughts and famines in Imperial Russia and USSR are known to have happened every 10-13 years, with average droughts happening every 5-7 years. ... In 1919 the Soviet engaged in a policy to eliminate the Cossack threat to proletarian power by de-Cossackization: extirpating the Cossack elite; terrorizing all other Cossacks; and bringing about the formal liquidation of the Cossackry. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... Child victim of the Holodomor Map of Ukrainian SRR in 1932-1933 (7 Oblast`s (Regions) + Moldavian ASSR) administrative borders given in light grey The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of... This article is about the people. ... This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ...


Regarding the Holodomor, in November 2006 the BBC reported that "Ukraine is now trying to get this mass starvation recognised by the United Nations as an act of genocide."[112] This move is opposed by both the Russian government and some members of the Ukrainian parliament. The Russians, while agreeing that the famine took place, deny that it was attempt to destroy the Ukrainian nation.[112] Stalin had all seed stocks, grain, silage and farm animals confiscated from farmers in Ukraine and in Kazakhstan, the North Caucasus, and other parts of Russia; as a result, 6 million died, including 3 to 4.5 million Ukrainians and 1.3 to 1.5 million Kazakhs.[113][114][115] During November 2006 a remembrance ceremony held in Kiev, a big board listed ten other countries that recognised the Holodomor as a genocide: Australia, Argentina, Georgia, Estonia, Italy, Canada, Lithuania, Poland, U.S., Hungary.[116] Child victim of the Holodomor Map of Ukrainian SRR in 1932-1933 (7 Oblast`s (Regions) + Moldavian ASSR) administrative borders given in light grey The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of... Child victim of the Holodomor Map of Ukrainian SRR in 1932-1933 (7 Oblast`s (Regions) + Moldavian ASSR) administrative borders given in light grey The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


Some historians have argued that Lenin's Bolsheviks engaged in a campaign of genocide against the Don Cossacks during the Russian Civil War.[117][118][119][120][121] The most reliable estimates indicate that out of a population of three million, between 300,000 and 500,000 were killed or deported in 1919–20.[122] Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Don Cossacks refers to cossacks that settled along the Don River, Russia it its lower and middle parts. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist...


Croatia

Main articles: World War II persecution and genocide of Serbs, Jasenovac concentration camp, Occupation of Vojvodina, 1941-1944, and Ustashe

The Ustaše (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian fascist movement that ruled the part of Yugoslavia that was occupied by the Axis Powers during World War II. The Ustaše enacted race laws patterned after those of the Third Reich aimed at removing Jews, Roma, Croatian anti-fascists, and in particular Serbs, who were collectively declared enemies of the Croatian people. Victims were interned in concentration camps, the largest of which was the Jasenovac complex. Death toll estimates for the Jasenovac concentration camp alone range from 56,000 [123] to over 600,000 [124], with the vast majority of victims being ethnic Serbs. Serbs were heavily persecuted during World War II. Following the invasion of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1941, the Kingdom was divided into several occupation zones. ... “Jasenovac” redirects here. ... Map showing occupation zones in Vojvodina from 1941 to 1944 The Occupation of Vojvodina (a region in modern Serbia) from 1941 to 1944 was carried out by Nazi Germany, Horthys Hungary and Independent State of Croatia. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian right-wing organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Jasenovac is a municipality in Central Croatia, in the southern part of the Sisak-Moslavina county at the confluence of the river Una into Sava. ... Jasenovac is a municipality in Central Croatia, in the southern part of the Sisak-Moslavina county at the confluence of the river Una into Sava. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...


1951 to 2000

Universal acceptance of international laws, defining and forbidding genocide was achieved in 1948, with the promulgation of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG). The CPPCG was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 9 December 1948 and came into effect on 12 January 1951 (Resolution 260 (III)). After the minimum 20 countries became parties to the Convention, it came into force as international law on 12 January 1951. At that time however, only two of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (UNSC) were parties to the treaty, which caused the Convention to languish for over four decades. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


Australia 1900-1969

Main articles: Stolen Generation and History wars

Sir Ronald Wilson, former president of Australia's Human Rights Commission thinks that Australia's "Stolen Generation" — where from 1900 to 1970, 20,000 to 25,000 Aboriginal children were forcibly separated from their natural families (see the Bringing Them Home report)[125] — "It clearly was attempted genocide ... [because it] was believed that the Aboriginal people would die out".[126] However the nature and extent of the removals have been disputed within Australia, with some commentators questioning the findings contained in the report and asserting that the Stolen Generation has been exaggerated. Not only has the number of children removed from their parents been questioned, but also the intent and effects of the government policy.[125] Portrayal of The taking of the children on the Great Australian Clock, Queen Victoria Building, Sydney The Stolen Generation (or Stolen Generations) is a term used to describe the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, usually of mixed descent who were removed from their families, under the rationale of... The History wars are an ongoing public debate over the interpretation of the history of the white colonisation of Australia and its influence on responses to the current situation of the original inhabitants of the land. ... Sir Ronald Wilson Sir Ronald Wilson, AC , KBE , CMG , QC , LL.M , LL.B ( 23 August 1922- 15 July 2005) was born on 23 August 1922 . ... Portrayal of The taking of the children on the Great Australian Clock, Queen Victoria Building, Sydney The Stolen Generation (or Stolen Generations) is a term used to describe the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, usually of mixed descent who were removed from their families, under the rationale of... Bringing Them Home cover Bringing Them Home is the title of the Australian Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families. The enquiry was established by the federal Attorney-General, Michael Lavarch, on 11 May 1995, in response to efforts...


Guatemala 1968-1996

Main article: Guatemalan civil war

During the Guatemalan civil war, some 200,000 people died. More than one million people were forced to flee their homes and hundreds of villages were destroyed. The officially chartered Historical Clarification Commission attributed more than 93% of documented violations of human rights; and that Maya Indians accounted for 83% of the victims. It concluded in 1999 that state actions constituted genocide.[127][128] This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Historical Clarification Commission (Spanish: Comisión para el Esclarecimiento Histórico, or CEH) was Guatemalas truth and reconciliation commission. ... Maya may refer to: // The Maya, Native American peoples of southern Mexico and northern Central America Maya peoples, the contemporary indigenous peoples Maya civilization, their historical pre-Columbian civilization Mayan languages, the family of languages spoken by the Maya Yucatec Maya language, specific and most widespread Mayan language, frequently referred...


In 1999, Nobel peace prize winner Rigoberta Menchú brought a case against the military leadership in a Spanish Court. Six officials, among them Efraín Ríos Montt and Óscar Humberto Mejía Victores, were formally charged on 7 July 2006 to appear in the Spanish National Court after Spain's Constitutional Court ruled in 2005 that Spanish courts can exercise universal jurisdiction over war crimes committed during the Guatemalan Civil War[129] Rigoberta Menchú Tum (b. ... José Efraín Ríos Montt (born June 16, 1926) is a former dictator of Guatemala, army general, and former president of Congress. ... Óscar Humberto Mejía Victores (born 1930) was President of Guatemala from 8 August 1983 to 14 January 1986. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Universal jurisdiction or universality principle is a controversial principle in international law whereby states claim criminal jurisdiction over persons whose alleged crimes were committed outside the boundaries of the prosecuting state, regardless of nationality, country of residence, or any other relation with the prosecuting country. ...


Bangladesh War of 1971

In 1997 R. J. Rummel published a book which is on the web called "Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900", In Chapter 8 called "Statistics Of Pakistan's Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources" In it he looks at the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. Rummel wrote: This is false story,never been established by any scientific survey. ... Combatants Bengali units of Pakistan Army and civilian volunteers Pakistan Armed Forces Commanders Prime Minister Tajuddin Ahmed (April 17 -December 16) Col(ret). ... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Pakistan Commanders Col. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Pakistan Commanders Col. ...

In East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) [The President of Pakistan, General Agha Mohammed Yahya Khan, and his top generals] also planned to murder its Bengali intellectual, cultural, and political elite. They also planned to indiscriminately murder hundreds of thousands of its Hindus and drive the rest into India. And they planned to destroy its economic base to insure that it would be subordinate to West Pakistan for at least a generation to come. This despicable and cutthroat plan was outright genocide.[97]

Rummel goes on to collate the what considers the most credible estimates published by others into what he calls democide. He writes that "Consolidating both ranges, I give a final estimate of Pakistan's democide to be 300,000 to 3,000,000, or a prudent 1,500,000." Other authors like Anthony Mascarenhas and Donald W. Beachler have cited a figure ranging between 1 - 3 million civilians killed by Pakistan Army;[130] Bleacher states that both Pakistan and its primary ally USA have denied Genocide allegations.[131] East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... The President of Pakistan (Urdū: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mumlikat) is the head of state of Pakistan. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 _ August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969_71, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Democide is a term coined by political scientist R. J. Rummel for the murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide, politicide, and mass murder. Rummel created the term as an extended concept to include forms of government murder that are not covered by the legal definition... The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ...


A case was filed in the Federal Court of Australia on 20 September 2006 for alleged crimes of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity during 1971 by the Pakistani Armed Forces and its collaborators:[132] is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

We are glad to announce that a case has been filed in the Federal Magistrate's Court of Australia today under the Genocide Conventions Act 1949 and War Crimes Act. This is the first time in history that someone is attending a court proceeding in relation to the [alleged] crimes of Genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity during 1971 by the Pakistani Armed Forces and its collaborators. The Proceeding number is SYG 2672 of 2006. On 25 October 2006, a direction hearing will take place in the Federal Magistrates Court of Australia, Sydney registry before Federal Magistrate His Honor Nicholls.

On 21 May 2007, at the request of the applicant "Leave is granted to the applicant to discontinue his application filed on 20 September 2006." (FILE NO: (P)SYG2672/2006)[133] is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Guinness Book of Records lists the Bengali atrocities as one of the top 5 genocides in the 20th century.[134]


Burundi 1972 and 1993

Main article: Burundi genocide

Since Burundi's independence in 1962, there have been two events called genocides in the country. The 1972 mass-killings of Hutu by the Tutsi army, [135] and the 1993 killing of Tutsi by the Hutu population that is recognised as a genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented to the United Nations Security Council in 2002.[136] Since Burundis independence in 1962, there have been three events labelled as genocide in the country. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ...


Equatorial Guinea

Francisco Macias Nguema was the first President of Equatorial Guinea, from 1968 until his overthrow in 1979.[137] During his presidency, his country was nicknamed "the Auschwitz of Africa". Nguema’s regime was characterized by its abandonment of all government functions except internal security, which was accomplished by terror; he acted as chief judge and sentenced thousands to death. This led to the death or exile of up to 1/3 of the country's population. Out of a population of 300,000, an estimated 80,000 had been killed, in particular those of the Bubi ethnic minority on Bioko associated with relative wealth and intellectualism.[138][139] Uneasy around educated people, he had killed everyone who wore spectacles. All schools were ordered closed in 1975. The economy collapsed, and skilled citizens and foreigners left.[140] Francisco Macías Nguema (1924 - September 29, 1979; original name Mez-m Ngueme) was the first post-colonial leader of Equatorial Guinea. ... List of Heads of State of Equatorial Guinea (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations:- See also:- Equatorial Guinea Heads of Government of Equatorial Guinea Colonial Heads of Equatorial Guinea (Fernando Póo/Spanish Guinea) Lists of Incumbents Categories: Lists of office-holders | Equatorial Guinea ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... The Bubi are an African ethnic group which is primarily located in Equatorial Guinea. ... Bioko (spelled also Bioco) is an island off the west coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea, formerly called Fernando Pó or Fernando Póo. ...


On August 3, 1979, he was overthrown by Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo.[141] Macias Nguema was captured, tried for genocide and other crimes along with 10 others. All of them were found guilty, four received terms of imprisonment, while Nguema and the other six were executed a few weeks later on September 29.[142][143] is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (born June 5, 1942) has been the President of Equatorial Guinea since 1979. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


John B. Quigley in The Genocide Convention: An International Law Analysis points out that at Macias Nguema's trial for genocide that Equatorial Guinea had not ratified the Genocide convention and that records of the court proceedings show that there was some confusion over whether Nguema and his co-defendants were tried under the laws of Spain (the former colonial power), or whether the trial was justified on the claim that the Genocide Convention was part of customary international law. Quigley states that "The Macias case stands out as the most confusing of domestic genocide prosecutions from the standpoint of the applicable law. The Macias conviction is also problematic from the standpoint of the identity of the protected group."[144]


Cambodia

See also: Autogenocide, Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum, and Democratic Kampuchea

The Khmer Rouge, or more formally, the Communist Party of Kampuchea, led by Pol Pot, Ta Mok and other leaders, organized the mass killing of ideologically suspect groups, ethnic minorities like the ethnic Vietnamese, Chinese (or Sino-Khmers), Chams and Thais, former civil servants, former government soldiers, Buddhist monks, secular intellectuals and professionals, and former city dwellers. Khmer Rouge cadres defeated in factional struggles were also liquidated in purges. The number of the victims is estimated at approximately 1.7 million Cambodians between 1975-1979, including deaths from slave labour.[145] Autogenocide is the extermination of a countrys citizens by its own people or government. ... The exterior of the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum, Phnom Penh The Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum is a museum in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. ... Flag Anthem Dap Prampi Mesa Chokchey Capital Phnom Penh Language(s) Khmer language Government Socialist republic Historical era Cold War  - Civil War 1967-1975  - Established April 17, 1975  - Fall of Phnom Pehn January 7, 1979  - Monarchy restored 1993-09-24 Currency Riel Democratic Kampuchea (French:Kampuchea démocratique, Khmer: ) was... Some of the Khmer Rouge leaders during their period in power. ... The flag of the Khmer Rouge Party The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: Khmaey Krahom French: Khmers Rouges) were a Communist organization which ruled Cambodia from 1975 to 1979. ... Saloth Sar (May 19, 1925 – April 15, 1998), aliases Pol, Pouk, Hay, Grand-Uncle, First Brother, 87, Phem, 99, and best known as Pol Pot[1], was the leader of the communist movement called Khmer Rouge and the Prime Minister of Cambodia (officially renamed the Democratic Kampuchea during his rule... Ta Mok Ta Mok, which means Grandfather Mok in Khmer, was the nom de guerre of Chhit Choeun (c. ... Cham statue from Cham Museum in Danang, Vietnam The Cham people are descendants of the kingdom of Champa. ... Categories: Buddhism-related stubs | Buddhist terms ... The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of repression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included a purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ...


This episode is widely seen as a genocide. For example "since 1994, the award-winning Cambodian Genocide Program"[145] has been included as part of the Genocide Studies Program at Yale University's MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies, and in 2003 Khieu Samphan, the Cambodian head of state under the Khmer Rouge, was quoted as saying "I have found it so difficult to believe what people told me of what happened under the Khmer Rouge regime, but today, I am very clear that there was genocide"[146] Yale redirects here. ... Khieu Samphan (born July 27, 1931) was the president of the state presidium of Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) from 1976 until 1979. ...


In 1997 the Cambodian Government asked the United Nations assistance in setting up a genocide tribunal. It took nine years to agree to shape and structure of the court — a hybrid of Cambodia and international laws — before in 2006 the judges were sworn in.[147][148][149] The investigating judges were presented with the names of five possible suspects by the prosecution on 18 July 2007.[147] On 19 September 2007 Nuon Chea, second in command of the Khmer Rouge and its most senior surviving member, was charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity. He will face Cambodian and foreign judges at the special genocide tribunal.[150] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


East Timor under Indonesian occupation

Main article: Indonesian occupation of East Timor

East Timor was occupied by Indonesia from 1975 to 1999 as annexed territory with Indonesian provincial status. A detailed statistical report prepared for the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor cited a lower range of 102,800 conflict-related deaths in the period 1974-1999, namely, approximately 18,600 killings and 84,200 'excess' deaths from hunger and illness, most of which occurred during the Indonesian occupation.[151] Earlier estimates of deaths during the occupation range from 60,000 to 200,000.[152] The Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (more commonly known by its Portuguese acronym CAVR: Comissão de Acolhimento, Verdade e Reconciliação de Timor Leste) is a body set up in 2000 by the United Nations (UN) and the Timor-Leste government charged to “inquire into...


According to Sian Powell writing in The Australian, a UN report states that the Indonesian military used starvation as a weapon to exterminate the East Timorese, along with Napalm and chemical weapons, obtained from the United States, which poisoned the food and water supply.[153] Ben Kiernan has written in War, Genocide, and Resistance in East Timor, 1975–99: Comparative Reflections on Cambodia that "the crimes committed ... in East Timor, with a toll of 150,000 in a population of 650,000, clearly meet a range of sociological definitions of genocide used by most scholars of the phenomenon, who see both political and ethnic groups as possible victims of genocide. The victims in East Timor included not only that substantial 'part' of the Timorese 'national group' targeted for destruction because of their resistance to Indonesian annexation—along with their relatives, as we shall see—but also most members of the twenty-thousand strong ethnic Chinese minority prominent in the towns of East Timor, whom Indonesian forces singled out for destruction, apparently because of their ethnicity 'as such.'"[154][155] As may be noted from the title, Ben Kiernan draws a comparison with the Khmer Rouge Cambodian genocide, accusing the west of hypocrisy in ignoring one whilst protesting about the other. The Australian is a national daily broadsheet newspaper published by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ...


On August 30, 1999, a United Nations-supervised popular referendum was held. The East Timorese voted for full independence from Indonesia, but violent clashes, instigated primarily by the Indonesian military and aided by Timorese pro-Indonesia militias, the most notable being led by Eurico Guterres, broke out soon afterwards. A peacekeeping force (INTERFET, led by Australia) intervened to restore order. is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Pro-Indonesia militias (also pro-Indonesian militias) were East Timorese paramilitary militia groups that formed to show loyalty to the Indonesian government during the movement for East Timorese independence in the late 1990s. ... Eurico Barros Gomes Guterres (born 1971) is a pro-Indonesian or anti-independence militia terrorist recruited by the Indonesian military. ... INTERFET (standing for INTERnational Force East Timor) was a multinational peacekeeping taskforce, mandated by the United Nations to address the humanitarian and security crisis which took place in East Timor from 1999-2000 until the arrival of United Nations peacekeepers. ...


Sabra-Shatila, Lebanon

The Sabra and Shatila massacre was carried out in September 1982 against Palestinians in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps by Lebanese Maronite Christian/Phalange militias, near the beginning of the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict. The number of victims of the massacre is estimated at 700-3500. Responsibility for the massacre has been attributed to the Phalangists as the perpetrators, and indirectly to Israel as the occupying army.[156] The Sabra and Shatila massacre (or Sabra and Chatila massacre; Arabic: مذبحة صبرا وشاتيلا) was an attack carried out in September 1982 by a Lebanese Forces militia group against Palestinian refugee camps in Beirut. ... The Sabra and Shatila massacre (or Sabra and Chatila massacre) was carried out in September 1982 by Lebanese Maronite Christian militias in then-Israeli-occupied Beirut, Lebanon. ... Lebanese Forces (LF) (Arabic: القوات اللبنانية al-quwat al-lubnāniyya) is a Lebanese political party and a former militia, which fought on the Christian side during the civil war that ravaged Lebanon from 1975 to 1990. ... Phalange redirects here. ... Belligerents Hezbollah Israel South Lebanon Army Casualties and losses 1282 250 IDF, 1000 SLA During the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon. ... The Sabra and Shatila massacre (or Sabra and Chatila massacre; Arabic: مذبحة صبرا وشاتيلا) was an attack carried out in September 1982 by a Lebanese Forces militia group against Palestinian refugee camps in Beirut. ...


On December 16, 1982, the United Nations General Assembly condemned the massacre and declared it to be an act of genocide.[157] Paragraph 2, which "resolved that the massacre was an act of genocide", was adopted by ninety-eight votes to nineteen, with twenty-three abstentions: All Western democracies abstained from voting. [158][159] is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ...


According to William Schabas, director of the Irish Centre for Human Rights at the National University of Ireland,[160] "the term genocide (…) had obviously been chosen to embarrass Israel rather than out of any concern with legal precision”.[159] This opinion is a reflection of the comments made by some of the delegates who took part in the debate. While all acknowledged that it was a massacre, the claim that it was a genocide was disputed, for example the delegate for Canada stated "[t]he term genocide cannot, in our view, be applied to this particular inhuman act".[159] The delegate of Singapore added that "[his] delegation regret[ted] the use of the term "an act of genocide" (…) [as] the term 'genocide' is used to mean acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group".[159] and that "[he] also question[ned] whether the General Assembly ha[d] the competence to make such determination",[159] and the United States commented that "[w]hile the criminality of the massacre was beyond question, it was a serious and reckless misuse of language to label this tragedy genocide as defined in the 1948 Convention (…)".[159] The National University of Ireland (NUI) is a federal university system of constituent universities, previously called constituent colleges, and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, and significantly amended by the Universities Act, 1997. ...


In a Belgium court case lodged on 18 June 2001 by 23 survivors of the 1982 Sabra and Shatila massacres, the prosecution alleged that Ariel Sharon, former Israeli defense minister (and Israel's Prime Minister in 2001–2006), as well as other Israelis committed a number of crimes including genocide,[161] because "all the constituent elements of the crime of genocide, as defined in the 1948 Convention and as reproduced in article 6 of the ICC Statute and in article 1§1 of the law of 16 June 1993,29 are present".[162] This allegation was not tested in Belgium court because on 12 February 2003 the Court of Cassation (Belgian Supreme Court) ruled that under international customary law, acting heads of state and government can not become the object of proceedings before criminal tribunals in foreign state (although for the crime of genocide they could be the subject of proceedings of an international tribunal).[162][163] This ruling was a reiteration of a decision made a year earlier by the International Court of Justice on 14 February, 2002.[164] Following these ruling in June 2003 the Belgian Justice Ministry decided to start a procedure to transfer the case to Israel,[165] so to date the accusation that the massacres in Sabra and Shatila were a genocide has not been tested in any court. Belgiums War Crimes Law, extended the concept of universal jurisdiction to allow anyone to bring war crime charges in Belgian courts, regardless of where the alleged crimes have taken place. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Case Concerning the Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

M. Hassan Kakar presents an argument in a chapter called Genocide Throughout the Country[3] in his book The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982[2] that the international definition of genocide is too restricted, and that it should include political groups or any group so defined by the perpetrator as described by Chalk and Jonassohn: “Genocide is a form of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority intends to destroy a group, as that group and membership in it are defined by the perpetrator.”[4]


Having established a broader definition of Genocide Kakar goes on to claim that during the Soviet war in Afghanistan (1979–1989), "The Afghans are among the latest victims of genocide by a superpower. Large numbers of Afghans were killed to suppress resistance to the army of the Soviet Union, which wished to vindicate its client regime and realize its goal in Afghanistan. Thus, the mass killing was political." Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45...


Ethiopia

Ethiopia's former Soviet-backed Marxist dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam was tried in an Ethiopian court, in absentia, for his role in mass killings during the Red Terror. Mengistu's charge sheet and evidence list was 8,000 pages long. The evidence against him included signed execution orders, videos of torture sessions and personal testimonies.[166] The trial began in 1994 and on 12 December 2006 Mengistu was found guilty of genocide and other offences. He was sentenced to life in prison in January 2007.[167][168] It should be noted that Ethiopia defines genocide as intent to wipe out political and not just ethnic groups.[169] 106 Derg officials were accused of genocide during the trials, but only 36 of them were present in the court. Several former members of the Derg have been sentenced to death.[170] Zimbabwe has refused to respond to Ethiopia's request that Mengistu be extradited, which has permitted Mengistu to avoid his Ethiopian life imprisonment sentence. Mengistu supported Robert Mugabe, the long-standing President of Zimbabwe, during his leadership of Ethiopia.[171] Soviet redirects here. ... Mengistu Haile Mariam (IPA: //) (born 1937[3][4]) was the most prominent officer of the Derg, the military junta that governed Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987, and the president of the Peoples Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. ... Mengistu Haile Mariam, in December 2006 convicted of genocide in absentia for his role the Red Terror The Ethiopian Red Terror (1977-1978) was a violent political campaign in Ethiopia undertaken during the leadership of the Derg, a socialist military junta. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mugabe redirects here. ...


Some experts have estimated that 150,000 university students, intellectuals and politicians were killed during Mengistu's rule.[172] Amnesty International estimates that up to 500,000 people were killed during the Red Terror of 1977 and 1978 [173][174][175] Human Rights Watch describes the Red Terror as “one of the most systematic uses of mass murder by a state ever witnessed in Africa.”[166] During his reign it was not uncommon to see students, suspected government critics or rebel sympathisers hanging from lampposts each morning. Mengistu himself is alleged to have murdered opponents by garroting or shooting them, saying that he was leading by example.[176] Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Mass murder (massacre) is the act of murdering a large number of people, typically at the same time, or over a relatively short period of time. ...


Iraqi Kurds

See also 1988 Anfal campaign

On December 23, 2005 a Dutch court ruled in a case brought against Frans van Anraat for supplying chemicals to Iraq, that "[it] thinks and considers legally and convincingly proven that the Kurdish population meets the requirement under the genocide conventions as an ethnic group. The court has no other conclusion that these attacks were committed with the intent to destroy the Kurdish population of Iraq." and because he supplied the chemicals before 16 March 1988, the date of the Halabja poison gas attack he is guilty of a war crime but not guilty of complicity in genocide.[177][178] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Al-Anfal Campaign. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Photo said to have been taken in the aftermath of the attack. ...


Tibet

On 5 June 1959 Shri Purshottam Trikamdas, Senior Advocate, Supreme Court of India, presented a report on Tibet to the International Commission of Jurists (an NGO). The press conference address on the report states in paragraph 26 that is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ... The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) is an international human rights non-government organisation. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ...

From the facts stated above the following conclusions may be drawn: ... (e) To examine all such evidence obtained by this Committee and from other sources and to take appropriate action thereon and in particular to determine whether the crime of Genocide - for which already there is strong presumption - is established and, in that case, to initiate such action as envisaged by the Genocide Convention of 1948 and by the Charter of the United Nations for suppression of these acts and appropriate redress;[179]

On 11 January 2006 it was reported that the Spanish High Court will investigate whether seven former Chinese officials, including the former President of China Jiang Zemin and former Prime Minister Li Peng participated in a genocide in Tibet. This investigation follows a Spanish Constitutional Court (26 September 2005) ruling that Spanish courts could try genocide cases even if they did not involve Spanish nationals.[180] The court proceedings in the case brought by the Madrid-based Committee to Support Tibet against several former Chinese officials was opened by the Judge on 6 June 2006, and on the same day China denounced the Spanish court's investigation into claims of genocide in Tibet as an interference in its internal affairs and dismissed the allegations as "sheer fabrication".[181][182] is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jiāng Zémín (Traditional Chinese: 江澤民, Simplified Chinese: 江泽民, Hanyu Pinyin: Jiāng Zémín, Wade-Giles: Chiang Tse-min, Cantonese (Jyutping): gong1 zaak6 man4) (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist... Li Peng (Simplified Chinese: 李鹏, Traditional Chinese: 李鵬, Wade-Giles: Li Peng) (b. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Brazil

The Helmet Massacre of the Tikuna people took place in 1988, and was initially treated as homicide. Since 1994 it has been treated by the Brazilian courts as a genocide. Thirteen men were convicted of genocide in 2001. In November 2004 at the appeal before Brazil's federal court, the man initially found guilty of hiring men to carry out the genocide was acquitted, and the other men had their initial sentences of 15-25 years reduced to 12 years.[183] The Helmet Massacre of the Tikuna people took place in 1988, and was initially treated as homicide. ... Ticuna is a language spoken by approximately 40,000 people in Brazil, Peru, and Colombia. ...


In November 2005 during an investigation by the Brazilian authorities, code-named Operation Rio Pardo, Mario Lucio Avelar, a Brazilian public prosecutor in the city of Cuiabá, told Survival International that he believed there were sufficient grounds to prosecute for genocide of the Rio Pardo Indians. In November 2006 twenty-nine people were held in custody for the alleged genocide with others such as a former police commander and the governor of Mato Grosso state implicated in the alleged.[184][185] Coordinates: , Country Region State Mato Grosso Government  - Mayor Wilson Santos PSDB Area  - City 3,538 km²  (1,366 sq mi) Elevation 165 m (541 ft) Population (2000)  - City 542,861  - Density 153. ... Survival International is a human rights organisation formed in 1969 that campaigns for the rights of indigenous peoples, helping them preserve their land and culture. ... Rio Pardo is a municipality in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. ...


In a newsletter published on 7 August 2006 the Indianist Missionary Council reported that: "In a plenary session, the [Brizillian] Supreme Federal Court (STF) reaffirmed that the crime known as the Haximu Massacre [perpetrated on the Yanomami Indians in 1993][186] was a genocide and that the decision of a federal court to sentence miners to 19 years in prison for genocide in connection with other offenses, such as smuggling and illegal mining, is valid. It was a unanimous decision made during the judgment of Extraordinary Appeal (RE) 351487 today, the 3rd, in the morning by justices of the Supreme Court".[187] Commenting on the case the NGO Survival International said "The UN convention on genocide, ratified by Brazil, states that the killing 'with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group' is genocide. The Supreme Court's ruling is highly significant and sends an important warning to those who continue to commit crimes against indigenous peoples in Brazil."[186] is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fierce People redirects here. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Survival International is a human rights organisation formed in 1969 that campaigns for the rights of indigenous peoples, helping them preserve their land and culture. ...


Democratic Republic of Congo

During the Congo Civil War, Pygmies were hunted down like game animals and eaten. Both sides of the war regarded them as "subhuman" and some say their flesh can confer magical powers. UN human rights activists reported in 2003 that rebels had carried out acts of cannibalism. Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of Mbuti pygmies, has asked the UN Security Council to recognise cannibalism as a crime against humanity and an act of genocide.[188] Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... Baka dancers in the East Province of Cameroon Batwa dancers in Uganda This article is about the Pygmy people. ... Cannibal redirects here. ... The Mbuti people, or Bambuti as they are collectively called, are one of several indigenous hunter-gatherer groups in the Congo region of Africa. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


South Africa

The South African farming community has suffered from attacks for many years.[189] The vast majority of the victims have been white farmers, with claims of death tolls of up to 1,700 (July 2005) cited in the media.[190][191] The age of those killed range from as old as 87 years to young infants. Genocide Watch has stated that these attacks constitute early warning signs of genocide against Boers and has criticised the South African government for its inaction on the issue, pointing out that the murder rate for them ("ethno-European farmers" in their report) is four times that of the general South African population.[192][193] Genocide Watch is an international organization based in the United States which attempts to predict, prevent, limit, eliminate, and punish genocides throughout the world through reporting, public awareness campaigns, and judicial or quasi-judicial follow-up. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Boer people (Boerevolk). ...


West New Guinea / West Papua

In 2004 the Yale University Law School published "Indonesian Human Rights Abuses in West Papua: Application of the Law of Genocide to the History of Indonesian Control",[194] a 75 page report detailing the applicability of Indonesian control to each of the genocide conventions. During 2005 Sydney University Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies published "Genocide in West Papua? The role of the Indonesian state apparatus and a current needs assessment of the Papuan people",[195] a report on the current conditions of the territory. The report estimated more than 100,000 Papuans have died since Indonesia took control of West New Guinea from the Dutch Government in 1963.[196] while others had previously specified much higher death tolls.[197] The term Papuan languages refers to those languages of the western Pacific which are neither Austronesian nor Australian. ... This article or section should be merged with Papua (Indonesian province) Map showing West New Guinea region The region of West New Guinea is the western half of the island of New Guinea or Papua, and has also been known as Irian Jaya or West Papua. ...


The United Nations has yet to respond to NGO requests during 2006 for the United Nations to resume its decolonization obligations under UN General Assembly Resolution 1514 and to return the territory's name to the United Nations list of Non Self-Fact|date=July 2007}} Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization is the process by which a colony gains its independence from a colonial power, a process opposite to colonization. ...


International prosecution of genocide

Ad hoc tribunals

In 1951 only two of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (UNSC) were parties to the CPPCG: France and the Republic of China. The CPPCG was ratified by the Soviet Union in 1954, the United Kingdom in 1970, the People's Republic of China in 1983 (having replaced the Taiwan-based Republic of China on the UNSC in 1971), and the United States in 1988. So it was only in the 1990s that the international law on the crime of genocide began to be enforced. A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-1995

In 2001 the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) found General Krstic guilty of genocide for his role in the 1995 Srebrenica massacre, thereby making it the first ever legally determined act of genocide by an international tribunal.[198] This judgement was upheld by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in its February 2007 ruling in the case of Bosnia vs Serbia. However, contrary to the claim made by Bosnia, the ICJ did not find that genocide had been committed on the wider territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war, limiting local genocide to the Srebrenica.[199] Before this ruling the term Bosnian Genocide had been used by some academics,[200] and human rights officials.[201] The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... Nenad Krstić (pronounced NE-nad KRIS-tich) (Serbian: ) (born July 25, 1983 in Kraljevo, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (present-day Serbia)) is a Serbian professional basketball player in the National Basketball Association (NBA). ... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Srebrenica massacre. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


German courts have handed down several convictions for genocide during the Bosnian War. Novislav Djajic was indicted for participation in genocide, but the Higher Regional Court failed to find that there was sufficient certainty, for a criminal conviction, that he had intended to commit genocide. Nevertheless Djajic was found guilty of 14 cases of murder and one case of attempted murder.[202] At Djajic's appeal on 23 May 1997, the Bavarian Appeals Chamber found that acts of genocide were committed in June 1992, confined within the administrative district of Foca.[203] The Higher Regional Court (Oberlandesgericht) of Dusseldorf, in September 1997, handed down a genocide conviction against Nikola Jorgic, a Bosnian Serb from the Doboj region who was the leader of a paramilitary group located in the Doboj region. He was sentenced to four terms of life imprisonment for his involvement in genocidal actions that took place in regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina, other than Srebrenica; [204] and "On 29 November 1999, the Higher Regional Court (Oberlandesgericht) of Dusseldorf condemned Maksim Sokolovic to 9 years in prison for aiding and abetting the crime of genocide and for grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions". [205] Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Foča (Serbian: Фоча), known from 1992 to 2004 as Srbinje (Србиње), is a town in southeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina near Drina river, in the Herzegovina region of Republika Srpska entity. ... In 1997, Germany handed down first Bosnian Genocide conviction. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... View of Doboj from the fortress 14th Century Doboj Fortress, reconstructed in 2006, with a wooden stage added during reconstruction Doboj (Cyrillic: Добој) is a city and a municipality in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, situated on the river Bosna. ... Life imprisonment is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime, nominally for the entire remaining life of the prisoner, but in fact for a period which varies between jurisdictions: many countries have a maximum possible period of time (usually 50 years) a prisoner may be incarcerated, or require the... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Rwanda

Main article Rwandan Genocide

During a period of 100 days in 1994, officially 937,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus were killed by Hutus in Rwanda. The rate at which people were killed far exceeded any other genocide in history[citation needed]. Bodies were left wherever they were slain, mostly in the streets and their homes. The method of killing was done mostly with machetes. See also History of Rwanda. Download high resolution version (580x773, 112 KB)Wanted poster for fugitives wanted for the Rwandan Genocide made by the US Government for the Rewards for Justice program to assist the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. ... Download high resolution version (580x773, 112 KB)Wanted poster for fugitives wanted for the Rwandan Genocide made by the US Government for the Rewards for Justice program to assist the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. ... Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of the hundreds of thousands of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutu sympathizers in Rwanda and was the largest atrocity during the Rwandan Civil War. ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa: the other two being the Twa (or Watwa), a pygmy people, and the original inhabitants; and the Hutu (Wahutu), a Bantu-derived people. ... Hutu is the name given to one of the three ethnic groups occupying Burundi and Rwanda. ... This article discusses the history of Rwanda. ...


The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April and May, 1994, commencing on April 6. The ICTR was created on November 8, 1994 by the Security Council of the United Nations in order to judge those people responsible for the acts of genocide and other serious violations of the international law performed in the territory of Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between January 1 and December 31, 1994. Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of the hundreds of thousands of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutu sympathizers in Rwanda and was the largest atrocity during the Rwandan Civil War. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


So far, the ICTR has finished nineteen trials and convicted twenty-five accused persons. Another twenty-five persons are still on trial. Nineteen are awaiting trial in detention. Ten are still at large. The first trial, of Jean-Paul Akayesu, began in 1997. Jean Kambanda, interim Prime Minister, pled guilty.[206] Jean Paul Akayesu (b. ... Jean Kambanda (born October 19, 1955) was the prime minister in the caretaker government of Rwanda from the start of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. ...


International Criminal Court

Sudan

See also Second Sudanese Civil War, Darfur conflict

The United States government's Sudan Peace Act of October 21, 2002 accused Sudan of genocide in an ongoing civil war which has cost more than 2,000,000 lives and has displaced more than 4,000,000 people since the war started in 1983.[207] Combatants Sudanese Government (North Sudan) Sudan Peoples Liberation Army Commanders Gaafar Nimeiry Sadiq al-Mahdi Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir John Garang Casualties Not Released 1. ... Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the... The Sudan Peace Act is a US law condemning Sudan for genocide. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Combatants Sudanese Government (North Sudan) Sudan Peoples Liberation Army Commanders Gaafar Nimeiry Sadiq al-Mahdi Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir John Garang Casualties Not Released 1. ...


In 2004, it became widely known that there was an organised campaign by Janjaweed militias (nomadic Arab shepherds with the support of Sudanese government troops) to get rid of 80 black African groups from the Darfur region of western Sudan. These peoples include the Fur, Zaghawa and Massalit.[208][209] Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the... A Janjaweed miltiaman mounted The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد; variously transliterated Janjawid, Janjawed, Jingaweit, Jinjaweed, Janjawiid, Janjiwid, Janjaweit, etc. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ...


Mukesh Kapila (United Nations humanitarian coordinator) is quoted as saying: "This is more than just a conflict. It is an organised attempt [by Khartoum] to do away with a group of people. The only difference between Rwanda [in 1994] and Darfur now is the numbers of dead, murdered, tortured and raped involved"[210][211] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... For the domesticated crop plant called rape, see rapeseed. ...


On September 9, 2004 United States Secretary of State Colin Powell declared that the actions of the armed Muslim Arab Janjaweed organization in Darfur, conducted with the tacit approval, if not active support, of the Government of Sudan, constitute genocide. Powell stated before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee that "the government of Sudan and the Janjaweed bear responsibility."[212] is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... A Janjaweed miltiaman mounted The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد; variously transliterated Janjawid, Janjawed, Jingaweit, Jinjaweed, Janjawiid, Janjiwid, Janjaweit, etc. ...


A number of articles are available on the website of the Embassy of the Republic of Sudan in Washington D.C. including one by Jonathan Steele originally published in The Guardian on 7 October 2005 in which he says that Colin Powell's declaration that the conflict in the western region of Darfur was a "genocide" was "a sop to the Christian right and anti-Islamist neocons" in the USA, making the claim that the U.S. administration did "nothing, or at least no more than many other states, including Britain, which did not want the genocide label to be lightly used, and so devalued." The article concludes "Grim though it has been, this was not genocide or classic ethnic cleansing. Many of the displaced moved to camps a few kilometres from their homes. Professionals and intellectuals were not targeted, as in Rwanda. Darfur was, and is, the outgrowth of a struggle between farmers and nomads rather than a Balkan-style fight for the same piece of land." Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Western countries are as yet undecided on whether to intervene directly, while at present millions of people are displaced, their family separated and their property destroyed. There is a risk of famine and epidemics because of overcrowding in camps, the destruction of agriculture, and poor supplies of medicine and food. To support the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed by the government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement on January 9, 2005, to perform certain functions relating to humanitarian assistance, protection, the promotion of human rights, and to support the AMIS, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Mission In Sudan (UNMIS) under Resolution 1590 on March 24, 2005 because the Security Council deemed the situation in Darfur to be a "threat to peace and international security.".[213] The UN investigation found that the Muslim-controlled Sudanese government had committed mass murder, rape and other human rights violations against approximately 100,000 non-Muslim civilians. In addition vast numbers of villages were burnt and pillaged resulting in a total of about 1.85 million displaced non-Muslim African tribespeople.[214] The Comprehensive Peace Agreement, commonly known as the Naivasha Agreement, was a set of agreements culminating in January 2005 that were signed between the Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement and the Government of Sudan. ... The Sudan Peoples Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) is a rebel group that was formed in 1983 by John Garang de Mabior, Salva Kiir Mayardit, William Nyuon Bany and Kerubino Kuanyin Bol. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... AMIS soldier (CIDA, 2005) “AMIS” redirects here. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... The United Nations Mission In Sudan or UNMIS was established by the United Nations under UN Security Council Resolution 1590 of the UN Security Council on March 24, 2005 in response to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of Sudan and the Sudan Peoples Liberation... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The country of Sudan The Darfur conflict is an ongoing conflict in the Darfur region of western Sudan, mainly between the Janjaweed, a government-supported militia recruited from local Arab tribes, and the non-Arab peoples of the region. ... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... For other uses, see Security (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


In January 2005, an International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, authorized by the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1564 of 2004, issued a report to the Secretary-General stating that "the Government of the Sudan has not pursued a policy of genocide."[215] Nevertheless, the Commission cautioned that "The conclusion that no genocidal policy has been pursued and implemented in Darfur by the Government authorities, directly or through the militias under their control, should not be taken in any way as detracting from the gravity of the crimes perpetrated in that region. International offences such as the crimes against humanity and war crimes that have been committed in Darfur may be no less serious and heinous than genocide."[215] Two permanent members of the Security Council, the United States and China, abstained from the vote on the referral resolution.[216] As of his fourth report to the Security Council, the Prosecutor, Mr. Luis Moreno Ocampo, has found "reasonable grounds to believe that the individuals identified [in the UN Security Council Resolution 1593] have committed crimes against humanity and war crimes," but did not find sufficient evidence to prosecute for genocide.[217] Security Council Resolution 1564 was a U.N. Security Council Resolution regarding the Darfur conflict passed on September 18, 2004. ... Luis Moreno Ocampo is the Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC). ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1593 was adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 31 March 2005, by a vote of eleven to none with four abstentions (Algeria, Brazil, China and the United States of America). ...


See also

Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... International humanitarian law (IHL), also known as the law of war, the laws and customs of war or the law of armed conflict, is the legal corpus comprised of the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and customary international law. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

References

  • Pfitzner, Wolfgang, The Unknown Famine Holocaust - About the Causes of Mass Starvation in Britain's Colony of India 1942-1945, The Revisionist 1(1) (2003).
  • Braudel, Fernand, The Perspective of the World, vol. III of Civilization and Capitalism 1984 (in French 1979).
  • Cronon, William, Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England 1983 ISBN 0-8090-1634-6
  • Crosby, Alfred W., Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900, Cambridge University Press, 1986 ISBN 0-521-45690-8
  • Jones, Adam. Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction , Routledge/Taylor & Francis Publishers, 2006. ISBN 0-415-35385-8. Chapter 1: Genocide in prehistory, antiquity, and early modernity
  • McCarthy, Justin., Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922, (Darwin Press, 1995)

Fernand Braudel (August 24, 1902–November 27, 1985) was a French historian. ...

Further reading

General
  • Charny, Israel W.; Encyclopedia of Genocide, ABC-Clio Inc, 720 pages, ISBN 0-87436-928-2 (December 1, 1999); Entries on the Armenian Genocide by Rouben Paul Adalian, displayed on the website of the Armenian National Institute.
Armenia
  • Armeniapedia The Armenian Genocide
  • H2g2 The Armenian Genocide
Asia
  • Becker, Elizabeth, When the War Was Over: Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge Revolution, Public Affairs, 1986, 1998, paperback, 519 pages, ISBN 1-891620-00-2
  • Brundige, Elizabeth; et al. Indonesian Human Rights Abuses in West Papua: Application of the Law of Genocide to the History of Indonesian Control(PDF) A paper prepared for the Indonesia Human Rights Network by the Allard K. Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic Yale Law School
  • Elst, Koenraad, Chapter 2: Negationism in India
  • Farooq, Mohammad Omar; Genocide 1971 in Bangladesh (former East Pakistan)
  • Gendercide Watch Genocide in Bangladesh, 1971
  • Kiernan, Ben, Ed., Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia: The Khmer Rouge, the U.N., and the International Community, 335 pp. (1993). ISBN 0-938692-49-6
  • Pran, Dith; The Dith Pran Holocaust Awareness Project Cambodia
Darfur
  • Protect Darfur UK-based lobbying organisation
  • Genocide Intervention Network Building the first permanent anti-genocide constituency
  • Africa Action Africa advocacy organization seeking 400,000 signatures on petition demanding US action to stop genocide in Darfur
  • Stop Genocide Now Global community to change the way the world responds to genocide. Daily video feeds from the ground in Darfur/Chad border.
  • Students Taking Action Now: Darfur Student movement to end the genocide in Darfur with over 75 chapters in the US and Canada
  • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Voices on Genocide Prevention Podcast Stay up-to-date on the crisis in Darfur and the continuing challenge or preventing and responding to genocide
  • Save Darfur Coalition Alliance of over 160 humanitarian, advocacy, human rights, and faith-based organizations united to end the genocide in Darfur.
Eastern Europe
  • Leonas Cerskus Crimes of Soviet Communists — Wide collection of sources and links
  • Yaroslav Bilinsky Was the Ukrainian Famine (Holodomor) of 1932-1933 Genocide? originally published in the Journal of Genocide Research (1999), 1(2), 147-156
  • Kistler-Ritso Estonian Foundation Museum of occupations of Estonia
  • The Occupation museum of Latvia
  • Alfred Erich Senn What Happened in Lithuania in 1940?(PDF)
  • Oksana Zakydalsky Commemorations of 1943 events in Volyn: perspective of Ukrainians in Poland first published in The Ukrainian Weekly, June 8, 2003, No. 23, Vol. LXXI
  • Findings of the Commission on the Ukraine Famine (Holodomor) Source: U. S. Commission on the Ukraine Famine, Report to Congress. Adopted by the Commission, April 19, 1988. Submitted to Congress April 22. 1988. Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1988. 524p
Other
  • Map of Occurrences of Genocide Throughout History (open for additions by anyone)
  • Tatz, Colin. Genocide in Australia. Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies.
  • Survivors Fund/ Representing survivors of the Rwandan genocide
  • Assimilation, Exodus, Eradication: Iraq’s minority communities since 2003 London, Minority Rights Group, 2007
  • Globalizing the Holocaust: A Jewish ‘useable past’ in Serbian Nationalism - David MacDonald, University of Otago (English)
  • Innocents Betrayed Documentary Film, 2003, 58 minutes, Director: Aaron Zelman/Writer: Claire Wolfe, JPFO Productions.

is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... Samantha Power (b. ... H2G2 is also an acronym for the The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. ... Elizabeth Becker is a journalist and author who specializes in trade, development, and Asian affairs. ... The Sterling Law Building Sculptural ornamentation on the Sterling Law Building Yale Law School, or YLS, is the law school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. ... Negationism is the denial of historic crimes. ... Benedict F. Kiernan (born 1953 in Melbourne, Australia) is the Whitney Griswold Professor of History, Professor of International and Area Studies and Director of the Genocide Studies Program at Yale University. ... The Ukrainian Weekly is the oldest newspaper of the Ukrainian diaspora in the United States, and North America, which is published weekly in English language. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) is an independent Australian Government statutory authority. ... Claire Wolfe is a survivalist-libertarian author and columnist. ... Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership or JPFO is a group dedicated to the preservation of gun rights in the United States. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
  2. ^ a b M. Hassan Kakar Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982 University of California press © 1995 The Regents of the University of California.
  3. ^ a b M. Hassan Kakar depth=1&toc.id=d0e5195&brand=eschol 4. The Story of Genocide in Afghanistan: 13. Genocide Throughout the Country
  4. ^ a b Frank Chalk, Kurt Jonassohn The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies, Yale University Press, 1990, ISBN 0-300-04446-1
  5. ^ Domocide versus genocide; which is what?
  6. ^ a b c Adam Jones References p. 3, footnote 4
  7. ^ Adam Jones p.3 footnote 5 cites Helen Fein, Genocide: A Sociological Perspective, (London: Sage, 1993), p. 26
  8. ^ Adam Jones References p. 3
  9. ^ Adam Jones References p. 5
  10. ^ Adam Jones References p. 4, note 6, citing Bauer, Rethinking the Holocaust, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), p. 41
  11. ^ Adam Jones References p. 5
  12. ^ Jones References, p.4 note 12 Eric s. Margolis War at the top of the World, the struggle for Afghanistan, Kashmir and Tibet (New York, Routledge, 2001) p.155
  13. ^ a b Staff. A review of American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World (by David Stannard), on the website of Oxford University Press (the publishers)
  14. ^ '500 Years of Brazil's Discovery'
  15. ^ Brazil urged to protect Indians
  16. ^ Jennings, p. 83; Royal's quote
  17. ^ Smallpox: Eradicating the Scourge
  18. ^ The Story Of... Smallpox
  19. ^ David Stannard (1992). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508557-4. "During the course of four centuries - from the 1490s to the 1890s - Europeans and white Americans engaged in an unbroken string of genocide campaigns against the native peoples of the Americas." (p.147). "[It] was, far and away, the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world."(Prologue)
  20. ^ Stafford Poole, quoted in Royal, Robert 1492 and All That: Political Manipulations of History. Washington, D.C.: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1992. p. 63.
  21. ^ Columbus 'sparked a genocide'. BBC News (October 12, 2003). Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
  22. ^ David Cesarani, Holocaust: Critical Concepts in Historical Studies, Routledge, 2004. (p. 381)
  23. ^ David E. Stannard, American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World, Oxford University Press, 1993.
  24. ^ David Cesarani, Holocaust: Critical Concepts in Historical Studies, Routledge, 2004. (p. 380–381).
  25. ^ Cesarani, Holocaust: Critical Concepts in Historical Studies, p. 380.
  26. ^ Cesarani, Holocaust: Critical Concepts in Historical Studies, p. 389–390.
  27. ^ Michno, Encyclopedia of Indian Wars Index.
  28. ^ Arthur Grenke, God, Greed, and Genocide: The Holocaust Through the Centuries, New Academia Publishing, 2005. (p. 161).
  29. ^ Carter (III), Samuel (1976). Cherokee sunset: A nation betrayed : a narrative of travail and triumph, persecution and exile. New York: Doubleday, p. 232.
  30. ^ Prucha, Great Father, p. 241 note 58; Ehle, Trail of Tears, pp. 390–92; Russel Thornton, "Demography of the Trail of Tears" in Anderson, Trail of Tears, pp. 75–93.
  31. ^ Andermann, Jens. Argentine Literature and the 'Conquest of the Desert', 1872-1896, Birkbeck, University of London. "It is this sudden acceleration, this abrupt change from the discourse of 'defensive warfare' and 'merciful civilization' to that of 'offensive warfare' and of genocide, which is perhaps the most distinctive mark of the literature of the Argentine frontier."
  32. ^ Rock, David. State Building and Political Movements in Argentina, 1860-1916. Stanford University Press, 2002. Pages 93-94.
  33. ^ "Civilización o genocidio, un debate que nunca se cierra" by Cacho Fernández – Qollasuyu Tawaintisuyu Indymedia (Spanish)
  34. ^ Historian dismisses Tasmanian aboriginal genocide "myth"
  35. ^ Our history not rewritten but put right. Accusations of genocide have been based on guesswork and blatant ideology. SMH, 24 November 2002
  36. ^ Debates on Genocide - Part One Debates on 'Genocide' in Australian History, Australian Government Department of Education Science and Training
  37. ^ Levene, Mark. Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State. I.B.Tauris, 2005. ISBN 1845110579, page 288
  38. ^ Giersch, Charles Patterson. Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China's Yunnan Frontier. Harvard University Press, 2006. ISBN 1845110579, page 219
  39. ^ Muslim History in China
  40. ^ Dillon, Michael. China’s Muslim Hui Community. Curzon, 1999. ISBN 0700710264, page xix
  41. ^ Damsan Harper, Steve Fallon, Katja Gaskell, Julie Grundvig, Carolyn Heller, Thomas Huhti, Bradley Maynew, Christopher Pitts. Lonely Planet China. 9. 2005. ISBN 1740596870
  42. ^ a b c Gernet, Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization. 2. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.ISBN 0521497124
  43. ^ Jonathan N. Lipman, "Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China)", University of Washington Press (February 1998), ISBN 0295976446.
  44. ^ Secher, Reynald. A French Genocide: The Vendée, University of Notre Dame Press, (2003), ISBN 0268028656.
  45. ^ The Heart of Darkness: How Visceral Hatred of Catholicism Turns Into Genocide
  46. ^ Wars Of The Vendee
  47. ^ Three State and Counterrevolution in France by Charles Tilly
  48. ^ "Vive la Contre-Revolution!"
  49. ^ McPhee, Peter Review of Reynald Secher, A French Genocide: The Vendée, H-France Review Vol. 4 (March 2004), No. 26.
  50. ^ Claude Langlois, « Les héros quasi mythiques de la Vendée ou les dérives de l'imaginaire », in F. Lebrun, 1987, p. 426–434, et « Les dérives vendéennes de l’imaginaire révolutionnaire », AESC, n°3, 1988, p. 771–797.
  51. ^ Voir l'intervention de Timothy Tackett, dans French Historical Studies, Autumn 2001, p. 572.
  52. ^ Hugh Gough, "Genocide & the Bicentenary: the French Revolution and the revenge of the Vendée", (Historical Journal, vol. 30, 4, 1987, pp. 977–88.) p. 987.
  53. ^ a b Peter McPhee, a review of Reynald Secher, A French Genocide, published in H-France Review Vol. 4 (March 2004), No. 26.
  54. ^ Stefan Berger, Mark Donovan, Kevin Passmore (dir.), Writing National Histories—Western Europe Since 1800, Routledge, Londres, 1999, 247 pages, contribution by Julian Jackson. (jackson biography published by QMUL ),
  55. ^ François Lebrun, « La guerre de Vendée : massacre ou génocide ? », L'Histoire, Paris, n°78, May 1985, p.93 to 99 et no. 81, September 1985, p. 99 to 101.
  56. ^ Paul Tallonneau, Les Lucs et le génocide vendéen : comment on a manipulé les textes, éditions Hécate, 1993
  57. ^ Claude Petitfrère, La Vendée et les Vendéens, Editions Gallimard/Julliard, 1982.
  58. ^ Voir Jean-Clément Martin, La Vendée et la France, Le Seuil, 1987.
  59. ^ Jonassohn, Kurt and Karin Solveig Bjeornson Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations p. 208, 1998, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 0765804174.
  60. ^ Jones, Adam. Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction, Routledge/Taylor & Francis Publishers, (2006), ISBN 0-415-35385-8. Chapter 1 Section "The Vendée uprising" pp 6, 7.
  61. ^ J. Tulard, J.-F. Fayard, A. Fierro, Histoire et dictionnaire de la Révolution française, 1789-1799, Robert Laffont, collection Bouquins, 1987, p.1113
  62. ^ Courtois, Stéphane (1999). The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Harvard University Press, p. 9. ISBN 0674076087. 
  63. ^ Scurr, Ruth (2006). Fatal Purity: Robespierre and the French Revolution. Metropolitan Books. p. 282 ISBN 0805079874
  64. ^ http://www.zundelsite.org/french/rhr/Secher.pdf
  65. ^ Cooper, Allan D. (3 August 2006). "[Reparations for the Herero Genocide: Defining the limits of international litigation". Oxford Journals, African Affairs 106 (Number 422): 113–126. 
  66. ^ a b "To Hell or to Connaught" Oliver Cromwell's Settlement of Ireland
  67. ^ genocidal or near-genocidal:
    • Breton, Albert (ed). 1995. Nationalism and Rationality, Cambridge University Press, Chapter Regulating nations and ethnic communities by Brendam O'Leary and John McGarry p 248. "Oliver Cromwell offered the Irish Catholics a choice between genocide and forced mass population transfer. They could go 'To Hell or to Connaught!'"
    • Coogan, Tim-Pat. 2002. The Troubles: Ireland's Ordeal and the Search for Peace. ISBN 978-0312294182. Page 6. "The massacres by Catholics of Protestants, which occurred in the religious wars of the 1640s, were magnified for propagandist purposes to justify Cromwell's subsequent genocide."
    • Ellis, Peter Berresford. 2002. Eyewitness to Irish History. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Page 108. ISBN-13: 978-0471266334. "It was to be the justification for Cromwell's genocidal campaign and settlement."
    • Levene Mark. 2005. Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State, I.B. Tauris: London: "Considered overall, an Irish population collapse from 1.5 or possibly over 2 million inhabitants at the onset of the Irish wars in 1641, to no more than 850,000 eleven years later represents an absolutely devastating demographic catastrophe. Undoubted the largest proportion of this massive death toll did not arise from direct massacre but from hunger and then bubonic plagues, especially from the outbreak between 1649 and 1652. Even so, the relationship to the worst years of the fighting is all too apparent.
      [The Act of Settlement of Ireland], and the parliamentary legislation which succeeded it the following year, is the nearest thing on paper in the English, and more broadly British, domestic record, to a programme of state-sanctioned and systematic ethnic cleansing of another people. The fact that it did not include 'total' genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state. For instance, though the Act begins rather ominously by claiming that it was not its intention to extirpate the whole Irish nation, it then goes on to list five categories of people who, as participators in or alleged supporters of the 1641 rebellion and its aftermath, would automatically be forfeit of their lives. It has been suggested that as many as 100,000 people would have been liable under these headings. A further five categories—by implication an even larger body of 'passive' supporters of the rebellion—were to be spared their lives but not their property."
    • Levene, Mark. 2005. Genocide in the Age of the Nation State: Volume 2. Pages 55, 56 & 57. A sample quote describes the Cromwellian campaign and settlement as "a conscious attempt to reduce a distinct ethnic population". ISBN-13: 978-1845110574.
    • Levene, Mark, and Roberts, Penny. 1999, The Massacre in History, Berghahn Books: Oxford: "Further evidence for a massacre-ridden civil war in Ireland appears to come from population figures. Though military and civilian deaths from civil war were not light in England or in Scotland, in neither country did war inflict a clear drop in population level. It was otherwise in Ireland. Up to 1641 the population had risen steadily: one million in 1500, 1.4 in 1600, 2.1 in 1641; but then there occurred a sharp fall so that numbers stood at 1.7 million by 1672. After this, renewed growth took the population to 2.2 million in 1687, and 2.8 in 1712. By far the greater part of this massive decline—some four hundred thousand people or 19 percent of the 1641 population—took place in the 1640s and 1650, and was the direct or indirect result of over a decade of warfare. Ireland's civil war death toll is comparable to the devastation suffered during the Second World War by countries such as the Soviet Union, Poland, or Yugoslavia, and suggests that the war-time massacres which so contributed to these horrific modern figures, also occurred in mid-seventeenth-century Ireland."
    • Lutz, James M., and Lutz, Brenda J., 2004. Global Terrorism, Routledge, London, p.193: "The draconian laws applied by Oliver Cromwell in Ireland were an early version of ethnic cleansing. The Catholic Irish were to be expelled to the northwestern areas of the island. Relocation rather than extermination was the goal."
    • O'Leary, Brendan, Callaghy, Thomas M., Ian S. Lustick, 2001, Right-Sizing the State: The Politics of Moving Borders, Oxford University Press: "Ethnic expulsion is a right-peopling strategy, the intended, direct or indirect, forcible movement by state officials, or sanctioned paramilitaries, of the whole or part of a community from its current homeland, usually beyond the sovereign borders of the state. A population can also be forcibly 'repatriated', or pushed back towards its alleged 'homeland', as happened to blacks during the high tide of apartheid in South Africa. We may distinguish two paradigm forms: creating 'Serbian exiles', that is coerced transfers within a state or empire, and 'creating refugees', that is, the expulsion of populations beyond the sovereign border. Examples of the former include the treatment of indigenous peoples throughout the world; the Irish Catholics moved by Oliver Cromwell to Connaught during 1649–50 and after; and national minorities within the Soviet Union."
    • Stewart, Frances. War and Underdevelopment: Economic and Social Consequences of Conflict v. 1, (Queen Elizabeth House Series in Development Studies), Oxford University Press. 2000. "Faced with the prospect of an Irish alliance with Charles II, Cromwell carried out a series of massacres to subdue the Irish. Then, once Cromwell had returned to England, the English Commissary, General Henry Ireton, adopted a deliberate policy of crop burning and starvation, which was responsible for the majority of an estimated 600,000 deaths out of a total Irish population of 1,400,000."

    • Ethnic Cleansing of Ireland, International Institute of Social History Website (Based in the Netherlands), "Roman Catholic Irish were subdued to ethnic cleansing policy by Oliver Cromwell. After his suppression of a rebellion against the English in 1649 he ordered that the Irish were allowed to live west of the Shannon river only. During guerrilla warfare that followed thousands of Irish died or were sold as slaves to America. Cromwell had promised Irish land to the business investors and soldiers who had helped him perform his expeditions. The 'Act for the Attainder of the Rebels in Ireland' of 17 September 1656 is part of this programme. The land of rebels is attained and 'rebels' are defined in such a way that all Catholics match. By the end of 1656 four fifths of the Irish land was in Protestant hands."
  68. ^ a b Finnegan, Richard B. and Edward T. McCarron Ireland: Historical Echoes, Contemporary Politics (2000 Westview Press) ISBN 0813332478
  69. ^ James Mullin Irish Famine Education and the Holocaust 'Straw Man', Website American Chronicle, April 28, 2006.
  70. ^ The Great Irish Famine Approved by the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on September 10, 1996, for inclusion in the Holocaust and Genocide Curriculum at the secondary level. Revision submitted 11/26/98.
  71. ^ Mullin, James V. The New Jersey Famine Curriculum: a report Eire-Ireland:Journal of Irish Studies, Spring-Summer, 2002
  72. ^ Irish Famine Unit VI Genocide of the The Great Irish Famine Approved by the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on September 10, 1996
  73. ^ Cormac O' Grada, "Black '47 and Beyond: The Great Irish Famine in History, Economy and Memory", p. 10
  74. ^ Irish Famine Memorial Website - 2002 Shirley Fitzgerald Oration
  75. ^ Taylor, Essays in English History
  76. ^ Antero Leitzinger The Circassian Genocide in The Eurasian Politician - Issue 2, October 2000, in the article it states that it was originally published in Turkistan News
  77. ^ a b 1915 declaration
    • ffirmation of the United States Record on the Armenian Genocide Resolution 106th Congress,,2nd Session, House of Representatives
    • Affirmation of the United States Record on the Armenian Genocide Resolution (Introduced in House of Representatives) 109th Congress, 1st Session, H.RES.316, June 14, 2005. 15 September 2005 House Committee/Subcommittee:International Relations actions. Status: Ordered to be Reported by the Yeas and Nays: 40 - 7.
    • Original source of the telegram sent by the Department of State, Washington containing the French, British and Russian joint declaration
  78. ^ Oxford English Dictionary: 1944 R. Lemkin Axis Rule in Occupied Europe ix. 79 "By 'genocide' we mean the destruction of a nation or of an ethnic group."
  79. ^ Oxford English Dictionary "Genocide" citing Sunday Times 21 October 1945
  80. ^ Niewyk, Donald L. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, p.45: "The Holocaust is commonly defined as the murder of more than 5,000,000 Jews by the Germans in World War II." Also see "The Holocaust," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007: "the systematic state-sponsored killing of six million Jewish men, women and children, and millions of others, by Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II. The Germans called this "the final solution to the Jewish question."
  81. ^
    • Weissman, Gary. Fantasies of Witnessing: Postwar Attempts to Experience the Holocaust, Cornell University Press, 2004, ISBN 0801442532, p. 94: "Kren illustrates his point with his reference to the Kommissararbefehl. 'Should the (strikingly unreported) systematic mass starvation of Soviet prisoners of war be included in the Holocaust?' he asks. Many scholars would answer no, maintaining that 'the Holocaust' should refer strictly to those events involving the systematic killing of the Jews'."
    • "The Holocaust: Definition and Preliminary Discussion", Yad Vashem: "The Holocaust, as presented in this resource center, is defined as the sum total of all anti-Jewish actions carried out by the Nazi regime between 1933 and 1945: from stripping the German Jews of their legal and economic status in the 1930s, to segregating and starving Jews in the various occupied countries, to the murder of close to six million Jews in Europe. The Holocaust is part of a broader aggregate of acts of oppression and murder of various ethnic and political groups in Europe by the Nazis."
    • Niewyk, Donald L. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, p.45: "The Holocaust is commonly defined as the murder of more than 5,000,000 Jews by the Germans in World War II."
    • "Holocaust," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007: "the systematic state-sponsored killing of six million Jewish men, women, and children and millions of others by Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II. The Germans called this "the final solution to the Jewish question" (emphasis added).
    • "Holocaust", Encarta: "Holocaust, the almost complete destruction of Jews in Europe by Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II (1939-1945). The leadership of Germany’s Nazi Party ordered the extermination of 5.6 million to 5.9 million Jews (see National Socialism). Jews often refer to the Holocaust as Shoah (from the Hebrew word for “catastrophe” or “total destruction”)."
    • Paulson, Steve. "A View of the Holocaust", BBC: "The Holocaust was the Nazis' assault on the Jews between 1933 and 1945. It culminated in what the Nazis called the 'Final Solution of the Jewish Question in Europe', in which six million Jews were murdered."
    • "The Holocaust", Auschwitz.dk: "The Holocaust was the systematic annihilation of six million Jews by the Nazis during World War 2."
    • "Holocaust—Definition", Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies: "HOLOCAUST (Heb., sho'ah). In the 1950s the term came to be applied primarily to the destruction of the Jews of Europe under the Nazi regime, and it is also employed in describing the annihilation of other groups of people in World War II. The mass extermination of Jews has become the archetype of GENOCIDE, and the terms sho'ah and "holocaust" have become linked to the attempt by the Nazi German state to destroy European Jewry during World War II … One of the first to use the term in the historical perspective was the Jerusalem historian BenZion Dinur (Dinaburg), who, in the spring of 1942, stated that the Holocaust was a "catastrophe" that symbolized the unique situation of the Jewish people among the nations of the world."
    • Also see the Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies list of definitions: "Holocaust: A term for the state-sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945."
    • "The Holocaust", Compact Oxford English Dictionary: "(the Holocaust) the mass murder of Jews under the German Nazi regime in World War II."
    • The 33rd Annual Scholars' Conference on the Holocaust and the Churches defines the Holocaust as "the Nazi attempt to annihilate European Jewry," cited in Hancock, Ian. "Romanies and the Holocaust: A Reevaluation and an Overview", Stone, Dan. (ed.) The Historiography of the Holocaust. Palgrave-Macmillan, New York 2004, pp. 383-396.
    • Bauer, Yehuda. Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University Press. 2001, p.10.
    • Dawidowicz, Lucy. The War Against the Jews: 1933-1945. Bantam, 1986, p.xxxvii: "'The Holocaust' is the term that Jews themselves have chosen to describe their fate during World War II."
  82. ^ Ukrainian mass Jewish grave found
  83. ^ Berenbaum, Michael. The World Must Know," United States Holocaust Museum, 2006, p. 103.
  84. ^ A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust-Victims
  85. ^ R.J. Rummel, Nazi Democide: Nazi genocide and mass murder: Chapter 1, Table 1.1.
  86. ^ R.J. Rummel states elsewhere that there are three definitions of genocide, and it is not clear which one he is using in this table. See the section in this article "Alternative meanings of genocide" for more details on this issue.
  87. ^ Niewyk, Donald & Nicosia, Frances (2000): The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0231112009, ISBN 978-0231112000.
  88. ^ The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century, by Manus I. Midlarsky, p.342
  89. ^ Schaller, Dominik J. and Zimmerer, Jürgen (2008) 'Late Ottoman genocides: the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies - introduction', Journal of Genocide Research, 10:1, 7 - 14
  90. ^ 1915 Affirmation of the United States Record on the Armenian Genocide Resolution (Introduced in House of Representatives) 109th Congress, 1st Session, H.RES.316, June 14, 2005. 15 September 2005 House Committee/Subcommittee:International Relations actions. Status: Ordered to be Reported by the Yeas and Nays: 40 - 7.
  91. ^ Swiss accept Armenia 'genocide', BBC 16 December 2003
  92. ^ Associated Press report French lawmakers approve bill on Armenian genocide in the International Herald Tribune October 12, 2006
  93. ^ Assyrians: The Continuous Saga - Page 40 by Frederick A. Aprim
  94. ^ Ye'or, Bat; Miriam Kochan, David Littman (2002). Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide (in English). Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, pp. 148-149. ISBN 0838639437. OCLC 47054791. 
  95. ^ Joseph Yacoub, La question assyro-chaldéenne, les Puissances européennes et la SDN (1908–1938), 4 vol., thèse Lyon, 1985, p. 156.
  96. ^ Cohn Jatz, Colin Tatz (2003). With Intent to Destroy: Reflections on Genocide. Essex: Verso. 
  97. ^ a b R. J. Rummel. Statistics of Democide. Chapter 5, Statistics Of Turkey's Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources. Retrieved on October 4, 2006.
  98. ^ Steven L. Jacobs, Samuel Totten (2002). Pioneers of Genocide Studies (Clt), 207, 213. 
  99. ^ Creating a Modern "Zone of Genocide": The Impact of Nation- and State-Formation on Eastern Anatolia, 1878–1923, by Mark Levene, University of Warwick, © 1998 by United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  100. ^ Constantine Fotiades, Genocide of the Greeks of Pontus (16 volumes)
  101. ^ Assyrian International News Agency, International Genocide Scholars Association Officially Recognizes Assyrian, Greek Genocides, Retrieved on 2007-12-15.
  102. ^ Foreign Office Memorandum by Mr. G.W. Rendel on Turkish Massacres and Persecutions of Minorities since the Armistice, March 20, 1922, (a) Paragraph 7, (b) Paragraph 35, (c) Paragraph 24, (d) Paragraph 1, (e) Paragraph 2
  103. ^ Taner Akcam, From Empire to Republic, Turkish Nationalism and the Armenian Genocide, September 4, 2004, Zed Books, pages (a) 240, (b) 145
  104. ^ Creating a Modern "Zone of Genocide": The Impact of Nation- and State-Formation on Eastern Anatolia, 1878–1923, by Mark Levene, University of Warwick, © 1998 by United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  105. ^ Arnold J. Toynbee, The Western question in Greece and Turkey: a study in the contact of civilisations, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1922, pp. 312-313.
  106. ^ Armenian issue allegations-facts
  107. ^ Sarah Rainsford Author's trial set to test Turkey BBC 14 December 2005.
  108. ^ Chris Morris Bitter history of Armenian genocide row BBC 23 January 2001
  109. ^ Prime Minister Erdogan's letter dated 10 April 2005 on the website of the Turkish Embassy in Washington
  110. ^ Robert Mahoney Turkey: Nationalism and the Press CPJ 16 March 2006.
  111. ^ Negotiating the Sacred: Blasphemy and Sacrilege in a Multicultural Society, Elizabeth Burns Coleman, Kevin White, p.82
  112. ^ a b Helen Fawkes Legacy of famine divides Ukraine BBC News 24 November 2006
  113. ^ The Artificial Famine/Genocide (Holodomor) in Ukraine 1932-33 InfoUkes Ukrainian History
  114. ^ Ukraine: Famine Anniversary Marked Amid Denials Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty November 24, 2007
  115. ^ Bitter Harvest Hoover Digest No. 1, 2008
  116. ^ Veronica Khokhlova Ukraine: Famine Recognized As Genocide
  117. ^ Mikhail Heller & Aleksandr Nekrich. Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the Present. Summit Books, 1988. ISBN 0671645358 p. 87.
  118. ^ Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Harvard University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-674-07608-7 pp. 8-9
  119. ^ Orlando Figes. A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution: 1891–1924. Penguin Books, 1998. ISBN 014024364X p. 660.
  120. ^ Donald Rayfield. Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him. Random House, 2004. ISBN 0-375-50632-2. p. 83.
  121. ^ R. J. Rummel. Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917. Transaction Publishers, 1990. ISBN 1560008873 p. 2.
  122. ^ Robert Gellately. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, 2007 ISBN 1400040051 pp. 70–71.
  123. ^ Jasenovac
  124. ^ http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%206358.pdf
  125. ^ a b Manne, Robert The cruelty of denial, The Age, September 9, 2006
  126. ^ "A Stolen Generation Cries Out", Reuters, May 1997. 
  127. ^ Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission, United Nations website, 1 March, 1999
  128. ^ Staff. Guatemala 'genocide' probe blames state, BBC, 25 February, 1999.
  129. ^ Spain judge charges ex-generals in Guatemala genocide case, Jurist, July 08, 2006.
  130. ^ Anthony Mascarenhas (1986). Bangladesh: A Legacy of Blood. Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-39420-X. 
  131. ^ Genocide Denial; The Case of Bangladesh by Donald W. Beachler - Online summary hosted at Institute for the Study of Genocide
  132. ^ Raymond Faisal Solaiman v People's Republic of Bangladesh & Ors In The Federal Magistrates Court of Australia at Sydney
  133. ^ This judgement can be found via the Federal Court of Australia home page by following the links and using SYG/2672/2006 as the key for the database
  134. ^ Guinness Book of Records 2007, pp 118-119
  135. ^ Staff. http://www.preventgenocide.org/edu/pastgenocides/burundi/resources/ pastgenocides, Burundi resources] on the website of Prevent Genocide International lists the following resources:
    • Michael Bowen, Passing by;: The United States and genocide in Burundi, 1972, (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1973), 49 pp.
    • René Lemarchand, Selective genocide in Burundi (Report - Minority Rights Group ; no. 20, 1974), 36 pp.
    • Rene Lemarchand, Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide (New York: Woodrow Wilson Center and Cambridge University Press, 1996), 232 pp.
    • Edward L. Nyankanzi, Genocide: Rwanda and Burundi (Schenkman Books, 1998), 198 pp.
    • Christian P. Scherrer, Genocide and crisis in Central Africa : conflict roots, mass violence, and regional war; foreword by Robert Melson. Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2002.
    • Weissman, Stephen R. "Preventing Genocide in Burundi Lessons from International Diplomacy", United States Institute of Peace
  136. ^ International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi: Final Report Source Name: United Nations Security Council, S/1996/682; received from Ambassador Thomas Ndikumana, Burundi Ambassador to the United States, Date received: 7 June 2002. Paragraph 496.
  137. ^ Francisco Macias Nguema
  138. ^ Coup plotter faces life in Africa's most notorious jail
  139. ^ True hell on earth: Simon Mann faces imprisonment in the cruellest jail on the planet
  140. ^ If you think this one's bad you should have seen his uncle
  141. ^ Chinese President Meets Equatorial Guinean President (20-11-2001).
  142. ^ John B. Quigley (2006) The Genocide Convention: An International Law Analysis, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, ISBN 0754647307. p.31,32
  143. ^ "Equatorial Guinea". Encyclopedia of the Nations. (2006). Thomson Corporation. 
  144. ^ John B. Quigley (2006) The Genocide Convention: An International Law Analysis, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, ISBN 0754647307. p.32
  145. ^ a b Cambodian Genocide Program, Yale University's MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies
  146. ^ staff. Khmer Rouge genocide admission, BBC, 30 December, 2003, citing an Associated Press report
  147. ^ a b Doyle, Kevin. Putting the Khmer Rouge on Trial, Time, July 26, 2007
  148. ^ MacKinnon, Ian Crisis talks to save Khmer Rouge trial, The Guardian, 7 March 2007
  149. ^ The Khmer Rouge Trial Task Forc, Royal Cambodian Government
  150. ^ Staff, Senior Khmer Rouge leader charged, BBC 19 September 2007
  151. ^ Benetech Human Rights Data Analysis Group (9 February 2006). The Profile of Human Rights Violations in Timor-Leste, 1974-1999. A Report to the Commission on Reception, Truth and Reconciliation of Timor-Leste. Human Rights Data Analysis Group (HRDAG).
  152. ^ Nunes, Joe (1996). East Timor: Acceptable Slaughters. The architecture of modern political power.
  153. ^ Sian Powell UN verdict on East Timor, Jakarta correspondent, The Australian, January 19, 2006
  154. ^ Ben Kiernam War, Genocide, and Resistance in East Timor, 1975–99: Comparative Reflections on Cambodia (PDF), Chapter 9 page 202
  155. ^ Ben Kiernam footnotes "clearly meet a range of sociological definitions of genocide..." with [13] – Lou Kuper, Genocide (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1981), pages 174-175
  156. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named GA-34.2C37
  157. ^ A/RES/37/123(A-F) Adopted at the 108th UN General Assembly plenary meeting 16 December 1982 and the 112th plenary meeting, 20 December 1982.
  158. ^ Leo Kuper, "Theoretical Issues Relating to Genocide: Uses and Abuses", in George J. Andreopoulos, Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997, ISBN 0812216164, p. 37.
  159. ^ a b c d e f William Schabas, Genocide in International Law. The Crimes of Crimes, p. 455
  160. ^ Professor William A. Schabas website of the Irish Centre for Human Rights at the National University of Ireland
  161. ^ The Case Against The Accused (Ariel Sharon, former Israeli defense minister and Israel's prime minister in 2001, as well as other Israelis and Lebanese), indictsharon.net &ndahs; The website of the International Campaign for Justice for the Victims of Sabra & Shatila
  162. ^ a b The complaint against Ariel Sharon Lodged in Belgium on 18 June 2001
  163. ^ Chibli Mallat, Michael Verhaeghe, Luc Walleyn and Laurie King-Irani The February 2003 Decision of the Belgian Supreme Court Explained on the website of indictsharon.net, 19 February, 2003
  164. ^ Andrew Osbor Sharon cannot be tried in Belgium, says court, [[[The Guardian]], 15 February, 2002
  165. ^ Luc Walleyn, Michael Verhaeghe, Chibli Mallat. Statement of the Lawyers for the Suvivors of Sabra and Shatila in reaction to the Belgian Justice Ministry's decision to start the procedure of transferring the case to Israel 15 June 2003.
  166. ^ a b Ethiopian Dictator Sentenced to Prison by Les Neuhaus, The Associated Press, January 11, 2007
  167. ^ Mengistu is handed life sentence BBC, January 11, 2007
  168. ^ BBC, "Mengistu found guilty of genocide," 12 December 2006.
  169. ^ Ethiopian leader guilty of genocide TVNZ, Dec 13, 2006
  170. ^ Court sentences Major Melaku Tefera to death Ethiopian Reporter
  171. ^ University of Pittsburgh legal news, 13 December 2006.
  172. ^ 'Butcher of Addis Ababa' is guilty of genocide with torture regime
  173. ^ The World Was Going Our Way: The KGB and the Battle for the Third World by Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, pg 457
  174. ^ US admits helping Mengistu escape BBC, 22 December, 1999
  175. ^ Talk of the Devil: Encounters with Seven Dictators by Riccardo Orizio, pg 151
  176. ^ Guilty of genocide: the leader who unleashed a 'Red Terror' on Africa by Jonathan Clayton, The Times Online, December 13, 2006
  177. ^ Anne Penketh and Robert Verkaik Dutch court says gassing of Iraqi Kurds was 'genocide' in The Independent 24 December 2005
  178. ^ Dutch man sentenced for role in gassing death of Kurds CBC News 23 December 2005
  179. ^ Tibet - Summary of a Report on Tibet: Submitted to the International Commission of Jurists by Shri Purshottam Trikamdas, Senior Advocate, Supreme Court of India
  180. ^ Spanish courts to investigate if a genocide took place in Tibet.
  181. ^ World in Brief: Lawyers take China to court in The Times, 7 June 2006
  182. ^ Alexa Olesen China rejects Spain's 'genocide' claims in The Independent 7 June 2006
  183. ^ Staff. Brazilian Justice Acquits Man Sentenced for 1988 Massacre of Indians, Brazzil Magazine 12 November 2004. Cites as its source Cimi – Indianist Missionary Council http://www.cimi.org.br,
  184. ^ Eamonn McCann. Longing for a saviour Belfast Telegraph, May 24, 2007
  185. ^ Top officials accused of genocide of Indians, Survival International , 13 December, 2005
  186. ^ a b Supreme Court upholds genocide ruling, Survival International 4 August 2006
  187. ^ Federal Court is competent to judge the Haximu genocide Indianist Missionary Council
  188. ^ DR Congo Pygmies appeal to UN
  189. ^ Criminal Justice Monitor (2003-07-31). "Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Farm Attacks". Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
  190. ^ Brian Moynahan. "Farms of fear", The Sunday Times Magazine, 2006-04-02. Retrieved on 2006-04-04. 
  191. ^ Roger Graef. "Murders foreshadow South African land war", The Daily Telegraph, 2005-07-03. Retrieved on 2005-12-31. 
  192. ^ Over 1000 Boer Farmers In South Africa Have Been Murdered Since 1991. Genocide Watch. Retrieved on 2005-12-31.
  193. ^ A Bloody Harvest. Carte Blanche. Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
  194. ^ Indonesian Human Rights Abuses in West Papua: Application of the Law of Genocide to the History of Indonesian Control (PDF)
  195. ^ "Genocide in West Papua? The role of the Indonesian state apparatus and a current needs assessment of the Papuan people"
  196. ^ Report claims secret genocide in Indonesia - University of Sydney
  197. ^ West Papua Support
  198. ^ The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia found in Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic - Trial Chamber I - Judgment - IT-98-33 (2001) ICTY8 (2 August 2001) that genocide had been committed. (see paragraph 560 for name of group in English on whom the genocide was committed). The judgement was upheld in Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic - Appeals Chamber - Judgment - IT-98-33 (2004) ICTY 7 (19 April 2004)
  199. ^ Courte: Serbia failed to prevent genocide, UN court rules. Associated Press (2007-02-26).
  200. ^ University of California Riverside:
    • HNPG 036P (or 033T) History: Bosnian Genocide In the Historical Perspective
    • Winter 2007 Honors Courses & Winter 2008 Honors Courses
  201. ^ Human Rights Watch: Milosevic to Face Bosnian Genocide Charges 11 December 2001
  202. ^ Novislav Djajic, TRIAL (Track Impunity Always)
  203. ^ Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic - Trial Chamber I - Judgment - IT-98-33 (2001) ICTY8 (2 August 2001), The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, paragraph 589. citing Bavarian Appeals Court, Novislav Djajic case, 23 May 1997, 3 St 20/96, section VI, p. 24 of the English translation.
  204. ^ Oberlandesgericht Dusseldorf, "Public Prosecutor v Jorgic", 26 September 1997 (Trial Watch Nikola Jorgic
  205. ^ Trial watch Maksim Sokolovic
  206. ^ These figures need revising they are from the ICTR page which says see www.ictr.org
  207. ^ U.S. Department of State: Sudan Peace Act October 21, 2002
  208. ^ Jonathan Clayton Desert hides world's worst humanitarian crisis in The Times May 13, 2004, Page 2
  209. ^ Hilary AnderssonGenocide lays waste Darfur’s land of no men in Sunday Times November 14, 2004
  210. ^ Fred Bridgland Darfur: Africa’s hidden holocaust? in Sunday Herald April 11, 2004
  211. ^ Darfur, Sudan: Crisis, response and lessons UK Parliament Press Notice 14, Session 2004-05
  212. ^ Powell calls Sudan killings genocide CNN September 9, 2004
  213. ^ UN keeps international focus on peace and humanitarian aid UN news centre
  214. ^ Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General,International Commission of Inquiry, 18 September 2004
  215. ^ a b Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General, Jan. 25, 2005, at 4
  216. ^ SECURITY COUNCIL REFERS SITUATION IN DARFUR, SUDAN, TO PROSECUTOR OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT, UN Press Release SC/8351, Mar. 31, 2005
  217. ^ Fourth Report of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, to the Security Council pursuant to UNSC 1593 (2005), Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Dec. 14, 2006
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This is a list of the number one singles on the UK Singles Chart, during the 1980s. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Stéphane Courtois is a French historian, currently employed as research director (i. ... The Black Book of Communism The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a book that describes the history of political repressions by Communist states, including extrajudicial executions, deportations, and man-made famines that the book argues resulted from communist policies. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Orlando Figes, born 1957 in London, son of the Feminist writer Eva Figes. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... Donald Rayfield is professor of Russian and Georgian at the University of London. ... Stalin and His Hangmen: An Authoritative Portrait of a Tyrant and Those Who Served Him[1] by Donald Rayfield, also reprinted with a different subtitle: Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him, is a political biography of Joseph Stalin and file people who were in... // Random House is a publishing house based in New York City. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Transaction Publishers have been publishing social science books and journals since 1962. ... Alfred A. Knopf ( September 12, 1892 – August 11, 1984) was a leading American publisher of the 20th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Proposed new USIP headquarters, construction to begin 2007. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yale redirects here. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian is a national daily broadsheet newspaper published by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The National University of Ireland (NUI) is a federal university system of constituent universities, previously called constituent colleges, and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, and significantly amended by the Universities Act, 1997. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... CBC redirects here, as this is the most common use of the abbreviation. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) is an international human rights non-government organisation. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Zealand Herald is a daily broadsheet newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eamonn McCann (born in Derry in 1943) is an Irish journalist, author, and political activist. ... The Belfast Telegraph is a daily evening newspaper published in Belfast, Northern Ireland by Independent News and Media. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Survival International is a human rights organisation formed in 1969 that campaigns for the rights of indigenous peoples, helping them preserve their land and culture. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Survival International is a human rights organisation formed in 1969 that campaigns for the rights of indigenous peoples, helping them preserve their land and culture. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the incident of genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Herald is a common name for newspapers throughout the English-speaking world, and the Sunday editions are often called Sunday Herald. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mass crimes against humanity and genocide: up to the end of World War II (0 words)
Natives were murdered by warfare, forced death marches, forced relocation to barren lands, intentional and accidental spread of disease, poisoning, the promotion of suicide through the destruction of their cultural and religious heritage, etc. Even today, Canadian Natives have the highest suicide of any population group in the world.
The use of the term "genocide" is "categorically unacceptable," according to Yüksel Söylemez, the chairman of a group of former Turkish ambassadors.
Although the main victims of this genocide were Armenian Christians, the approximately five million Greek Christians living in Turkey at the start of World War I were also targeted for programs of deportation, forced marches leading to extermination, and ethnic cleansing.
Genocides - The Top 10 - a Wikia wiki (713 words)
A Genocide is the systematic and intentional mass killing of a group - usually involving civilians, women, children, and innocent people - on the basis of race, ethnicity, religion, political belief, or social-economic status.
The most famous of all genocides is the Holocaust,committed by the Nazis in World War II, towards the Jews and other minority groups.
The Armenian Genocide (also known as the Armenian Holocaust or the Armenian Massacre) refers to the forced mass evacuation and related deaths of hundreds of thousands or over a million Armenians, during the government of the Young Turks (Committee of Union and Progress) from 1915 to 1917 in the Ottoman Empire.
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