FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Genius" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Genius

A 'genius' is a person of great intelligence. The term also applies to someone who is a polymath, or someone skilled in many mental areas. The term specifically applies to mental skills rather than anything else, although it is also colloquially used to denote the possession of a superior talent in any field; e.g., Pelé may be said to have a genius for soccer, or Winston Churchill for statesmanship, or Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart for music. Leonardo da Vinci is seen as an epitome of the Renaissance man or polymath A polymath (Greek polymathÄ“s, πολυμαθής, meaning knowing, understanding, or having learnt in quantity, compounded from πολυ- much, many, and the root μαθ-, meaning learning, understanding[1]) is a person well educated in a wide variety of subjects or... Edson Arantes do Nascimento, KBE (born October 23, 1940 in Três Corações, Brazil), best known by his nickname Pelé, is a former Brazilian football (soccer) player and is widely regarded as one of the greatest footballers of all time. ... Football is a ball game played between two teams of eleven players, each attempting to win by scoring more goals than their opponent. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier, and author. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 129 KB) Crop of Image:Albert Einstein 1947. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 129 KB) Crop of Image:Albert Einstein 1947. ... Albert Einstein( ) (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who is widely considered to have been one of the greatest physicists of all time. ... For other senses of this word, see archetype (disambiguation). ...

Appearance

Artistic genius may show itself in early childhood or later in life; either way, geniuses eventually differentiate themselves from the others through great originality. It is thought intellectual geniuses have crisp, clear-eyed visions of given situations, in which interpretation is unnecessary, and they build or act on the basis of those facts, usually with tremendous energy. Here too, accomplished geniuses in intellectual fields start out in many cases as child prodigies, gifted with superior memory or understanding. Prodigies are masters of a specific skill or art, a talent which manifests itself at an early age. ...


The classic skill of the musical genius is the capability of holding many different melodies in one's head at once and knowing how they interact together. It is said that the great classical composers (Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Chopin, etc.) could hold five, six or even seven different melodies in their minds at once. They could write complicated music with many different parts all at once without having to hear it played. In comparison, the average person can only hold one melody in memory. Mozart, who apparently completed his musical compositions in his head and simply wrote them down when he was done, often while drinking or conversing with friends, is supposed to have said, "I write music as a sow pisses." Places in which Bach resided throughout his life Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and keyboard virtuoso whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... 1820 portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler Ludwig van Beethoven (IPA: ), (December, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a German composer. ... The only known photograph of Frédéric Chopin, believed to have been taken in 1849 by Louis-Auguste Bisson. ...


A hypothesis put forth by Harvard professor Howard Gardner in his 1983 book Frames of Mind states there are at least seven types of intelligences, each with its own type of genius. This theory, however, is rejected by most psychologists. For more on this view, see theory of multiple intelligences. It has been suggested that Naturalist Intelligence be merged into this article or section. ... Howard Gardners theory of multiple intelligences is a psychological and educational theory espousing that eight kinds of intelligence exist in humans. ...


Intelligence is exceptionally difficult to determine. The standard measurement in the United States is via the I.Q. test. It is suggested that genius cannot be determined by I.Q. alone, where it falls into various domains. It is generally recognized that those who are transcendent in one or more fields (though again, this term is difficult to measure) can be considered geniuses. However, even with this caveat on its use, the concept of I.Q. is still criticized as being too narrow a mode of measuring something as ambiguous and diverse as the intellectual qualities of humanity. There are several examples of people with IQ levels in the genius range while having a disability or very low level in one of the subcategories. For example, noted genius and Mensa member Jeffrey Petermann has an overall IQ above 130 (WAIS-III) yet is diagnosed as having a learning disability due to a subcategory of measurement being below average. This example dispells myths about IQ levels being connected. IQ has also been criticized as being racist in its application and conclusions. ... Mensa International is the largest, oldest, and best-known high-IQ society in the world. ... Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale or WAIS is a general test of intelligence (IQ), published in February 1955 as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue test (1939), standardised for use with adults over the age of 16. ...


Etymology

In Ancient Rome, the genius was the guiding or "tutelary" spirit of a person, or even of an entire gens. A related term is genius loci, the spirit of a specific locale. In contrast, the internal driving force within all living things is the animus. A specific spirit, or dæmon, may inhabit an image or icon, giving it supernatural powers. Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... GENS is an open source emulator for the Sega Genesis (Sega Megadrive). ... In Roman mythology a genius loci was the protective spirit of a place. ... The Official Website of Animus - Art Rock Group According to Carl Jung, the animus is the masculine side of a womans personal unconscious. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A comparable term from Arabic lore is a djinn, often Anglicized as "genie". Note, however, that this term is considered a false friend, not a cognate by most Anglo-American anthropologists. Recent work by Russian, Romanian, Italian and a few American linguists may return the word to cognate status. Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ); is a member of a Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the... Genie is the anglicized word for the Arabic jinni. In Semitic mythology and Islamic religion, a jinni (also djinni or djini) is a member of the jinn (or djinn), a race of spirits. ... Look up False friend in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


For more information on these etymological roots, see Genius (mythology). In Roman mythology, every man had a genius and every woman a juno (Juno was also the name for the queen of the gods). ...


Limitations

Genius are often accused of lacking common sense, or emotional sensitivity. Stories of a genius in a given field being unable to grasp "everyday" concepts are abundant and of ancient vintage: Plato in the Theaetetus offers a picturesque anecdote of the absentmindness of Thales. Some individuals in this "Absent Minded Professor" or lacking social skills arena fall in the Autism Spectrum (such as Asperger Syndrome). A genius's intense focus on a given subject might appear obsessive-compulsive in nature, but it might also simply be a choice made by the individual. If one is performing groundbreaking work in one's field, maintaining other elements of life might logically be relegated to insignificance. While the absent-minded professor notion is not without merit, a genius is just as likely to encounter emotional problems as anyone else. Note the peculiarities of figures like Glenn Gould and Bobby Fischer. Such examples, however, are likely products of mental or emotional instability rather than genius per se, though there is a researched correlation between I.Q. and maladjustment.[1] For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... The Theætetus (Θεαίτητος) is one of Platos dialogues concerning the nature of knowledge. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Asperger syndrome — also referred to as Aspergers syndrome, Aspergers disorder, Aspergers, or just AS — is a pervasive developmental disorder related to autism. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... The absent-minded professor is a stock character of popular fiction usually portrayed as an academic with important information, but whose focus on their learning leads them to ignore their surroundings. ... Glenn Herbert Gould (September 25, 1932 – October 4, 1982) was a celebrated Canadian pianist, noted especially for his recordings of Johann Sebastian Bachs keyboard music. ... Robert James Bobby Fischer (born March 9, 1943) is a United States-born chess Grandmaster and in 1972 became the only US-born chessplayer to become the official World Chess Champion. ...


Socio-emotional problems are more prevalent in geniuses with an IQ above 145 (on the Wechsler Scale). Asynchronous development is the primary cause of this. As most children do not share gifted children's interests, vocabulary, or desire to organize activities, the genius child may withdraw from society.


Some research shows that reasons other than maladjustment make companionship difficult to find for geniuses. As intelligence of a person increases, the number of those whom he or she considers peers tends to decrease. For example, at an IQ of 135 (on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) only every hundredth person would be of equal or greater IQ. This number shrinks significantly as IQ goes up. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale or WAIS is a general test of intelligence (IQ), published in February 1955 as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue test (1939), standardised for use with adults over the age of 16. ...


Leta Hollingworth introduced the idea of an essential "communication limit" based on IQ. According to her theory, to be a good leader of one's contemporaries, he/she must be more intelligent but not too much more intelligent than the people who are being led. This implies that geniuses may not make good leaders of those substantially less gifted and that they could have disdain for authority. The theory also states that children and adults become intellectually ostracized from their contemporaries when an IQ difference of 30 points or more exists.[2] Critics reject the one-dimensional categorization of intelligence and note that history's most consequential leaders were exceptionally gifted in at least certain areas in order to attain the power and consequence they produced. Leta Hollingworth was born the oldest of three daughters in Nebraska in 1886. ...


Philosophies

Variegated examples from philosophers are indicative of attempts either to propose a definition of what genius is and what that implies in a limited context or to establish certain qualifications that could deem "genius" as explicable and of fundamental value in a broader human context. E.g.:


In the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer genius is a person in whom intellect predominates over "will" much more than within the average person. In Schopenhauer's aesthetics, this predominance of the intellect over the will allows the genius to create artistic or academic works that are objects of pure, disinterested contemplation, the chief criterion of the aesthetic experience for Schopenhauer. Their remoteness from mundane concerns means that Schopenhauer's geniuses often display maladaptive traits in more mundane concerns; in Schopenhauer's words, they fall into the mire while gazing at the stars. The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher. ... // For the racing driver, see Will Power. ... Arthur Schopenhauers aesthetics flow from his doctrine of the primacy of the Will as the thing in itself, the ground of life and all being; and from his judgment that the Will is evil. ... In psychology, a behavior or trait is adaptive when it helps an individual adjust and function well within their environment. ...


In the philosophy of Immanuel Kant genius is the ability to independently arrive at and understand concepts that would normally have to be taught by another person. In the Kant Dictionary (ISBN 0-631-17535-0), Howard Caygill talks of the essential character of "genius" for Kant being originality. This genius is a talent for producing ideas which can be described as non-imitative. Kant's discussion of the characteristics of genius is largely contained within the Critique of Judgement and was well received by the romantics of the early 19th century. Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804), was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... The Critique of Judgement (Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790), also known as the third critique, is a philosophical work by Immanuel Kant. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe. ...


Pluralization

In this context, the plural of "genius" is "geniuses." The form "genii," the plural of the word in Latin, is the plural of a different kind of genius: the aforementioned guardian spirit of Roman and Greek mythology. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


See also

Winners of the Nobel Prize are scientists, writers and peacemakers who have been awarded in their field of endeavour, and who are known collectively as either Nobel laureates or Nobel Prize winners. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awards in Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physiology or Medicine and Economics. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mensa International is the largest, oldest, and best-known high-IQ society in the world. ... A child prodigy is someone who is a master of one or more skills or arts at an early age. ... The Flynn effect is the rise of average Intelligence Quotient (IQ) test scores, an effect seen in most parts of the world, although at greatly varying rates. ... IQ tests are designed to give approximately this Gaussian distribution. ... Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and personality traits. ... ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Psychological testing or psychological assessment is a field characterized by the use of samples of behavior in order to infer generalizations about a given individual. ... Leonardo da Vinci is seen as an epitome of the Renaissance man or polymath A polymath (Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής, meaning knowing, understanding, or having learnt in quantity, compounded from πολυ- much, many, and the root μαθ-, meaning learning, understanding[1]) is a person well educated in a wide variety of subjects or... Look up savant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Asperger syndrome — also referred to as Aspergers syndrome, Aspergers disorder, Aspergers, or just AS — is a pervasive developmental disorder related to autism. ...

References

  1. ^ news.uns.purdue.edu
  2. ^ prometheussociety.org
  • Harold Bloom (November 2002). Genius: A Mosaic of One Hundred Exemplary Creative Minds. Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-52717-3. 
  • Clifford A. Pickover (May 1, 1998). Strange Brains and Genius: The Secret Lives of Eccentric Scientists and Madmen. Plenum Publishing Corporation. ISBN 0-306-45784-9. 
  • James Gleick (September 29, 1992). Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman. Pantheon. ISBN 0-679-40836-3. 
  • Stephen Jay Gould (1991). The Mismeasure of Man, revised and expanded. W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-03972-2. 
  • David W. Galenson (December 27, 2005). Old Masters and Young Geniuses : The Two Life Cycles of Artistic Creativity. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12109-5. 
  • Francis Galton. Hereditary Genius. 

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Clifford A. Pickover is an author, editor, and columnist in the fields of science, mathematics, and science fiction. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... James Gleick (August 1, 1954– ) is an author, journalist, and biographer, whose books explore the cultural ramifications of science and technology. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... It has been suggested that Darwinian Fundamentalism be merged into this article or section. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 27 December 2005 (Tuesday) Indonesias Free Aceh Movement formally disbands its armed wing. ... Sir Francis Galton F.R.S. (February 16, 1822 – January 17, 1911), half-cousin of Charles Darwin, was an English Victorian polymath, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, psychometrician, and statistician. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Apple Retail Store - Genius Bar (512 words)
The Genius Bar is the place to go for advice, insight, and hands-on technical support for your Mac or iPod.
The Genius will look up information about your system and work with you to resolve your issue or answer your questions.
The Genius may run diagnostic tests on your system and consult with other customers during the run time.
Genius.com Incorporated™ : Sales Leads Qualification. (290 words)
Genius.com Incorporated, creator of SalesGenius®, provides innovative on-demand personal web analytics solutions that combine aspects of e-mail marketing and personal web analytics to deliver individual prospect web visit response data directly to sales and marketing professionals so they can quickly qualify sales leads.
Genius® solutions empower sales and marketing professionals to instantly understand and qualify sales prospects, determine the success of marketing initiatives, and interact with their customers via live chat and personalized web site greetings, and personalize customer service, all without requiring programming skills or IT involvement.
Genius.com, Genius, Genius Platform, SalesGenius, the Genius logo and "Get Smart About Your Customer" are registered or pending registered trademarks of Genius.com Incorporated.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m