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Encyclopedia > Genitive case
Grammatical cases
General
Declension - Grammatical case - List of grammatical cases - Morphosyntactic alignment - Oblique / objective case
Grammatical cases
Abessive - Ablative - Absolutive - Accusative - Addirective - Adelative - Adessive - Adverbial - Allative - Antessive - Apudessive - Aversive - Benefactive - Caritive - Causal - Causal-final - Comitative - Dative - Delative - Direct - Distributive - Distributive-temporal - Elative - Ergative - Essive - Essive-formal - Essive-modal - Equative - Evitative - Exessive - Final - Formal - Genitive - Illative - Inelative - Inessive - Instructive - Instrumental - Instrumental-comitative - Intransitive - Lative - Locative - Modal - Multiplicative - Nominative - Partitive - Pegative - Perlative - Possessive - Postelative - Postdirective - Postessive - Postpositional - Prepositional - Privative - Prolative - Prosecutive - Proximative - Separative - Sociative - Subdirective - Subessive - Subelative - Sublative - Superdirective - Superessive - Superlative - Suppressive - Temporal - Terminative - Translative - Vialis - Vocative
Declensions
Czech declension - English declension - German declension - Irish declension - Latin declension - Latvian declension - Lithuanian declension - Slovak declension
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In grammar, the genitive case or possessive case (also called the second case) is the case that marks a noun as being the possessor of another noun. The genitive case typically has other uses as well, which can vary from language to language: it can typically indicate various relationships other than possession; certain verbs may take arguments in the genitive case; and it may have adverbial uses (see Adverbial genitive). Modern English does not typically mark nouns for a genitive case morphologically — rather, it uses the clitic 's or a preposition (usually of) — but the personal pronouns do have distinct possessive forms. In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... This is a list of grammatical cases as they are used by various inflectional languages that have declension. ... In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the system used to distinguish between the arguments of transitive verbs and intransitive verbs. ... An oblique case (Latin: ) in linguistics is a noun case of analytic languages that is used generally when a noun is the predicate of a sentence or a preposition. ... In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated ABESS, from Latin abesse to be distant), caritive and privative (abbreviated PRIV) are names for a grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun. ... In linguistics, ablative case (also called the sixth case) (abbreviated ABL) is a name given to cases in various languages whose common thread is that they mark motion away from something, though the details in each language may differ. ... In ergative-absolutive languages, the absolutive is the grammatical case used to mark both the subject of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive verb. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... In the Finnish language, Estonian language and Hungarian language the adessive case (from Latin adesse to be present) is the fourth of the locative cases with the basic meaning of on. For example, Estonian laud (table) and laual (on the table), Hungarian asztal and asztalon (on the table). ... The adverbial case is a noun case in the Abkhaz language and Georgian language that has function similar to the translative and essive cases. ... In the Finnish language, the Allative case is the fifth of the locative cases, with the basic meaning of onto. Its ending is -lle, for example pöytä (table) and pöydälle (onto the top of the table). ... Antessive case[1] is used for marking before something (before the concert). The case is found in some Dravidian languages. ... Apudessive case[1] is used for marking location next to something (next to the house). The case is found in Tsez language. ... The aversive case is a grammatical case found in Australian languages that indicates that the marked noun is avoided or feared. ... The benefactive case is a case used where English would use for, for the benefit of, or intended for. ... In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated ABESS, from Latin abesse to be distant), caritive and privative (abbreviated PRIV) are names for a grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun. ... The causal or causative case (abbreviated CAUS) is a grammatical case that indicates that the marked noun is the cause or reason for something. ... This case in Hungarian language combines the Causal case and the Final case: it can express the cause of emotions (eg. ... The Comitative case is used where English would use in company with or together with. It, and many other cases, are found in the Finnish language, the Hungarian language, and the Estonian language. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ... The delative case (from Latin deferre to bear or bring away or down) in the Hungarian language can originally express the movement from the surface of something (eg. ... In Indo-Aryan languages, the direct case is the name given to a grammatical case used with all three core relations: the agent of transitive verbs, the patient of transitive verbs, and the experiencer of intransitive verbs. ... This case in Hungarian language can express the manner when something happens to each member of a set one by one (eg. ... This case in Hungarian language can express how often something happens (eg. ... See Elative for disambiguation. ... In ergative-absolutive languages, the ergative case identifies the subject of a transitive verb. ... The essive or similaris case carries the meaning of a temporary state of being, often equivalent to the English as a. ... In Hungarian language this case combines the Essive case and the Formal case, and it can express the position, task, state (eg. ... This case in Hungarian language can express the state, capacity, task in which somebody is or which somebody has (Essive case, eg. ... Equative is a case with the meaning of comparison, or likening. ... The aversive case is a grammatical case found in Australian languages that indicates that the marked noun is avoided or feared. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Final case is used for marking final cause (for a house). Semitic languages had that case, but all of them lost it[1][2]. Causal-final case found in Hungarian language. ... In Hungarian language this case combines the Essive case and the Formal case, and it can express the position, task, state (eg. ... Illative case in the Finno-Ugric languages Illative (from Latin inferre to bring in) is, in the Finnish language, Estonian language and the Hungarian language, the third of the locative cases with the basic meaning of into (the inside of). An example from Hungarian would be a házba (into... Inessive case (from Latin inesse to be in or at) is a locative grammatical case. ... In the Finnish language, the instructive case has the basic meaning of by means of. It is a comparatively rarely used case, though it is found in some commonly used expressions, such as omin silmin -> with ones own eyes. In modern Finnish, many of its instrumental uses are being... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ... This case in Hungarian language contains the Instrumental case and the Comitative case at the same time. ... The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia article. ... Lative is a case which indicates motion to a location. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ... In linguistics,the Modal case is a grammatical case used to express ability, intention, necessity, obligation, permission, possibility, etc. ... Multiplicative case[1] is used for marking a number of something (three times). The case is found in Hungarian language. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... The basic meaning of the Partitive case is partialness, without result or without specifying identity. In the Finnish language, its used to express unknown identities and irresultative actions. ... In linguistics, the Pegative case is used for a case marking that a noun is an agent of an action that has a dative-like undergoer argument. ... Perlative case expresses that something moved through,across, or along the referent of the noun that is marked[1]. The case is found in the West Australian Kuku-Yalanji language[2] ^ Article Perlative Case on the Linguist list wiki ^ Robert Malcolm Ward Dixon, Australian Languages: their nature and development, page... Possessive case is a case that exists in some languages used for possession. ... In a passive sentence, when we want to say when or where something happens, we use a phrase that asks for details about the action. ... Prepositional case is a grammatical case that marks prepositions. ... In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated ABESS, from Latin abesse to be distant), caritive and privative (abbreviated PRIV) are names for a grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun. ... The prolative case is a declension of a noun or pronoun that has the basic meaning of by way of. The prolative is widely used in Estonian. ... The prosecutive case is a declension found in Tundra Nenets language. ... The Proximative case is used to describe a meaning similar to that of the English preposition near to or close to. It is used in the logical language Gimív. An example of its use is ‘basúnid’ which the creator has given to mean ‘near a school. ... This case in Hungarian language can express the person in whose company (cf. ... The subessive case is a case indicating location under or below. ... This case in Hungarian language can express the destination of the movement, originally to the surface of something (eg. ... The Superessive case is a grammatical declension indicating location on top of something. ... In grammar, nouns in the superlative case typically denote objects over which or onto the top of which another object moves (movement over or onto the top of is important here). ... The temporal case in morphology is used to indicate a time. ... In morphology, the terminative case is a case that indicates to what point; where something ends. ... This declension (case) indicates a change in state of a noun, with the general sense of becoming X or change to X. In the Finnish language, this is the counterpart of the Essive case, with the basic meaning of a change of state. ... The vialis case is found in Eskimo languages. ... The vocative case (also called the fifth case) is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc. ... Czech declension describes the declension, or system of grammatically-determined modifications, in nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals in the Czech language. ... The English language once had an extensive declension system similar to modern German or Icelandic. ... German declension is the declensional system of the German language. ... The declension of Irish nouns, the definite article, and the adjectives is discussed on this page. ... Latin is an inflected language, and as such its nouns, pronouns, and adjectives must be declined in order to serve a grammatical function. ... Latvian declension describes the declension, or system of grammatically-determined modifications, in nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals in the Latvian language. ... Declension of the Lithuanian language is quite sophisticated similarly to that in ancient Indo-European languages (such as Sanskrit, Latin or Ancient Greek). ... See also: Slovak language. ... For the topic in theoretical computer science, see Formal grammar Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, one of which possesses (owns, rules over, has as a part, has as a relative, etc. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An adverb is a part of speech. ... In grammar, an adverbial genitive is a noun declined in the genitive case that functions as an adverb. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... In linguistics, a clitic is an element that has some of the properties of an independent word and some more typical of a bound morpheme. ...


Depending on the language, specific varieties of genitive-noun–main-noun relationships may include:

  • possession (see Possessive case):
    • inalienable possession ("Janet's height", "Janet's existence", "Janet's long fingers")
    • alienable possession ("Janet's jacket", "Janet's drink")
    • relationship indicated by the noun being modified ("Janet's husband")
  • composition (see Partitive case):
    • substance ("a wheel of cheese")
    • elements ("a group of men")
    • source ("a portion of the food")
  • participation in an action:
    • as an agent ("my leaving") — this is called the subjective genitive
    • as a patient ("the archduke's murder") — this is called the objective genitive
  • origin ("men of Rome")
  • description ("man of honour", "day of reckoning")
  • compounds (Scottish Gaelic "ball coise" = "football", where "coise" = gen. of "cas", "foot")

Depending on the language, some of the relationships mentioned above have their own distinct cases different from the genitive. Possessive case is a case that exists in some languages used for possession. ... Inalienable possession is a relationship between two objects indicating that they are (possibly on a less-than-physical level) connected in some way that cannot be changed. ... Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, one of which possesses (owns, rules over, has as a part, has as a relative, etc. ... The basic meaning of the Partitive case is partialness, without result or without specifying identity. In the Finnish language, its used to express unknown identities and irresultative actions. ... In linguistics, a grammatical agent is an entity that carries out an action. ... In linguistics, a grammatical patient is an entity upon whom an action is carried out. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...


Possessive pronouns are distinct pronouns, found in Indo-European languages such as English, that function like pronouns inflected in the genitive. They are considered separate pronouns if contrasting to languages where pronouns are regularly inflected in the genitive. For example, English my is either a separate possessive pronoun or an irregular genitive of I, while in Finnish, for example, minun is regularly agglutinated from minu- "I" and -n (genitive). A possessive pronoun is a part of speech that attributes ownership to someone or something. ... For the music festival, see Agglutination Metal Festival. ...


In some languages, nouns in the genitive case also agree in case with the nouns they modify (that is, it is marked for two cases). This phenomenon is called suffixaufnahme. In languages, agreement is a form of cross-reference between different parts of a sentence or phrase. ... Suffixaufnahme (German for suffix-absorption) is a linguistic phenomenon whereby a genitive noun declines to match its head noun, and vice-versa. ...


In some languages, nouns in the genitive case may be found in inclusio — that is, between the main noun's article and the noun itself. Inclusio is a term with two distinct but analogous meanings in grammar and literature. ... An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ...


Many languages have a genitive case, including Arabic, Croatian, Czech, Finnish, Georgian, German, Greek, Icelandic, Irish, Latin, Lithuanian, Polish, Romanian Russian, Sanskrit, Serbian, Slovenian and Turkish. English does not have a proper genitive case, but a possessive ending, -'s (see below), although pronouns do have a genitive case. Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...

Contents

The English -'s ending

Main article: Saxon genitive

The Saxon genitive is the traditional term used for the s word-ending in the English language. ...

Possessive marker

Some argue that it is a common misconception that English nouns have a genitive case, marked by the possessive -'s ending (known as the saxon genitive). Some linguists believe that English possessive is no longer a case at all, but has become a clitic, an independent particle which, however, is always pronounced as part of the preceding word. This is claimed on the basis of the following sort of example: "The king of Sparta's wife was called Helen." If the English -'s were a genitive case mark, then the wife would belong to Sparta; but the -'s attaches not to the word Sparta, but to the entire phrase the king of Sparta. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Saxon genitive is the traditional term used for the s word-ending in the English language. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... In linguistics, a clitic is an element that has some of the properties of an independent word and some more typical of a bound morpheme. ... In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition. ...


Despite the above, the English possessive did originate in a genitive case. In Old English, a common singular genitive ending was -es. The apostrophe in the modern possessive marker is in fact an indicator of the e that is "missing" from the Old English morphology. Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Penis[1], Englisc by its speakers) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ...


The use of an independently written particle for the possessive can be seen in the closely related Dutch language: de man zijn hand (the man's hand, zijn means his). Dutch (  ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ...


The 18th century explanation that the apostrophe might replace a genitive pronoun, as in "the king's horse" being a shortened form of "the king, his horse", is debated. This his genitive appears in English only for a relatively brief time. The construction occurs in German dialects and has replaced the genitive there, together with the "of" construction that also exists in English. While modern English speakers might expect that plurals and feminine nouns would form possessives using '-r', such as "*The queen'r children", in fact "his" or "hys" could be used for speakers and writers of either gender throughout most of the mediaeval and Renaissance period. An apostrophe ( ’ ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. ... The his genitive was a linguistic phenomenon in the syntax of the English language. ...


Remnants of the genitive case remain in Modern English in a few pronouns, such as whose (the genitive form of who), my/mine, his/hers/its, our/ours, their/theirs, etc. See also Declension in English. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... Look up who, whom in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language once had an extensive declension system similar to modern German or Icelandic. ...


Uses of the marker in English

The English construction in -'s has various uses other than a possessive marker. Most of these uses overlap with a complement marked by 'of' (the music of Beethoven or Beethoven's music), but the two constructions are not equivalent. The use of -'s in a non-possessive sense is more prevalent, and less restricted, in formal than informal language.


Genitive of origin; subjective genitive

  • Beethoven's music
  • Fred Astaire's dancing
  • Confucius's teaching

In these constructions, the marker indicates the origin or source of the head noun of the phrase, rather than possession per se. Most of these phrases, however, can still be paraphrased with of: the music of Beethoven, the teaching of Confucius.


Objective genitive; classifying genitive

  • the Hundred Years' War
  • a dollar's worth
  • two weeks' notice
  • A Midsummer Night's Dream
  • a prisoner's release

In these constructions, the marker serves to specify, delimit, or describe the head noun. The paraphrase with of is often un-idiomatic or ambiguous with these genitives:

  • the war of a Hundred Years
  • the pay of a day
  • notice of two weeks

They introduce the likelihood of misunderstanding.


Genitive of purpose

  • women's shoes
  • children's literature

Here, the marked noun identifies the purpose or intended recipient of the head noun. Of cannot paraphrase them; they can be idiomatically paraphrased with for: shoes for women.


Appositive genitive

  • Dublin's fair city

This is not a common usage. The more usual expression is the fair city of Dublin.


Double genitive

  • this heart of mine
  • this exactness of his
  • every friend of Kim's
  • that new house of Mary's

Some writers regard this as a questionable usage, although it has a history in careful English. Some object to the name, as the "of" clause is not a genitive. Alternative names are "double possessive" and "oblique genitive".


The genitive in astronomy

In the case of constellations, it is useful to know the genitive of the constellation's Latin name, since this is used to make the Bayer designation of stars in that constellation. For instance, since the genitive of the Latin word virgo ("virgin") is virginis, the brightest star in the constellation Virgo is known as Alpha Virginis. Many references on constellations list the genitive for each constellation. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Spica (α Virginis) is a brilliant first_magnitude star, believed to be the star that provided Hipparchus with the data which enabled him to discover precession of the equinoxes. ...


Baltic Finnic "genitives"

In Baltic-Finnic languages, the accusative case -(e)n is homophonic to the genitive case. In Estonian, it is often said that only a "genitive" exists. However, the cases have completely different functions, and the form of the accusative has developed from *-(e)m. (The same sound change has developed into a synchronic mutation of a final 'm' into 'n' in Finnish, e.g. genitive sydämen vs. nominative sydän.) This homophony has exceptions in Finnish, where a separate accusative -(e)t is found in pronouns, e.g. kenet "who (telic object)", vs. kenen "whose", and some of the Sámi languages, where the pronouns and the plural of nouns in the genitive and accusative are easily distinguishable from each other, e.g., kuä'cǩǩmi "eagles' (genitive plural)" and kuä'cǩǩmid "eagles (accusative plural)" in Skolt Sami. Baltic-Finnic languages are a subgroup of Finno-Ugric languages, spoken around the Baltic Sea by about 6 million people. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Skolt Sami (Sää´mÇ©iõll) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland and nearby parts of Russia. ...


The genitive case in Slavic languages

In Slavic languages such as Russian, Croatian, Polish, etc., nouns in the genitive case are indicated by their endings. The following examples are from Russian.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup...


Possessives

To indicate possession, the ending of the noun indicating the possessor changes to а, я, ы or и, depending on the word's ending in the nominative case. For example:

Nominative: "Вот Антон" ("Here is Anton").
Genitive: "Вот карандаш Антона" ("Here is Anton's pencil").

Possessives can also be formed by the construction "У [subject] есть [object]":

Nominative: "Вот Сергей" ("Here is Sergei").
Genitive: "У Сергея есть карандаш" ("Sergei has a pencil").

In sentences where the possessor includes an associated pronoun, the pronoun also changes:

Nominative: "Вот мой брат" ("Here is my brother").
Genitive: "У моего брата есть карандаш" ("My brother has a pencil").

And in sentences denoting negative possession, the ending of the object noun also changes:

Nominative: "Вот Ирина" ("Here is Irina").
Genitive: "У Ирины нет карандаша" ("Irina does not have a pencil").

To express negation

The genitive case is also used in sentences expressing negation, even when no possessives are involved. The subject noun's ending changes just as it does in possessive sentences:

Nominative: "Мария дома?" ("Is Maria at home?").
Genitive: "Марии нет дома" ("Maria is not at home," literally, "Of Maria there is none at home.").

To express partial direct object

The genitive case is used with some verbs and mass nouns to indicate that the action covers only a part of the direct object, whereas similar constructions using the accusative case denote full coverage. Compare the sentences: It has been suggested that Count noun be merged into this article or section. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ...

Genitive: "Я выпил воды" ("I drank water," i.e. "I drank some water, part of the water available")
Accusative: "Я выпил воду ("I drank the water," i.e. "I drank all the water, all available water")

The genitive case in Turkish

Unlike in Germanic languages, there are different modalities of genitive in Turkish, such as definite and indefinite. The definite genitive case in Turkish is constructed using two suffixes, one for the possessor and for the possessed object, for example: This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Nominative: Kadın (woman) ayakkabı (shoe)
Genitive  : Kadının ayakkabı (the shoe of the woman)

In the indefinite form, only the possessed word gets a suffix:

Nominative: Kadın (woman) kıyafet (clothing)
Genitive  : Kadın kıyafeti (women's clothing)

See also

Possessive case is a case that exists in some languages used for possession. ... The Saxon genitive is the traditional term used for the s word-ending in the English language. ...

External links

Look up Genitive case in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Genitive Case In Russian

  Results from FactBites:
 
Russian Language Lesson 10 - The Russian Genitive Case - Main Lesson - Russian Language Lessons (943 words)
As the genitive case relates to possession, it is also used to create a way of saying ‘to have’ or ‘to not have’.
For example, in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is the subject of the sentence and uses the nominative case, “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case, “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case.
The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word ‘of’.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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