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Encyclopedia > Genital modification and mutilation

The terms genital modification and genital mutilation can refer to permanent or temporary changes to human genitals. Some forms of genital alteration are performed at the behest of an adult, with his or her full and informed consent. Others are performed by adults on other individuals, often infants or children, without the latter's consent, and often by force. Any of these procedures may be considered modifications or mutilations by different groups of people. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about modern humans. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis...

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Body modification

Main article: Body modification

Many types of genital modification are performed at the behest of the individual, for personal, sexual, aesthetic or cultural reasons. Subincision, or splitting of the underside of the penis, is widespread in the traditional cultures of Indigenous Australians. This procedure has taken root in Western body modification culture. Meatotomy is a form that involves splitting of the glans penis alone, while genital bisection is a more extreme form that splits the penis entirely in half. Body modification (or body alteration) is the permanent or semi-permanent deliberate altering of the human body for non-medical reasons, such as spiritual, various social (markings), BDSM edgeplay or aesthetic. ... Subincision is a form of body modification consisting of a urethrotomy, in which the underside of the penis is incised and the urethra slit open lengthwise, from the urethral opening (meatus) toward the base. ... Australian Aborigines are the indigenous peoples of Australia. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... Body modification (or body alteration) is the permanent or semi-permanent deliberate altering of the human body for non-medical reasons, such as spiritual, various social (markings), BDSM edgeplay or aesthetic. ... A meatotomy is a form of penile modification in which the underside of the glans is split. ... The glans penis (or simply glans) is the sensitive tip of the penis. ... Genital bisection in males involves the splitting of the penis (and often the scrotum as well). ...


Genital piercings and genital tattooing may be performed for aesthetic reasons, while piercings may have the additional benefit of increasing sexual pleasure for the pierced individual or their sex partners. Similarly, Pearling involves surgical insertion of small, inert spheres around the vaginal or anal opening, often for the purpose of providing sexual pleasure to insertive sex partners. Body piercing is a form of body modification. ... Genital tattooing is the practice of placing permanent marks under the skin of the genitals in the form of tattoos. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... Sexual arousal is the process and state of an animal being ready for sexual intercourse. ... Pearling refers to the practice of permanently inserting small beads made of various materials beneath the skin of the shaft or foreskin of the penis. ...


Clitoris enlargement may be achieved temporarily through the use of a clitoral pump, or it may be achieved permanently through application of testosterone cream to the clitoris, or through injectable testosterone. Penis enlargement is a term for various techniques used to attempt to increase the size of the penis, though the safety and efficacy of these techniques are debated. A clitoral pump is a sex toy designed for womens pleasure that is applied to the clitoris and/or labia creating the sucking effect and increasing the blood flow to genitals. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Penis enlargement procedures (sometimes euphemistically referred to as male enhancement procedures in spam email and television advertisements) are techniques alleged to make the human penis larger. ...


Voluntary sex reassignment

Some transsexual people choose to undergo sex reassignment surgery as part of their gender transition. Transwomen may undergo castration, with or without vaginoplasty, while female-to-male transsexuals may undergo phalloplasty or metoidioplasty, with or without oophorectomy or hysterectomy. For specialized articles on surgical procedures, see Sex reassignment surgery male-to-female and Sex reassignment surgery female-to-male. ... A transsexual (sometimes transexual) person establishes a permanent identity with the opposite gender to their assigned (usually at birth) sex. ... For specialized articles on surgical procedures, see Sex reassignment surgery male-to-female and Sex reassignment surgery female-to-male. ... Transwomen or trans women are transsexual or transgendered people who were assigned male sex at birth (or, in some cases of intersexuality, later) and feel that this is not an accurate or complete description of themselves. ... Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ... A vaginoplasty is any surgical operation with the aim of correcting structural defects in the vagina or even to construct or reconstruct it. ... Phalloplasty refers to the (re-)construction of a penis or, sometimes, to artificial modification of the penis by surgery, often for cosmetic purposes. ... Metoidioplasty is a variant of phalloplasty for transmen. ... Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of the ovaries of a female animal. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Involuntary sex assignment

Main article: Sex assignment

If a baby is born with ambiguous genitalia due to an intersex condition, it may not be clear whether the child is female or male. In certain cases, the child's chromosomal makeup is neither female nor male, but a combination. In these cases, the baby is usually given a sex assignment, and in many cases, the child's genitals are surgically altered to conform to those of the assigned sex. This practice is met with strong dissent from advocates for genital integrity. As cosmetic surgery is not medically necessary for health, they argue that the individual should be free to make the choice whether to pursue cosmetic surgery upon their genitals. Advocates state that the surgery can damage the individual's ability to experience sexual arousal and can render the individual incapable of orgasm. Another concern is that sex assignment holds a significant element of guesswork, and that an individual's sex assignment may turn out to be incorrect. If, for instance, an individual is assigned female, their phallus is usually surgically reduced in size, and the shape of a vulva may be created. If, upon maturing, the individual identifies as male; their phallus is still gone, and the individual may require further surgery to try to reverse the erroneous sex assignment. Those who oppose medically unnecessary genital surgery, and genital surgery coerced or performed without consent comprise the genital integrity movement. The case of David Reimer, the victim of a botched circumcision who was raised as a girl alongside his twin brother, bears many parallels to this issue. Sex assignment refers to the assigning of sex at the birth of a baby. ... The term baby can refer to: an infant a very early computer—the Small-Scale Experimental Machine, nicknamed Baby a musician – Brian Williams – who performs under the name Baby. ... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... The symbol of the Genital integrity movement is the ribbon Genital Integrity. ... The symbol of the Genital integrity movement is the ribbon Genital Integrity. ... David Reimer (August 22, 1965 – May 4, 2004) was a Canadian man who was born as a healthy boy, but was sexually reassigned and raised as female after his penis was inadvertently destroyed during circumcision. ... This article is about male circumcision. ...


In the context of disease or medical necessity

If the genitals become diseased, as in the case of cancer, sometimes the diseased areas are surgically removed. Biological females may undergo vaginectomy, while males may undergo penectomy. Reconstructive surgery may be performed to restore what was lost, often with techniques similar to those used in sex reassignment surgery. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Vaginectomy is a medical procedure to remove all or part of the vagina. ... Penectomy is the surgical removal of the penis for medical reasons. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For specialized articles on surgical procedures, see Sex reassignment surgery male-to-female and Sex reassignment surgery female-to-male. ...


Similarly, during childbirth, episiotomy is sometimes performed to increase the amount of space through which the baby may emerge. Advocates of natural childbirth and unassisted birth state that this intervention is often performed without medical necessity, with significant damage to the person giving birth. Parturition redirects here. ... Medio-lateral episiotomy as baby crowns. ... The term baby can refer to: an infant a very early computer—the Small-Scale Experimental Machine, nicknamed Baby a musician – Brian Williams – who performs under the name Baby. ... Natural childbirth is a childbirth philosophy that attempts to minimize medical intervention, particularly the use of anesthetic medications and surgical interventions such as episiotomies, forceps and ventouse deliveries and caesarean sections. ...


Hymenotomy is the surgical perforation of an imperforate hymen. It may be performed to allow menstruation to occur. An adult individual may opt for increasing the size of their hymenal opening, or removal of the hymen altogether, to facilitate sexual penetration of their vagina. A Hymenotomy is a minor medical procedure involving the surgical removal or opening of the hymen. ... An imperforate hymen is a condition where the hymen completely obstructs the vagina. ... Not to be confused with Mensuration. ... Sexual penetration (as opposed to outercourse) typically involves the insertion of the penis into a bodily orifice. ...


Female genitals

Female genital cutting

Female genital cutting, also known as female genital mutilation or female circumcision, refers to "all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons."[1] It is not the same as the procedures used in gender reassignment surgery or the genital modification of intersexuals. FGC is practiced throughout the world, but the practice is concentrated more heavily in Africa, Indonesia, and the Middle East. The World Health Organization (WHO) separates FGC procedures into four categories: Type I, II, III, and IV. There is much controversy surrounding Type III (Infibulation) due to concerns regarding the safety and consequences of the procedure. In the past several decades, there have been pushes by global health organizations, such as the WHO, to end the practice of FGC. However, due to its importance in traditional and religious life, the practice remains in many societies. Female genital cutting (FGC), also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), female circumcision or female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic... Female genital cutting (FGC), also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), female circumcision or female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic... The human females reproductive system. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of the anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; in mammals, these are: Female: Bartholins glands, cervix, clitoris, Fallopian tubes, labia, ovaries, Skenes... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... For specialized articles on surgical procedures, see Sex reassignment surgery male-to-female and Sex reassignment surgery female-to-male. ... Genital modification and genital mutilation are controversial terms. ... An intersexual or intersex person (or animal of any unisexual species) is one who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... WHO redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ...


Hymenorrhaphy

Hymenorrhaphy refers to the practice of thickening the hymen, or, in some cases, implanting a capsule of red liquid within the newly-created vaginal tissue. The newly-created hymen is created to cause physical resistance, blood, or the appearance of blood, at the time that the individual's new husband inserts his penis into her vagina. This is done in cultures where a high value is placed on female virginity at the time of marriage. In these cultures, a woman may be punished, perhaps violently, if the community leaders deem that she was not virginal at the time of consummation of her marriage. Individuals who survive rape, who were virginal at the time of their rape, may elect for hymenorrhaphy. Hymenorrhaphy or hymen reconstruction surgery is the surgical restoration of the hymen. ... Virgin redirects here. ... As a verb, consummate means to bring something to its completion, such as a transaction, concept, plan or action. ...


Vaginoplasty

Genetically female people who are displeased with the shape of their vulvas may choose to undergo vaginoplasty or labiaplasty. The concept of a "designer vagina" is one that has been surgically altered to meet aesthetic standards. The surgery itself is controversial. Opponents view the demand for this type of surgery as being driven by unattainable bodily ideals, perhaps popularized by the appearance of the genitals of performers in pornography. The vulva (from Latin, vulva, plural vulvae or vulvas; see etymology) is the region of the external genital organs of the female, including the labia majora, mons pubis, labia minora, clitoris, bulb of the vestibule, vestibule of the vagina, greater and lesser vestibular glands, and vaginal orifice. ... A vaginoplasty is any surgical operation with the aim of correcting structural defects in the vagina or even to construct or reconstruct it. ... Labiaplasty (sometimes spelled labioplasty) is plastic surgery of the Labia majora and/or the Labia minora, the external folds of the vulva. ... A pornographic actor/actress or a porn star (also spelled as pornstar) is somebody who appears in pornographic films or photographs, live sex shows or peep shows. ...


Labia pulling

See elongated labia. Khoisan women with pendulous labia visible. ...


Male circumcision

Main article: Circumcision

Male circumcision involves the removal of the foreskin. It may also involve frenectomy, the removal of the frenulum. A related procedure is preputioplasty, which is used as a treatment for phimosis. This procedure is most often performed upon infant boys. It has religious significance in the Jewish religion and in Islam. It spread into Western culture, and peaked in the early 80s. The bioethics of neonatal circumcision are a subject of intense debate, with circumcision advocates promoting it as beneficial, and supporters of genital integrity opposing it as a violation of the individual's human rights. Some adults who were circumcised as infants engage in foreskin restoration, a method of stretching the penile skin in order to partially recreate the foreskin. Autocircumcision is a related practice of training the foreskin to remain in a retracted position, giving the look of a circumcised penis to one which is intact. This article is about male circumcision. ... The foreskin or prepuce (a technically broader term that also includes the clitoral hood, the homologous structure in women) is a retractable double-layered fold of skin and mucous membrane that covers the glans penis and protects the urinary meatus when the penis. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A frenulum (or frenum, plural: frenula or frena, from the Latin frÄ“nulum, little bridle, the diminutive of frÄ“num ) is a small fold of tissue that secures or restricts the motion of a mobile organ in the body. ... Preputioplasty or prepuce plasty, also known as limited dorsal slit with transverse closure, is a minor plastic surgical operation on the prepuce or foreskin of the penis to widen a narrow non-retractile foreskin which cannot comfortably be drawn back off the head of the penis in erection because of... Phimosis is a medical condition in which the foreskin of the penis of a male cannot be fully retracted. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The bioethics of neonatal circumcision are controversial within practicing cultures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Circumcision. ... The symbol of the Genital integrity movement is the ribbon Genital Integrity. ... Foreskin restoration is the process of expanding the residual skin on the penis, via surgical or non-surgical methods, to create the appearance of a natural foreskin (prepuce) covering the glans penis. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
State of Georgia Urged to Protect Boys From Genital Mutilation (1625 words)
Male genital mutilation (commonly referred to as circumcision) is a topic that is gaining increasing attention as medical evidence mounts over the damage that the practice causes to male sexual function.
Genital mutilation is a medically unnecessary modification of the genitalia which for girls typically occurs at about seven years of age, but is known to be practiced any time between infancy and puberty.
Female genital mutilation is known to be practiced in 28 nations in the African continent, in a few countries in the Arab Peninsula, among some minority communities in Asia, and among migrants from these areas who have settled in Europe, Australia, and North America.
Genital modification and mutilation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (572 words)
Genital modification and genital mutilation both can refer to permanent or temporary changes to the human genitals.
When genital alterations are used for punishment, typically for rape, adultery or other socially forbidden sexual practices, such mutilations have included castration (actual or chemical) or penectomy.
Female genital enhancement surgery includes laser resurfacing of the labia to remove wrinkles and clitoral repositioning for those not achieving optimum stimulation as well as labiaplasty and vaginal tightening.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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