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Encyclopedia > Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Khagan of the Mongol Empire
(Khan of the Mongols)
Reign 12061227
Coronation 1206 during khurultai at the Onon River, Mongolia
Full name Genghis Khan
(birth name: Temüjin)
Mongolian script:
Titles Khan, Khagan
Born c. 1162
Birthplace Khentii Mountains, Mongolia
Died 1227
Successor Ögedei Khan
Consort Börte Ujin
Kulan
Yisugen
Yisui
others
Issue Jochi
Chagatai
Ögedei
Tolui
others
Royal House Borjigin
Father Yesükhei
Mother Ho'elun

Genghis Khan  (IPA[ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ]) (Mongolian: Чингис Хаан, Chinggis Khaan, Činggis Qaɣan), c. 1162[1]1227), born Temüjin  (meaning "ironworker"[2]), was the Mongol founder, Khan (ruler) and posthumously declared Khagan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire in history. There are many uses of the name Genghis Khan: Genghis Khan - 13th century military leader Dschinghis Khan - German pop band Chinggis Khaan International Airport - Main airport in Mongolia This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Temüjin, (also known as Temüjin: A Supernatural Adventure and Temüjin: The Capricorn Collection) is a 1997 computer game developed and published by SouthPeak Interactive. ... This image is in public domain File links The following pages link to this file: Genghis Khan ... Temüjin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... Temüjin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... Kurultai (Tatar: Qorıltay, Azerbaijani: Qurultay; Kurulmak meaning to assemble in Turkish, also Khural meaning meeting in Mongolian) is a political and military council of ancient Mongol and Turkic chiefs and khans. ... Onon gol is a river in Mongolia and Russia of length 818 km and watershed 94,010 sq. ... A maiden name is the family name carried by a woman before any of her marriages. ... The term Mongolian alphabet may refer to any of three scripts used over the centuries to write the Mongolian language. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the title. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, KaÄŸan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Events June 3 - Thomas Becket consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury. ... The Khentii Mountains (Mongolian: ) are a mountain range in the Khentii province, Mongolia. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... Börte was the primary empress of the Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan. ... Kulan or Khulan, was an empress of Genghis Khan and head of the second Court of Genghis Khan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jochi (also spelled Jöchi) (c. ... Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings ÇaÄŸatay in Turkic Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Chaghtai) was the second son of Genghis Khan. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... Tolui,also rendered Toluy or Tolui Khan (Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 1190–1232), was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. ... Borjigin (plural Borjigit or Borjigid; Khalkha Mongolian: Боржигин, Borjigin; Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) were the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors. ... Yesugei Baghatur (Yesügei, Yesükhei) was Genghis Khans father. ... Hoelun was the mother of Mongol Khan Genghis Khan and the grandmother of Ogedei Khan. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Events June 3 - Thomas Becket consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, KaÄŸan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... Following are the worlds largest empire in descending order as commonly understood: 1. ...


He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia. After founding the Mongol Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he pursued an aggressive foreign policy by starting the Mongol invasions of East and Central Asia. During his life, the Mongol Empire eventually occupied most of Asia. Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Mongol invasion of East Asia refers to the Mongols 13th and 14th century conquests under Genghis Khan and his descendants of Mongol invasion of China, Korea, and attempted Mongol invasion of Japan, and it also can include Mongols attempted invasion of Vietnam. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Khwarezmia Commanders Genghis Khan, Jochi, Chaghatai, Ögodei, Tolui, Subutai, Jebe, Jelme, Mukali, Khubilai, Kasar, Boorchu, Sorkin-shara Ala ad-Din Muhammad, Jalal Al-Din, Inalchuq† (executed) Strength 100,000-200,000 mounted archers, with powerful siege engines 400,000 men, however not organized into armies, only city... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Genghis Khan died in 1227 after defeating the Tanguts. He was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in his native Mongolia. His descendants went on to stretch the Mongol Empire across most of Eurasia, conquering all of modern-day China, as well as substantial portions of modern Russia, southern Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East. For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

Contents

Early life

Birth

The Onon River, Mongolia in autumn, a site where Temüjin was born and grew up.
The Onon River, Mongolia in autumn, a site where Temüjin was born and grew up.

Because of the lack of contemporary written records, there is very little factual information about the early life of Temüjin. The few sources that provide insight into this period are often conflicting. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 245 KB) Summary From german wikipedia Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 245 KB) Summary From german wikipedia Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Onon gol is a river in Mongolia and Russia of length 818 km and watershed 94,010 sq. ... This article is about the temperate season. ...


Temüjin was born around 1162 in a Mongol tribe near Burkhan Khaldun mountain and the Onon and Kherlen rivers in modern day Mongolia, not far from its current capital Ulaanbaatar. The Secret History of the Mongols purports that Temüjin was born with a blood clot grasped in his fist, an indication in the traditional Mongolian folklore that he was destined to become a great leader. He was the third-eldest son of his father Yesükhei, a minor tribal chief of the Kiyad and an ally of Ong Khan of the Kerait tribe,[3] and the eldest son of his mother Hoelun. According to the Secret History, Temüjin was named after a Tatar chieftain that his father had just captured. The name also suggests that they may have descended from a family of blacksmiths (see section Name and title below). Events June 3 - Thomas Becket consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Burkhan Khaldun (Mongolian: ; ) is a mountain of the Khentii Mountains in the Khentii aimag of Mongolia. ... Onon gol is a river in Mongolia and Russia of length 818 km and watershed 94,010 sq. ... Bridge over the Kherlen River in Choibalsan city The Kherlen (Mongolian: , Kherlen gol) or Herlen He (Chinese: ), sometimes also Kerulen, is a river of 1,254 km length in Mongolia and China. ... September 2004 Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар, [UlaÉ£an BaÉ£atar]) in Mongolian, is the capital of Mongolia. ... The Secret History of the Mongols is the first literary work of Mongolian culture. ... Yesugei Baghatur or Yesugei The Brave (11XX–1180) (Yesügei, Yesükhei) was a Mongol Khan (or ruler). ... Khyad was a part in Mongolia in the early twelfth century. ... This article is about Wang Khan Toghrul, ruler of the Kerait. ... For the anti-Talmudic Jewish sect, see Karaite Judaism. ... Hoelun was the mother of Mongol Khan Genghis Khan and the grandmother of Ogedei Khan, first emperor of Yuan Dynasty. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... This article is about the person. ...


Yesükhei's clan was called Borjigin (Боржигин), and Hoelun was from the Olkhunut tribe. Like other tribes, they were nomads. Because his father was a chieftain, as were his predecessors, Temüjin was of a noble background. This relatively higher social standing made it easier to solicit help from and eventually consolidate the other Mongol tribes. No accurate portraits of Genghis exist today, and any surviving depictions are considered to be artistic interpretations. Persian historian Rashid al-Din recorded in his "Chronicles" that the legendary "glittering" ancestor of Genghis was tall, long-bearded, red-haired, and green-eyed. Rashid al-Din also described the first meeting of Genghis and Kublai Khan, when Genghis was shocked to find Kublai had not inherited his red hair.[4] Genghis's Borjigid clan, al-Din also revealed, had a legend involving their clan: it began as the result of an affair (technically a virgin birth) between Alan-ko and a stranger to her land, a glittering man who happened to have red hair and bluish-green eyes. Modern historian Paul Ratchnevsky has suggested in his Genghis biography that the "glittering man" may have been from the Kyrgyz people, who historically displayed these same characteristics. Controversies aside, the closest depiction generally accepted by most historians is the portrait currently in the National Palace Museum in Taipei, Taiwan (see above). Borjigin (plural Borjigit or Borjigid; Khalkha Mongolian: Боржигин, Borjigin; Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) were the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors. ... Olkhunut was the tribe of Hoelun, the mother of Temujin, more widely known as the Genghis Khan. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... Rashid al-Din Tabib also Rashid ad-Din Fadhlullah Hamadani (1247 - 1318), was a Persian physician, writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history volume, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ...


Family and lineage

Temüjin was related on his father's side to Qabul Khan, Ambaghai and Qutula Khan who had headed the Mongol confederation. When the Jin dynasty switched support from the Mongols to the Tatars in 1161 they destroyed Qabul Khan.[5] Genghis' father, Yesükhei (leader of the Borjigin and nephew to Ambaghai and Qutula Khan), emerged as the head of the ruling clan of the Mongols, but this position was contested by the rival Tayichi’ud clan, who descended directly from Ambaghai. When the Tatars grew too powerful after 1161, the Jin moved their support from the Tatars to the Kerait. This is part of the family tree of Genghis Khan. ... Qabul Khan (or Khabul Khan) was a Mongol Khan and grandfather to Yesugei, and thus great-grandfather to Genghis Khan[1]. He was defeated by an alliance between the Tatars and the Jin Dynasty. ... Ambaghai Khan was a Mongol ruler, the cousin and successor of Qutula Khan. ... Qutula Khan (or Khutula Khan) was a Mongol Khan and the uncle of Yesugei, and thus great-uncle of the legendary Genghis Khan. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Location of Jin Capital Huining (1122-1153) Zhongdu (1153-1214) Kaifeng (1214-1233) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1115-1123 Emperor Taizu  - 1234 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1115  - Ended Liaos rule 1125  - Captured Bianliang January 9, 1127  - Fall of Caizhou February 9, 1234 The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Manchu: Aisin... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... Yesükhei was the father of Mongol Khan Genghis Khan (grandfather of Ögedei Khan, first emperor of Yuan Dynasty), Temujin by birth and tribal chief of the Kiyad. ... Borjigin (plural Borjigit or Borjigid; Khalkha Mongolian: Боржигин, Borjigin; Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) were the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ambaghai Khan was a Mongol ruler, the cousin and successor of Qutula Khan. ...


Childhood and Family

Temüjin had three brothers named Khasar (or Qasar), Khajiun, and Temüge, and one sister named Temülen (or Temülin), as well as two half-brothers named Bekhter and Belgutei. Jöchi Khasar (or Qasar) was one of Chinggis Khans three full brothers. ... Temüge was the brother of Temüjin, more widely known as the Genghis Khan. ... Belgutei was the son of Yesugei and half-brother to Genghis Khan. ...


Like many of the nomads of Mongolia, Temüjin's early life was difficult. At nine years old, as part of the marriage arrangement, he was delivered by his father to the family of his future wife Börte, who were members of the Onggirat tribe. He was to live there in service to Deisechen, the head of the household, until he reached the marriageable age of 12. At this time, none of the tribal confederations of Mongolia were united politically, and arranged marriages were often used to solidify temporary alliances. Temujin grew up observing the tough political climate of Mongolia, surrounded by tribal warfare, thievery, raids, corruption and continuing acts of revenge carried out between the various confederations, all compounded by interference from foreign forces such as the Chinese dynasties to the south. Börte Ujin was the Grand Empress of the Mongol Khan Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire. ... The Onggirat (in Chinese, 弘吉剌, Hongjila) were a central Asian tribe, one of the major divisions of the Mongols. ... Marriage à-la-mode by William Hogarth: a satire on arranged marriages and prediction of ensuing disaster The purpose of an arranged marriage is to form a new family unit by marriage while respecting the chastity of all people involved. ...


While heading home, his father was poisoned during a meal with the neighbouring Tatars, who had long been enemies of the Mongols. Temüjin had to return home to claim the position of khan. However, his father's tribe refused to be led by a boy so young. They abandoned him and his family, including his mother Hoelun, leaving them without protection. This article is about the people. ... Hoelun was the mother of Mongol Khan Genghis Khan and the grandmother of Ogedei Khan, first emperor of Yuan Dynasty. ...


For the next several years, Temüjin and his family lived in poverty, surviving primarily on wild fruits, marmots, and other small game hunted by Temüjin and his brothers. It was during one of these hunting incidents that 13 year old Temüjin murdered his half-brother, Bekhter, in a dispute over hunting spoils.[6] This incident cemented his position as head of the household. Species See text. ...


In another incident in 1182 he was captured in a raid and held prisoner by his father's former allies, the Ta'yichiut. The Ta'yichiut enslaved Temüjin (reportedly with a cangue), but he escaped with the help of a sympathetic watcher, the father of Chilaun (who would later become general of Genghis Khan), by escaping from the ger and hiding in a river crevice. It was around this time that Jelme and Bo'orchu, two of Genghis Khan's future generals, joined forces with him. Along with his brothers, they provided the manpower needed for early expansion. Temüjin's reputation also became relatively widespread after his escape from the Ta'yichiut. A cangue is a device used for public humiliation and corporal punishment in China and some other parts of East Asia and Southeast Asia, up through the early years of the twentieth century. ... Chilaun was a general in the Mongol Empire, known as one of Genghis Khans four talented men. His relatives helped a young Genghis escape from captivity at the hands of the Taichuids. ... A Yurt is a portable felt dwelling structure used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. ...


Relationships

Temüjin's mother Ho'elun taught him many lessons about the unstable political climate of Mongolia, especially the need for alliances. As previously arranged by his father, Temüjin married Börte of the Konkirat tribe around when he was 16 in order to cement alliances between their respective tribes. Börte had four sons, Jochi (1185–1226), Chagatai (1187—1241), Ögedei (1189—1241), and Tolui (1190–1232). Genghis Khan also had many other children with his other wives, but they were excluded from the succession, and records of daughters are nonexistent. Soon after Börte's marriage to Temüjin, she was kidnapped by the Merkits, and reportedly given away as a wife. Temüjin rescued her with the help of his friend and future rival, Jamuka, and his protector, Ong Khan of the Kerait tribe. She gave birth to a son, Jochi, nine months later, clouding the issue of his parentage. Despite speculation over Jochi, Börte would be his only empress, though Temujin did follow tradition by taking several morganatic wives.[7] A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... Börte Ujin was the Grand Empress of the Mongol Khan Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire. ... The Onggirat (in Chinese, 弘吉剌, Hongjila) were a central Asian tribe, one of the major divisions of the Mongols. ... Jochi (also spelled Jöchi) (c. ... Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings ÇaÄŸatay in Turkic Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Chaghtai) was the second son of Genghis Khan. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... Tolui,also rendered Toluy or Tolui Khan (Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 1190–1232), was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. ... The Merkit, Merged, or Mergid (Merged means wise ones, adept ones, skillful ones, (skillful) archers, or hunters in Mongolian) were a Mongol tribe with a fierce reputation that inhabited southeastern Siberia during the Middle Ages. ... Jamuqa was a Mongol military and political leader and the chief rival to Temüjin, later Genghis Khan, in the unification of the Mongol tribes. ... This article is about Wang Khan Toghrul, ruler of the Kerait. ... For the anti-Talmudic Jewish sect, see Karaite Judaism. ... Jochi (also spelled Jöchi) (c. ... A morganatic marriage is a type of marriage which can be contracted in certain countries, usually between people of unequal social rank, which prevents the passage of the husbands titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. ...


According to traditional historical accounts, the issue over Jochi's paternity was voiced most strongly by Chagatai. In The Secret History of the Mongols, just before the invasion of the Khwarezmid Empire by Genghis Khan, Chagatai declares before his father and brothers that he would never accept Jochi as Genghis Khan's successor. In response to this tension[8] and possibly for other reasons, it was Ögedei who was appointed as successor. He subsequently ruled as Khagan after Genghis Khan's death. The Secret History of the Mongols is the first literary work of Mongolian culture. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ...


Jochi died in 1226, during his father's lifetime. Some scholars, notably Ratchnevsky, have commented on the possibility that Jochi was secretly poisoned by an order from Genghis Khan. Rashid al-Din reports that the great Khan sent for his sons in the spring of 1223, and while his brothers heeded the order, Jochi remained in Khorasan. Juzjani suggests that the disagreement arose from a quarrel between Jochi and his brothers in the siege of Urgench. Jochi had attempted to protect Urgench from destruction, as it belonged to territory allocated to him as a fief. He concludes his story with the clearly apocryphal statement by Jochi: "Genghis Khan is mad to have massacred so many people and laid waste so many lands. I would be doing a service if I killed my father when he is hunting, made an alliance with Sultan Muhammad, brought this land to life and gave assistance and support to the Muslims." Juzjani claims that it was in response to hearing of these plans that Genghis Khan ordered his son secretly poisoned; however, as Sultan Muhammad was already dead in 1223, the accuracy of this story is questionable.[9] Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... Urgench (Uzbek: Urganch / Урганч) is city (1989 pop. ...


Temüjin put absolute trust in generals, such as Muqali, Jebe and Subutai, and regarded them as brothers, often extending them the same privileges and trust normally reserved for close family members. He allowed them to make decisions on their own when they embarked on campaigns far from the Mongol Empire capital Karakorum. Temüjin also became blood brother (anda) with Jamuka, and they vowed to remain eternally faithful. Subutai (Mongolian: , Sübeedei; Classic Mongolian: Sübügätäi or Sübüätäi; 1176 to 1248) was the primary strategist and general of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. ... Harhorin (Хархорин), or Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian, is a town in Övörhangay aymag, Mongolia. ... The Norwegian warrior Orvar-Odd bids a last farewell to his blood brother, the Swedish warrior Hjalmar, by MÃ¥rten Eskil Winge (1866). ... Jamuqa was a Mongol military and political leader and the chief rival to Temüjin, later Genghis Khan, in the unification of the Mongol tribes. ...


Religion

Genghis Khan's religion is widely speculated to be Shamanism or Tengrism, which was very likely among nomadic Mongol-Turkic tribes of Central Asia. Later, Genghis Khan is said to have developed interest in Buddhist[citation needed] and Taoist teachings from China. One Taoist monk from the Quanzhen sect, Chang Chun (a.k.a. Qiu Chuji), who had rejected invitations from Song and Jin leaders, travelled more than 5000 kilometres to meet Genghis Khan near the Afghanistan border. Genghis Khan asked if the monk had secret medicine that could make him immortal. The monk's negative answer disheartened Genghis Khan, and he lost interest in the monk thereafter.[citation needed] This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... A diagram of the Tengriist World view on a Shamans Drum [1] [2]. The World-tree is growing in the centre and connecting the three Worlds Underworld, Middleworld and Upperworld. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... the Quanzhen School is an important school in Chinese Taoism. ... It has been suggested that Chang Chun be merged into this article or section. ...


Uniting the confederations

Eurasia in c. 1200. including Naimans, Merkits, Uyghurs, Mongols, and Keraits
Eurasia in c. 1200. including Naimans, Merkits, Uyghurs, Mongols, and Keraits

The Central Asian plateau (north of China) around the time of Temüjin was divided into several tribes or confederations, among them Naimans, Merkits, Uyghurs, Tatars, Mongols, Keraits that were all prominent in their own right and often unfriendly toward each other as evidenced by random raids, revenges, and plundering. Image File history File links Premongol. ... Image File history File links Premongol. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... The Naimans (Naiman also means eight in Mongolian) were a Mongol people dwelling on the steppe of central Asia, closely related to the Kara-Khitai, and subservient to them until 1177. ... The Merkit, Merged, or Mergid (Merged means wise ones, adept ones, skillful ones, (skillful) archers, or hunters in Mongolian) were a Mongol tribe with a fierce reputation that inhabited southeastern Siberia during the Middle Ages. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... A Mongol people (though some historians claim a Turkic origin) living in Central Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... This article is on the social structure. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... The Naimans (Naiman also means eight in Mongolian) were a Mongol people dwelling on the steppe of central Asia, closely related to the Kara-Khitai, and subservient to them until 1177. ... The Merkit, Merged, or Mergid (Merged means wise ones, adept ones, skillful ones, (skillful) archers, or hunters in Mongolian) were a Mongol tribe with a fierce reputation that inhabited southeastern Siberia during the Middle Ages. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... This article is about the people. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... A Mongol people (though some historians claim a Turkic origin) living in Central Asia. ...


Temüjin began his slow ascent to power by offering himself as an ally (or, according to others sources, a vassal) to his father's anda (sworn brother or blood brother) Toghrul, who was Khan of the Kerait, and is better known by the Chinese title Ong Khan (or "Wang Khan"), which the Jin Empire granted him in 1197. This relationship was first reinforced when Börte was captured by the Merkits; it was to Toghrul that Temüjin turned for support. In response, Toghrul offered his vassal 20,000 of his Kerait warriors and suggested that he also involve his childhood friend Jamuka, who had himself become Khan (ruler) of his own tribe, the Jadaran.[10] Although the campaign was successful and led to the recapture of Börte and utter defeat of the Merkits, it also paved the way for the split between the childhood friends, Temüjin and Jamuka. Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Norwegian warrior Orvar-Odd bids a last farewell to his blood brother, the Swedish warrior Hjalmar, by MÃ¥rten Eskil Winge (1866). ... Wang Khan, also Ong Khan, was the title given to the Kerait ruler Toghrul by the Jurchen Jin Dynasty of China. ... For the anti-Talmudic Jewish sect, see Karaite Judaism. ... Wang Khan, also Ong Khan, was the title given to the Kerait ruler Toghrul by the Jurchen Jin Dynasty of China. ... The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: JÄ«n 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ...


The main opponents of the Mongol confederation (traditionally the "Mongols") around 1200 were the Naimans to the west, the Merkits to the north, Tanguts to the south, the Jin and Tatars to the east. By 1190, Temüjin, his followers and advisors united the smaller Mongol confederation only. As an incentive for absolute obedience and following his rule of law, the Yassa code, Temüjin promised civilians and soldiers a wealth from future possible war spoils. Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... The Naimans (Naiman also means eight in Mongolian) were a Mongol people dwelling on the steppe of central Asia, closely related to the Kara-Khitai, and subservient to them until 1177. ... The Tangut were a Tibetan people, who moved to the highlands of western Sichuan sometime before the 10th century AD. Language Their script was derived from, though not identical, to Chinese characters. ... Jin may refer to: In Chinese history: Jin (廑), a ruler of the Xia dynasty (2033 BC–1562 BC) Jin (state) (746 BC-403 BC) (晉), a state in northern China during the Spring and Autumn Period Jin Dynasty, used to refer to a number of Chinese dynastic kingdoms: Jìn Dynasty... This article is about the people. ... Yassa, alternatively Yasa or Yasaq, is a written code of laws created by Genghis Khan. ...


Toghrul's (Wang Khan) son Senggum was jealous of Temüjin's growing power, and his affinity with his father. He allegedly planned to assassinate Temüjin. Toghrul, though allegedly saved on multiple occasions by Temüjin, gave in to his son[11] and became uncooperative with Temüjin. Temüjin learned of Senggum's intentions and eventually defeated him and his loyalists. One of the later ruptures between Toghrul and Temüjin was Toghrul's refusal to give his daughter in marriage to Jochi, the eldest son of Temüjin, a sign of disrespect in the Mongolian culture. This act led to the split between both factions, and was a prelude to war. Toghrul allied himself with Jamuka, who already opposed Temüjin's forces; however the internal dispute between Toghrul and Jamuka, plus the desertion of a number of their allies to Temüjin, led to Toghrul's defeat. Jamuka escaped during the conflict. This defeat was a catalyst for the fall and eventual dissemination of the Kerait tribe. Jochi (also spelled Jöchi) (c. ... Jamuqa was a Mongol military and political leader and the chief rival to Temüjin, later Genghis Khan, in the unification of the Mongol tribes. ... For the anti-Talmudic Jewish sect, see Karaite Judaism. ...

The next direct threat to Temüjin was the Naimans (Naiman Mongols), with whom Jamuka and his followers took refuge. The Naimans did not surrender, although enough sectors again voluntarily sided with Temüjin. In 1201, a kurultai elected Jamuka as Gur Khan, universal ruler, a title used by the rulers of the Kara-Khitan Khanate. Jamuka's assumption of this title was the final breach with Temüjin, and Jamuka formed a coalition of tribes to oppose him. Before the conflict, however, several generals abandoned Jamuka, including Subutai, Jelme's well-known younger brother. After several battles, Jamuka was finally turned over to Temüjin by his own men in 1206. Image File history File links Genghiskhantraditional. ... The Naimans (Naiman also means eight in Mongolian) were a Mongol people dwelling on the steppe of central Asia, closely related to the Kara-Khitai, and subservient to them until 1177. ... Look up refuge in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kurultai (Tatar: Qorıltay, Azerbaijani: Qurultay; Kurulmak meaning to assemble in Turkish, also Khural meaning meeting in Mongolian) is a political and military council of ancient Mongol and Turkic chiefs and khans. ... Jamuqa was a Mongol military and political leader and the chief rival to Temüjin, later Genghis Khan, in the unification of the Mongol tribes. ... Khan (Persian: خان) (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han, Polish Chan) is a title with many meanings, originally commander, leader or ruler, in Mongolian and Turkish. ... The Kara-Khitan Khanate (Simplified Chinese: 西辽; Traditional Chinese: 西遼; pinyin: XÄ« Liaó) (1124 or 1125-1218), also known as Western Liao was established by Yelü Dashi (耶律大石) who led around 100,000 Khitan remnants after escaping Jurchen conquest of their native country, the Khitan dynasty (also known as Liao Dynasty). ... Subutai (Mongolian: , Sübeedei; Classic Mongolian: Sübügätäi or Sübüätäi; 1176 to 1248) was the primary strategist and general of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. ...


According to the Secret History, Temüjin again offered his friendship to Jamuka, asking him to return to his side. Temüjin had killed the men who betrayed Jamuka, stating that he did not want disloyal men in his army. Jamuka refused the offer of friendship and reunion, saying that there can only be one Sun in the sky, and he asked for a noble death. The custom is to die without spilling blood, which is granted by breaking the back. Jamuka requested this form of death, despite the fact that in the past Jamuka had been infamously known to have boiled his opponent's generals alive. The rest of the Merkit clan that sided with the Naimans were defeated by Subutai, a member of Temüjin's personal guard who would later become one of the successful commanders of Genghis Khan. The Naimans' defeat left Genghis Khan as the sole ruler of the Mongol plains, which means all the prominent confederations fell and/or united under Temüjin's Mongol confederation. Accounts of Genghis Khan's life are marked by claims of a series of betrayals and conspiracies. These include rifts with his early allies such as Jamuka (who also wanted to be a ruler of Mongol tribes) and Wang Khan (his and his father's ally), his son Jochi, and problems with the most important Shaman who was allegedly trying break him up with brother Qasar who was serving Genghis Khan loyally. Many modern scholars doubt that all of the conspiracies existed and suggest that Genghis Khan was probably inclined towards paranoia as a result of his experiences.[citation needed] The Merkit, Merged, or Mergid (Merged means wise ones, adept ones, skillful ones, (skillful) archers, or hunters in Mongolian) were a Mongol tribe with a fierce reputation that inhabited southeastern Siberia during the Middle Ages. ... The Naimans (Naiman also means eight in Mongolian) were a Mongol people dwelling on the steppe of central Asia, closely related to the Kara-Khitai, and subservient to them until 1177. ... Subutai (Mongolian: , Sübeedei; Classic Mongolian: Sübügätäi or Sübüätäi; 1176 to 1248) was the primary strategist and general of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ...


His military strategies showed a deep interest in gathering good intelligence and understanding the motivations of his rivals as exemplified by his extensive spy network and Yam route systems. He seemed to be a quick student, adopting new technologies and ideas that he encountered, such as siege warfare from the Chinese. Many legends claim that Genghis Khan always was in the front in battles, but these may not be historically accurate. This article is about real and historical warfare. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior. ... Yam is a supply point route messenger system developed by Genghis Khan. ... A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ...


As a result by 1206 Temüjin had managed to unite the Merkits, Naimans, Mongols, Uyghurs, Keraits, Tatars and disparate other smaller tribes under his rule. It was a monumental feat for the "Mongols" (as they became known collectively) At a Kurultai, a council of Mongol chiefs, he was acknowledged as "Khan" of the consolidated tribes and took the new title "Genghis Khan". The title Khagan was not conferred on Genghis until after his death, when his son and successor, Ögedei took the title for himself and extended it posthumously to his father (as he was also to be posthumously declared the founder of the Yuan Dynasty). This unification of all confederations by Genghis Khan established peace between previously warring tribes and a single political and military force under Genghis Khan. Temüjin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... The Merkit, Merged, or Mergid (Merged means wise ones, adept ones, skillful ones, (skillful) archers, or hunters in Mongolian) were a Mongol tribe with a fierce reputation that inhabited southeastern Siberia during the Middle Ages. ... The Naimans (Naiman also means eight in Mongolian) were a Mongol people dwelling on the steppe of central Asia, closely related to the Kara-Khitai, and subservient to them until 1177. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... A Mongol people (though some historians claim a Turkic origin) living in Central Asia. ... This article is about the people. ... Kurultai (Tatar: Qorıltay, Azerbaijani: Qurultay; Kurulmak meaning to assemble in Turkish, also Khural meaning meeting in Mongolian) is a political and military council of ancient Mongol and Turkic chiefs and khans. ... This article is about the title. ... This article is about the title. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, KaÄŸan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often...

See also: Mongols before Genghis Khan and Mongols

// Archaeological evidence places early Stone Age human habitation in the southern Gobi between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ...

Expansion and military campaigns

See also: Mongol invasions

Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237...

Conquest of the Western Xia Dynasty

Main article: Mongol Nation
All significant conquests and movements of Genghis Khan and his generals during his life time.
All significant conquests and movements of Genghis Khan and his generals during his life time.

During the 1206 political rise for Genghis Khan, the Mongol nation or Mongol Empire created by Genghis Khan and his allies was neighboured to the west by the Tanguts' Western Xia Dynasty. To its east and south was the Jin Dynasty, founded by the Manchurian Jurchens, who ruled northern China as well as being the traditional overlord of the Mongolian tribes for centuries. Mongol Nation is a term sometimes widely used to refer to the unified administrative rule of Central Asian confederations by Genghis Khan who was the most successful. ... Image File history File links Gengis_Khan_empire-fr. ... Image File history File links Gengis_Khan_empire-fr. ... Temüjin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... Mongol Nation is a term sometimes widely used to refer to the unified administrative rule of Central Asian confederations by Genghis Khan who was the most successful. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... The Tangut, also known as the Western Xia were a Qiangic-Tibetan people who moved to the highlands of western Sichuan sometime before the 10th century AD. They spoke Tangut language a now-extinct Tibeto-Burman language. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ... The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ...


Temüjin organized his people, army, and his state to first prepare for war with Western Xia, or Xi Xia, which was closer to the Mongolian lands. He correctly believed that the more powerful Jin Dynasty's young ruler would not come to the aid of Xi Xia. When the Tanguts requested help from the Jin Dynasty, they were flatly refused.[11] Despite initial difficulties in capturing its well-defended cities, Genghis Khan forced the surrender of Western Xia by 1209.


Conquest of the Jin Dynasty

Main articles: Jin Dynasty, 1115–1234 and Yuan Dynasty

In 1211, after the conquest of Western Xia, Genghis Khan planned again to conquer the Jin Dynasty. The commander of the Jin Dynasty army made a tactical mistake in not attacking the Mongols at the first opportunity. Instead, the Jin commander sent a messenger, Ming-Tan, to the Mongol side, who promptly defected and told the Mongols that the Jin army was waiting on the other side of the pass. At this engagement fought at Badger Pass the Mongols massacred thousands of Jin troops. In 1215 Genghis besieged, captured, and sacked the Jin capital of Yanjing (later known as Beijing). This forced the Emperor Xuanzong to move his capital south to Kaifeng, abandoning the northern half of his kingdom to the Mongols. The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Location of Jin Capital Huining (1122-1153) Zhongdu (1153-1214) Kaifeng (1214-1233) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1115-1123 Emperor Taizu  - 1234 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1115  - Ended Liaos rule 1125  - Captured Bianliang January 9, 1127  - Fall of Caizhou February 9, 1234 The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Manchu: Aisin... Peking redirects here. ... Emperor Xuanzong of Jin (r. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: KāifÄ“ng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Defeat of the Kara-Khitan Khanate

Main article: Kara-Khitan Khanate
Map of part Kara-Khitan Khanate on top right
Map of part Kara-Khitan Khanate on top right

Kuchlug, the deposed Khan of the Naiman confederation that Temüjin defeated and folded into the Mongol nation, fled west usurped the khanate of Kara-Khitan (also known as Kara Kitay). Genghis Khan decided to conquer the Kara-Khitan khanate and defeat Kuchlug possibly to take him out of power. By this time the Mongol army was exhausted from ten years of continuous campaigning in China against the Western Xia and Jin Dynasty. Therefore, Genghis sent only two tumen (20,000 soldiers) against Kuchlug, under his younger general, Jebe, known as "The Arrow". The Kara-Khitan Khanate (Simplified Chinese: 西辽; Traditional Chinese: 西遼; pinyin: XÄ« Liaó) (1124 or 1125-1218), also known as Western Liao was established by Yelü Dashi (耶律大石) who led around 100,000 Khitan remnants after escaping Jurchen conquest of their native country, the Khitan dynasty (also known as Liao Dynasty). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (667x621, 30 KB) Summary The Middle East, c. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (667x621, 30 KB) Summary The Middle East, c. ... Map of Asia and Europe circa 1200 C.E. Kuchlug (also spelled Küchlüg) was a member of the Naiman tribe of western Mongolia. ... This article is about the title. ... The Naimans (Naiman also means eight in Mongolian) were a Mongol people dwelling on the steppe of central Asia, closely related to the Kara-Khitai, and subservient to them until 1177. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... The Kara-Khitan Khanate (Simplified Chinese: 西辽; Traditional Chinese: 西遼; pinyin: XÄ« Liaó) (1124 or 1125-1218), also known as Western Liao was established by Yelü Dashi (耶律大石) who led around 100,000 Khitan remnants after escaping Jurchen conquest of their native country, the Khitan dynasty (also known as Liao Dynasty). ... Map of Asia and Europe circa 1200 C.E. Kuchlug (also spelled Küchlüg) was a member of the Naiman tribe of western Mongolia. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ... Location of Jin Capital Huining (1122-1153) Zhongdu (1153-1214) Kaifeng (1214-1233) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1115-1123 Emperor Taizu  - 1234 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1115  - Ended Liaos rule 1125  - Captured Bianliang January 9, 1127  - Fall of Caizhou February 9, 1234 The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Manchu: Aisin... Tumen was the part of decimal system used by Turkic, Proto-Turkic (such as the Huns) and by Mongol peoples for their army. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


With such a small force, the invading Mongols were forced to change strategies and resort to inciting internal revolt among Kuchlug's supporters, leaving the Khara-Khitan khanate more vulnerable to Mongol conquest. As a result, Kuchlug's army was defeated west of Kashgar. Kuchlug fled again, but was soon hunted down by Jebe's army and executed. By 1218, as a result of defeat of Kara-Khitan khanate, the Mongol Empire and its control extended as far west as Lake Balkhash, which bordered the Khwarezmia (Khwarezmid Empire), a Muslim state that reached the Caspian Sea to the west and Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea to the south. Cascar redirects here. ... Lake Balkhash from space, April 1991 Lake Balkhash: NASA image, taken 18 April 2000 by SeaWiFS Lake Balkhash, or Lake Balqash, is a large lake in southeastern Kazakhstan, the second largest in Central Asia after the Aral Sea. ... Khwarezmia (also with various alternate spellings, including Chorasmia and Khorezm) was a state located on what was then the coast of the Aral Sea, including modern Karakalpakstan across the Ust-Urt plateau and perhaps extending to as far west as the eastern shores of the North Caspian Sea. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia...


Destruction of the Khwarezmid Empire

Khwarezmid Empire (1190–1220)
Khwarezmid Empire (1190–1220)

At this time the Khwarezmian Dynasty was governed by Shah Ala ad-Din Muhammad. Genghis Khan saw the potential advantage in Khwarezmia as a commercial trading partner, and, instead of sending an invasion force, he initially sent a 500-man caravan to establish trade ties with the empire. However, Inalchuq, the governor of the Khwarezmian city of Otrar, attacked the caravan that came from Mongolia, claiming that the caravan was a conspiracy against Khwarezmia. The situation became more complicated as the governor later refused to make repayments for the looting of the caravan and murder of its members. Genghis Khan then sent again a second group of ambassadors to meet the Shah himself. The Shah had all the men shaved and all but one beheaded. This was seen as an affront and insult to Genghis Khan. Outraged, Genghis Khan planned one of his largest invasion campaigns by organizing together around 200,000 soldiers (20 tumens), his most capable generals and some of his sons. Combatants Mongol Empire Khwarezmia Commanders Genghis Khan, Jochi, Chaghatai, Ögodei, Tolui, Subutai, Jebe, Jelme, Mukali, Khubilai, Kasar, Boorchu, Sorkin-shara Ala ad-Din Muhammad, Jalal Al-Din, Inalchuq† (executed) Strength 100,000-200,000 mounted archers, with powerful siege engines 400,000 men, however not organized into armies, only city... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Ala ad-Din Muhammad II (علاءالدين محمد ʿAlā al-Dīn Muḥammad) was the ruler of the Khwarezmid Empire from 1200 to 1220. ... A camel train is a series of camels carrying goods or passengers in a group as part of a regular or semi-regular service between two points. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... Tumen was the part of decimal system used by Turkic, Proto-Turkic (such as the Huns) and by Mongol peoples for their army. ...


The Mongol army under personal command of Genghis Khan, generals and son(s) crossed the Tien Shan mountains by entering the area controlled by the Khwarezmid Empire. After compiling intelligence from many sources Genghis Khan carefully prepared his army, which was divided into three groups. His son Jochi led the first division into the northeast of Khwarezmia. The second division under Jebe marched secretly to the southeast part of Khwarzemia to form, with the first division, a pincer attack on Samarkand. The third division under Genghis Khan and Tolui marched to the northwest and attacked Khwarzemia from that direction. Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Jochi (also spelled Jöchi) (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A pincer movement whereby the red force envelops the advancing blue force. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Tolui,also rendered Toluy or Tolui Khan (Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 1190–1232), was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. ...


The Shah's army was split by diverse internal disquisitions and by the Shah's decision to divide his army into small groups concentrated in various cities This fragmentation was decisive in Khwarezmia's defeats, as it allowed the Mongols, although exhausted from the long journey, to immediately set about defeating small fractions of the Khwarzemi forces instead of facing a unified defense. The Mongol army quickly seized the town of Otrar, relying on superior strategy and tactics. Genghis Khan ordered the execution of many of the inhabitants and executed Inalchuq by pouring molten silver into his ears and eyes, as retribution for his actions. Near the end of the battle the Shah fled rather than surrender. Genghis Khan charged Subutai and Jebe with hunting him down, giving them two years and 20,000 men. The Shah died under mysterious circumstances on a small island within his empire. This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Subutai (Mongolian: , Sübeedei; Classic Mongolian: Sübügätäi or Sübüätäi; 1176 to 1248) was the primary strategist and general of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. ...


The Mongols' conquest, even by their own standards, was relatively brutal. After the capital Samarkand fell, the capital was moved to Bukhara by the remaining men, and Genghis Khan dedicated two of his generals and their forces to completely destroying the remnants of the Khwarezmid Empire, including not only royal buildings, but entire towns and even vast swaths of farmland. According to stories, Genghis Khan even went so far as to divert a river through the Khwarezmid emperor's birthplace, erasing it from the map. Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ...


The heir Shah Jalal Al-Din, who was supported by a nearby town, battled the Mongols several times with his father's armies. However, internal disputes once again split his forces apart, and they were forced to flee Bukhara after yet another devastating defeat, effectively bringing the Khwarezmid Empire to an end. For other uses, see inheritance (disambiguation). ... Jalal ad-Din Manguberdi (also جلال الدین منکبرنی Jalāl al-Dīn Menguberdī or Mankburny) was the last ruler of the Khwarezmid Empire. ...


In the meantime, Genghis Khan selected his third son Ögedei as his successor before his army set out, and specified that subsequent Khans should be his direct descendants. Genghis Khan also left Muqali, one of his most trusted generals, as the supreme commander of all Mongol forces in Jin China while he was out battling the Khwarezmid Empire to the west. Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... Muqali was one of the greatest general under Genghis Khan. ...


Attacks on Georgia and Volga Bulgaria

Georgia at the eve of reconnaissance by Subutai and Jebe generals

After the complete defeat of the Khwarezmid Empire in 1220, the Mongol army was split into two component forces. Genghis Khan led a division on a raid through Afghanistan and northern India, while another contingent marched through the Caucasus and into Russia. As Genghis Khan gathered his forces in Persia and Armenia to return to the Mongolian steppes, the second force of 20,000 troops (two tumen), commanded by generals Jebe and Subutai, pushed deep into Armenia and Azerbaijan. The Mongols destroyed Georgia, sacked the Genoese trade-fortress of Caffa in Crimea, and overwintered near the Black Sea. Heading home, Subutai's forces attacked the Kipchaks and were intercepted by the allied but poorly coordinated troops of Mstislav the Bold of Halych and Mstislav III of Kiev, along with about 80,000 Kievan Rus' to stop their actions. Subutai sent emissaries to the Slavic princes calling for a separate peace, but the emissaries were executed. At the Battle of Kalka River in 1223, Subutai's forces defeated the larger Kievan force, while losing the battle of Samara Bend against the neighboring Volga Bulgars.[12] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x1205, 79 KB) Kingdom of Georgia under Queen Thamar, 12th century Copyright©2004 Andrew Andersen Source: Atlas of Conflicts File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1350x1205, 79 KB) Kingdom of Georgia under Queen Thamar, 12th century Copyright©2004 Andrew Andersen Source: Atlas of Conflicts File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The medieval kingdom of Georgia first clashed with the advancing Mongol armies in 1220. ... The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Motto: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1 Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian, Constitutional status for regional languages such as Azeri and Kurdish [1] Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Subutai (Mongolian: , Sübeedei; Classic Mongolian: Sübügätäi or Sübüätäi; 1176 to 1248) was the primary strategist and general of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... Feodosiya (Russian: Феодосия; Ukrainian: Феодосія; Crimean Tatar/Turkish: Kefe) is a port and resort city in southern Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast of Crimea at coordinates 45. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ... Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold (Russian: ) was one of the most popular and active princes of Kievan Rus in the decades preceding Mongol invasion of Rus. ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... Mstislav Romanovich the Old (Мстислав Романович Старый in Russian) (? - 1223), Prince of Pskov (1179 - ?), Smolensk (1197 - ?), Bilhorod, presently Bilohorodka (1206), Halych (? - ?) and Grand prince of Kiev (1212-1223). ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Subutai (Mongolian: , Sübeedei; Classic Mongolian: Sübügätäi or Sübüätäi; 1176 to 1248) was the primary strategist and general of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. ... Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... Battle of Kalka River (31st May, 1223 N.S.) was the first military engagement between the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan and the East Slavic warriors. ... Combatants Volga Bulgaria Mongols Commanders Ghabdulla Chelbir Subutai, Jebe Strength N/A 50,000 Casualties N/A 4,000 survived The Battle of Samara Bend or the Battle of Kernek was the first battle between Volga Bulgaria and the Mongols, probably the first major battle the Mongols lost. ...


The Mongols learned from captives of the abundant green pastures beyond the Bulgar territory, allowing for the planning for conquest of Hungary and Europe. The Russian princes then sued for peace. Subutai agreed but was in no mood to pardon the princes. As was customary in Mongol society for nobility, the Russian princes were given a bloodless death. Subutai had a large wooden platform constructed on which he ate his meals along with his other generals. Six Russian princes, including Mstislav III of Kiev, were put under this platform and crushed to death. Subutai (Mongolian: , Sübeedei; Classic Mongolian: Sübügätäi or Sübüätäi; 1176 to 1248) was the primary strategist and general of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. ... Mstislav Romanovich the Old (Мстислав Романович Старый in Russian) (? - 1223), Prince of Pskov (1179 - ?), Smolensk (1197 - ?), Bilhorod, presently Bilohorodka (1206), Halych (? - ?) and Grand prince of Kiev (1212-1223). ...


Genghis Khan recalled Subutai back to Mongolia soon afterwards, and Jebe died on the road back to Samarkand. Subutai and Jebe's famous cavalry expedition, in which they encircled the entire Caspian Sea defeating all armies in their path, except for that of the Volga Bulgars, remains unparalleled to this day, and word of the Mongol triumphs began to trickle to other nations, particularly Europe.


These two campaigns are generally regarded as reconnaissance campaigns that tried to get the feel of the political and cultural elements of the regions. In 1225 both divisions returned to Mongolia. These invasions ultimately added Transoxiana and Persia to an already formidable empire while destroying any resistance along the way. Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Motto: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1 Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian, Constitutional status for regional languages such as Azeri and Kurdish [1] Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President...


Under Genghis Khan's grandson Batu and Golden Horde, the Mongols returned to definitively conquer Volga Bulgaria and the Kievan Rus in 1237, concluding the campaign in 1240. The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ...


Second war with the Western Xia and Jin Dynasty coalition

Main articles: Jin Dynasty, 1115–1234 and Yuan Dynasty

The vassal emperor of the Tanguts (Western Xia) had refused to take part in the war against the Khwarezmid Empire. While most of the Mongol forces under Genghis Khan and his generals were out on campaign against the Khwarezmid Empire, the Western Xia and defeated Jin Dynasty formed a coalition to resist the Mongols, counting on the campaign against the Khwarezmids to drain the Mongols' ability to respond effectively. Their cause was further emboldened by the Khan's expeditions further west, which had drawn the bulk of his army off into prolonged campaigns in Persia and Eastern Europe. The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Image File history File linksMetadata China_11b. ... Image File history File linksMetadata China_11b. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ... The Jin Dynasty (金 pinyin: Jīn 1115-1234; Anchu in Jurchen), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... Dali (大理 pinyin: Dàlǐ) was a Bai kingdom centered in what is now Yunnan Province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Sutoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Konoe ascends to the throne of Japan Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony Births Farid od-Din Mohammad ebn Ebrahim Attar, Persian mystical poet (died 1220) Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (died 1192) Bornin1142, a GameFAQs user... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ...


In 1226, immediately after returning from the east, Genghis Khan began a retaliatory attack on the Tanguts. His armies quickly took Heisui, Ganzhou and Suzhou (not the Suzhou in Jiangsu province), and in the autumn he took Xiliang-fu. One of the Tangut generals challenged the Mongols to a battle near Helanshan, but was soundly defeated. In November, Genghis laid siege to the Tangut city Lingzhou, and crossed the Yellow River, defeating the Tangut relief army. According to legend, it was here that Genghis Khan reportedly saw a line of five stars arranged in the sky, and interpreted it as an omen of his victory. The Tangut, also known as the Western Xia were a Qiangic-Tibetan people who moved to the highlands of western Sichuan sometime before the 10th century AD. They spoke Tangut language a now-extinct Tibeto-Burman language. ... Ganzhou (赣州) is a municipal unit, equivalent to a prefecture-level city in Jiangxi province, China. ... The Western Liang (Chinese: 西凉; Pinyin: XÄ« Liáng; 400-421) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Helan Shan (Chinese: ) is a mountain range forming the border of Inner Mongolia and Ningxia, rising to some 3360 m. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lingwu. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ...


In 1227, Genghis Khan's army attacked and destroyed the Tangut capital of Ning Hia, and continued to advance, seizing Lintiao-fu, Xining province, Xindu-fu, and Deshun province in quick succession in the Spring. At Deshun, the Tangut general Ma Jianlong put up a fierce resistance for several days and personally led charges against the invaders outside the city gate. Ma Jianlong later died from wounds received from arrows in battle. Genghis Khan, after conquering Deshun, went to Liupanshan (Qingshui County, Gansu Province) to escape the severe summer. The new Tangut emperor quickly surrendered to the Mongols, and the rest of the Tanguts officially surrendered soon after. Not happy with their betrayal and resistance, Genghis Khan ordered the entire imperial family to be executed, effectively ending the Tangut lineage. Location of Xining Xining (Simplified Chinese : 西宁, Traditional Chinese : 西寧, Tibetan : Ziling) is the capital of Qinghai Province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Death and burial

Main article: Tomb of Genghis Khan
Mongol Empire in 1227 at Genghis Khan's death
Mongol Empire in 1227 at Genghis Khan's death

In 1227, after defeating the Tangut people, Genghis Khan died (according to The Secret History of the Mongols). The reason for his death is uncertain and speculations abound. Some histories maintain that he fell off his horse due to old age and physical fatigue, ultimately dying of his injuries.[13] Others contend that he was felled by a protracted illness such as pneumonia. The Galician-Volhynian Chronicle alleges he was killed by the Tanguts in battle. Later Mongol chronicles connect Genghis' death with a Tangut princess taken as war booty. One chronicle from the early 17th century even relates that the princess hid a small pair of pliers inside her vagina, and hurt the Great Khan so badly that he died. Some Mongol authors have doubted this version and suspected it to be an invention by the rival Oirads.[14] The Onon river, Mongolia in fall, a site where Temujin was born and grew up. ... Image File history File links from german wikipedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links from german wikipedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... The Galician-Volhynian Chronicle is a historical record covering 1201–1291 in the history of the Principality of Galicia-Volhynia (modern Ukraine). ... The Tangut, also known as the Western Xia were a Qiangic-Tibetan people who moved to the highlands of western Sichuan sometime before the 10th century AD. They spoke Tangut language a now-extinct Tibeto-Burman language. ... The Oyirad (also spelled Oirat) is an alliance of the western Mongols. ...


Genghis Khan asked to be buried without markings, according the customs of his tribe. After he died, his body was returned to Mongolia and presumably to his birthplace in Khentii Aimag, where many assume he is buried somewhere close to the Onon River and the Burkhan Khaldun mountain (part of the Kentii mountain range). According to legend, the funeral escort killed anyone and anything across their path to conceal where he was finally buried. The Genghis Khan Mausoleum, constructed many years after his death, is his memorial, but not his burial site. Founded 1930 Capital Öndörkhaan Area 80,300 km² Population  â€¢ Total (2004)  â€¢ Density 71,200 0. ... Onon gol is a river in Mongolia and Russia of length 818 km and watershed 94,010 sq. ... The Burkhan Khaldun (Mongolian: ; ) is a mountain of the Khentii Mountains in the Khentii aimag of Mongolia. ... The Mausoleum of Genghis Khan (成吉思汗陵) is located along a river in Kandehuo Enclosure, Xinjie Township, Ejen Khoruu Banner, Ordos Prefecture-Level City (formerly Yeke Juu league) (鄂尔多斯市伊金霍洛旗新街鎮甘德爾敖包), Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China. ...


On October 6, 2004, a joint Japanese-Mongolian archaeological dig uncovered what is believed to be Genghis Khan's palace in rural Mongolia, which raises the possibility of actually locating the ruler's long-lost burial site.[15] Folklore says that a river was diverted over his grave to make it impossible to find (the same manner of burial of Sumerian King Gilgamesh of Uruk.) Other tales state that his grave was stampeded over by many horses, over which trees were then planted, and the permafrost also did its bit in hiding the burial site. is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ...


Genghis Khan left behind an army of more than 129,000 men; 28,000 were given to his various brothers and his sons. Tolui, his youngest son, inherited more than 100,000 men. This force contained the bulk of the elite Mongolian cavalry. By tradition, the youngest son inherits his father's property. Jochi, Chagatai, Ögedei Khan, and Kulan's son Gelejian received armies of 4,000 men each. His mother and the descendants of his three brothers received 3,000 men each. Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Jochi (also spelled Jöchi) (c. ... Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings ÇaÄŸatay in Turkic Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Chaghtai) was the second son of Genghis Khan. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ...


Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan

Main article: Mongol Empire

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ...

Politics and economics

The Mongol Empire was governed by a civilian and military code, called the Yassa, created by Genghis Khan. The Mongol Empire did not emphasize the importance of ethnicity and race in the administrative realm, instead adopting an approach grounded in meritocracy. The exception was the role of Genghis Khan and his family. The Mongol Empire was one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse empires in history, as befitted its size. Many of the empire's nomadic inhabitants considered themselves Mongols in military and civilian life, including Turks, Mongols, and others and included many diverse Khans of various ethnicities as part of the Mongol Empire such as Muhammad Khan. // Main article: Pax Mongolica In the face of the ethnic, religious and tribal diversity of the civilians and soldiers of the Mongol Empire, which eventually included modern day Persians, Chinese and many Turkic peoples, Genghis Khan insisted on focusing all loyalty on himself as Great Khan and no others. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... In communications, a code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, or phrase) into another form or representation, not necessarily of the same type. ... Yassa, alternatively Yasa or Yasaq, is a written code of laws created by Genghis Khan. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... For other uses, see Race. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein appointments are made *who* makes the appointments - ultimately, it is the people (all members of the group). ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Khan (sometimes spelled as xan, han) is a title meaning ruler in Mongolian and Turkish. ... Muhammad Khan (d. ...


There were tax exemptions for religious figures and, to some extent, teachers and doctors. The Mongol Empire practiced religious tolerance to a large degree because Mongol tradition had long held that religion was a very personal concept, and not subject to law or interference. Sometime before the rise of Genghis Khan, Ong Khan, his mentor and eventual rival, had converted to Nestorian Christianity. Various Mongol tribes were Buddhist, Muslim, shamanist or Christian. Religious tolerance was a well established concept on the Asian steppe. Taxes redirects here. ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ...


Modern Mongolian historians say that towards the end of his life, Genghis Khan attempted to create a civil state under the Great Yassa that would have established the legal equality of all individuals, including women.[16] However, there is no contemporary evidence of this, or of the lifting of discriminatory policies towards sedentary peoples such as the Chinese. Women played a relatively important role in Mongol Empire and in family, for example Torogene Khatun was briefly in charge of the Mongol Empire when next male Khagan was being chosen. Modern scholars refer to the alleged policy of encouraging trade and communication as the Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace). In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, Kağan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often... The Pax Mongolica or Mongol Peace is a phrase coined by Western scholars to describe the effect of the conquest of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants in the 13th and 14th centuries. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ...


Genghis Khan realised that he needed people who could govern cities and states conquered by him. He also realised that such administrators could not be found among his Mongol people because they were nomads and thus had no experience governing cities. For this purpose Genghis Khan invited a Khitan prince, Chu'Tsai, who worked for the Jin and had been captured by Mongol army after the Jin Dynasty were defeated. Jin had captured power by displacing Khitan. Genghis told Chu'Tsai, who was a lineal descendant of Khitan rulers, that he had avenged Chu'Tsai's forefathers. Chu'Tsai responded that his father served the Jin Dynasty honestly and so did he; he did not consider his own father his enemy, so the question of revenge did not apply. Genghis Khan was very impressed by this reply. Chu'Tsai administered parts of the Mongol Empire and became a confidant of the successive Mongol Khans. The Khitan (or Khitai, Chinese: ; pinyin: Qìdān) were an ethnic group which dominated much of Manchuria in the 11th century and has been classified by Chinese historians as one of the Eastern proto-Mongolic ethnic groups Donghu (東胡族 dōng hú zú). They established the Liao Dynasty in 907... Yelü Chucai (1189-1243) was a member of the Khitan royal family who became the chief adviser of Genghis Khan. ...

Reenactment of Mongol military movement.

Genghis Khan expected unwavering loyalty from his generals, and granted them a great deal of autonomy in making command decisions. Muqali, a trusted general, was given command of the Mongol forces against the Jin Dynasty while Genghis Khan was fighting in Central Asia, and Subutai and Jebe were allowed to pursue the Great Raid into the Caucausus and Kievan Rus, an idea they had presented to the Khagan on their own initiative. The Mongol military also was successful in siege warfare, cutting off resources for cities and towns by diverting certain rivers, taking enemy prisoners and driving them in front of the army, and adopting new ideas, techniques and tools from the people they conquered, particularly in employing Muslim and Chinese siege engines and engineers to aid the Mongol cavalry in capturing cities. Also one of the standard tactics of the Mongol military was the commonly practiced feigned retreat to break enemy formations and to lure small enemy groups away from the larger group and defended position for ambush and counterattack. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 901 KB) Summary own work; release all rights Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 901 KB) Summary own work; release all rights Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Subutai (Mongolian: , Sübeedei; Classic Mongolian: Sübügätäi or Sübüätäi; 1176 to 1248) was the primary strategist and general of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the city of Kiev (ru: Ки́ев, Kiev; uk: Ки́їв, Kyiv), from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... Tactics is the collective name for methods of winning a small-scale conflict, performing an optimization, etc. ... Definition Withdrawing is the act of removing all or part of a military force from combat and moving to a safe location. ... An ambush is a long established military tactic in which an ambushing force uses concealment to attack an enemy that passes its position. ... For other uses, see Counterattack (disambiguation). ...


Another important aspect of the military organization of Genghis Khan was the communications and supply route or Yam, adapted from previous Chinese models. Genghis Khan dedicated special attention to this in order to speed up the gathering of military intelligence and official communications. To this end, Yam waystations were established all over the empire. For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Transport (disambiguation). ... Look up supply in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Yam is a supply point route messenger system developed by Genghis Khan. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ...


Division of the Empire into Khanates

Before his death, Genghis Khan divided his empire among his sons Ögedei, Chagatai, Tolui, and Jochi (Jochi's death several months before Genghis Khan meant that his lands were instead split between his sons, Batu and Orda) into several Khanates designed as sub-territories: their Khans were expected to follow the Great Khan, who was, initially, Ögedei. Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings ÇaÄŸatay in Turkic Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Chaghtai) was the second son of Genghis Khan. ... Tolui,also rendered Toluy or Tolui Khan (Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 1190–1232), was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. ... Jochi (also spelled Jöchi) (c. ... Batu Khan (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Chinese: ) (c. ... Orda was a Mongol khan, the eldest grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Jöchi and the founder of White Horde. ... This article is about the title. ... KHAGAN, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc, is a title of royal or imperial rank in Mongolian and Turkic languages. ...

Modern day location of capital Kharakhorum
Modern day location of capital Kharakhorum

Following are the Khanates in the way in which Genghis Khan assigned after his death: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x283, 41 KB) Summary From german wikipedia Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x283, 41 KB) Summary From german wikipedia Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Harhorin (Хархорин), or Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian, is a town in Övörhangay aymag, Mongolia. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ...

See also: List of Mongol Khans

Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan (1215 - 1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260-1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279-1294) of the Yuan Dynasty. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Harhorin (Хархорин), or Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian, is a town in Övörhangay aymag, Mongolia. ... Tolui,also rendered Toluy or Tolui Khan (Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 1190–1232), was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. ... Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings ÇaÄŸatay in Turkic Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Chaghtai) was the second son of Genghis Khan. ... Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings ÇaÄŸatay in Turkic Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Chaghtai) was the second son of Genghis Khan. ... Blue Horde was one of descendat states which formed around 1227 as the Mongol Empire desintegrated. ... Batu Khan (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Chinese: ) (c. ... The White Horde was a the name of a Mongolian state of the 14th century. ... Orda was a Mongol khan, the eldest grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Jöchi and the founder of White Horde. ... The Golden Horde (also known as Kipchak or Qipchaq Khanate) was a Tatar state established in present day Russia by unification of Blue Horde and White Horde around 1378. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Tokhtamysh (d. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Batu Khan (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Chinese: ) (c. ... This is the list of Mongol Khans and Khagans. ...

After Genghis Khan

Next Khagan, Ögedei Khan, son of Genghis Khan.
Next Khagan, Ögedei Khan, son of Genghis Khan.

Contrary to popular belief, Genghis Khan did not conquer all of the areas of Mongol Empire. At the time of his death, the Mongol Empire stretched from the Caspian Sea to the Sea of Japan. The empire's expansion continued for a generation or more after Genghis's death in 1227. Under Genghis's successor Ögedei Khan the speed of expansion reached its peak. Mongol armies pushed into Persia, finished off the Xi Xia and the remnants of the Khwarezmids, and came into conflict with the imperial Song Dynasty of China, starting a war that would last until 1279 and that would conclude with the Mongols gaining control of all of China. Image File history File links Ogadai_Khan. ... Image File history File links Ogadai_Khan. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, KaÄŸan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bordered by Japan, Korea and Russia. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ...


Perceptions and legacy

Like other notable conquerors Genghis Khan's portrayal differs from those he conquered, as opposed to those who conquered with him.


Positive perception of Genghis Khan

Negative views of Genghis Khan are very persistent with histories written by many different cultures, from various different geographical regions. They often cite the cruelties and destructions brought upon by Mongol armies. However, other authors cite positive aspects of Genghis Khan's conquests. Genghis Khan is credited with bringing the Silk Road under one cohesive political environment. This allowed increased communication and trade between the West, Middle East and Asia by expanding the horizon of all three areas. Some historians have noted that Genghis Khan instituted certain levels of meritocracy in his rule, and was tolerant of different religions.[citations needed] In much of modern-day Turkey, Genghis Khan is looked on as a great military leader, and it is popular for male children to carry his title as name.[17] For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ... Occident redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Horizon. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein appointments are made *who* makes the appointments - ultimately, it is the people (all members of the group). ...


Genghis Khan as an icon in Mongolia

Statue of Genghis Khan in front of the government building in Sukhbaatar Square in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Statue of Genghis Khan in front of the government building in Sukhbaatar Square in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Equestrian statue of Genghis Khan, the largest (40 metres tall) in the world, near Ulaanbaatar city, Mongolia. There is a lift in the tail of the horse and stairs along its neck leading to the head where the surroundings are observed. The monument was designed by D. Erdembileg.

Traditionally Genghis Khan had been revered for centuries among the Mongols, and also among other ethnic groups like the Turks, largely because of his association with Mongol statehood, political and military organization, and his historic victories in war. He eventually evolved into a larger-than-life figure chiefly among the Mongols. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 1702 KB) Mongolia Parliament Building, Sühbaatar Square, Ulan Bator, Mongolia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 1702 KB) Mongolia Parliament Building, Sühbaatar Square, Ulan Bator, Mongolia. ... Sukhbaatar Square is a public square in capital Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia in front of the government building and the parliament State Great Hural. ... September 2004 Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар, [Ulaɣan Baɣatar]) in Mongolian, is the capital of Mongolia. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Apotheosis of Saint Louis by Charles H. Niehaus In sculpture, an equestrian (from the Latin equus meaning horse) is a statue consisting of a horse with mounted rider. ...


During the communist period, Genghis Khan was often described as reactionary, and positive statements about him were generally avoided.[18] In 1962, the erection of a monument at his birthplace and a conference held in commemoration of his 800th birthday led to criticism from the Soviet Union, and resulted in the dismissal of Tömör-Ochir, a secretary of the ruling Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party Central Committee. In the early 1990s, when democracy was established in Mongolia, the memory of Genghis Khan with the Mongolian traditional national identity has had a powerful revival. Genghis Khan became the central figure of the national identity. He is now a source of pride for Mongolians with ties to their historic roots. For example, it is not uncommon for Mongolians to refer to Mongolia as "Genghis Khan's Mongolia," to themselves as "Genghis Khan's children," and to Genghis Khan as the "father of the Mongols" especially among the younger generation. His name and likeness are endorsed on products, streets, buildings, and other places. His face can be found on everyday commodities, from liquors to the largest denominations of 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 Mongolian tögrög (₮). Mongolia's main international airport has been renamed Chinggis Khaan International Airport, and major Genghis Khan statues have been erected before the parliament[19] and near Ulaanbaatar. There have been repeated discussions about regulating the use of his name and image to avoid trivialization.[20] In summary, Mongolians see him as the fundamental figure in the founding of the Mongol Empire, and therefore the basis for Mongolia as a country. Official logo of the Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party The Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party (Mongolian: Mongol Ardyn Khuvsgatt Nam, Монгол Ардын Хувьсгалт Нам) is a ex-communist political party in Mongolia. ... Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ... ISO 4217 Code MNT User(s) Mongolia Inflation 9. ... An International airport is an airport where flights from other countries land and/or take off. ... , Chinggis Khaan International Airport (IATA: ULN, ICAO: ZMUB) is the international airport serving Ulan Bator, Mongolia. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ...

Genghis Khan on 1,000 Mongolian tögrög, official currency of Mongolia
Genghis Khan on 1,000 Mongolian tögrög, official currency of Mongolia
Portrait on a hillside in Ulaanbaatar, 2006 Naadam festival
Portrait on a hillside in Ulaanbaatar, 2006 Naadam festival

Genghis Khan is now widely regarded as one of Mongolia's greatest and most legendary leaders.[21] He is responsible for the emergence of the Mongols as a political and ethnic identity. He reinforced many Mongol traditions and provided stability and unity during a time of great uncertainty, due to both internal and external factors. He is also given credit for the introduction of the traditional Mongolian script and the creation of the Ikh Zasag, the first written Mongolian law.[citations needed] There is a chasm in the perception of his brutality - Mongolians maintain that the historical records written by non-Mongolians are unfairly biased against Genghis Khan; and that his butchery is exaggerated, while his positive role is underrated.[22] Image File history File links M1000f. ... Image File history File links M1000f. ... ISO 4217 Code MNT User(s) Mongolia Inflation 9. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 1843 KB) Chinggis Khan ([Genghis Khan]) portrait painted on a Mongolian hillside for the 2006 Naadam celebration. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 1843 KB) Chinggis Khan ([Genghis Khan]) portrait painted on a Mongolian hillside for the 2006 Naadam celebration. ... Horse racing at Naadam - a young jockey steers his horse past a second horse which died during the long-distance race Naadam ceremony in Ulaanbaatar, Central Stadium, 11 July 2006 Yurt at the Naadym festival at Tos-Bulak Naadam (Mongolian: , games) is the national festival of Mongolia held from July... The term Mongolian alphabet may refer to any of three scripts used over the centuries to write the Mongolian language. ... Yassa, alternatively Yasa or Yasaq, is a written code of laws created by Genghis Khan. ...


In China

The People's Republic of China considers Genghis Khan to be an ethnic minority hero.[citation needed] The rationale for this claim is the fact that there are more ethnic Mongols living inside the PRC than outside, including Mongolia. While Genghis Khan never conquered all of China, his grandson Kublai Khan completed that conquest,[23] and established the Yuan Dynasty that is often credited with re-uniting China. There has also been much artwork and literature praising Genghis as a great military leader and political genius. The years of the Mongol-established Yuan Dynasty left an indelible imprint on Chinese political and social structures for subsequent generations[citations needed]. However, the legacy of Genghis Khan and his successors, who completed the conquest of China after 65 years of struggle, remains a mixed topic, even to this day. For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ...


Recognitions in publications

Genghis Khan is recognized in number of large and popular publications and by other authors, which include the following:

Michael H. Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an American astrophysicist turned author and activist. ... The cover of the 1992 edition. ... ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...

Negative perceptions of Genghis Khan

In Iraq and Iran, he is looked on as a destructive and genocidal warlord who caused enormous damage and destruction.[24] Similarly, in Afghanistan (along with other non-Turkic Muslim countries) he is generally viewed unfavorably though some groups display ambivalency as it is believed that the Hazara of Afghanistan are descendants of a large Mongol garrison stationed therein.[25][26] The invasions of Baghdad and Samarkand caused mass murders, such as when portions of southern Khuzestan was completely destroyed. His descendant Hulagu Khan destroyed much of Iran's northern part. Among the Iranian peoples he is regarded as one of the most despised conquerors of Iran, along with Alexander and Tamerlane.[27][28] In much of Russia, Ukraine, Poland and Hungary, Genghis Khan and his regime are credited with considerable damage and destruction. Presently Genghis Khan, his descendants, his generals, and the Mongol people are remembered for their ferocious and destructive conquests by the region's history books. For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Language(s) Hazaragi/Dari (Hazaragi and Dari dialects) Religion(s) Shia, some Sunni Related ethnic groups Mongol, Turkic, Iranian The Hazara are an ethnic group who reside mainly in the central region of Afghanistan, called Hazarajat or Hazaristan. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chaghatay/Persian: ; Arabic:هولاكو; c. ... Language(s) Persian, Kurdish, Pashto, Balouchi, Ossetian and various other Iranian languages. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ...


Genghis Khan Effect

Zerjal et al [2003][29] identified a Y-chromosomal lineage present in about 8% of the men in a large region of Asia (about 0.5% of the men in the world). The paper suggests that the pattern of variation within the lineage is consistent with a hypothesis that it originated in Mongolia about 1,000 years ago. Such a spread would be too rapid to have occurred by genetic drift, and must therefore be the result of natural selection. The authors propose that the lineage is carried by likely male-line descendants of Genghis Khan, and that it has spread through social selection. Medieval culture was full of rulers who boasted having a highest and mightiest ancestry. ... This is a list of genetic results derived from historical figures. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ...


Descendants of Genghis Khan

Further information: Descent from Genghis Khan and Hazaras

In addition to the Khanates and other descendants, the Mughal emperor Babur's mother was a descendant. Timur (also known as Tamerlane), the 14th century military leader, claimed descent from Genghis Khan. Medieval culture was full of rulers who boasted having a highest and mightiest ancestry. ... The Hazaras. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Zāhir ud-Dīn Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ...


Name and title

There are many theories about the origins of Temüjin's title. Since people of the Mongol nation later associated the name with ching (Mongolian for strength), such confusion is obvious, though it does not follow etymology.


One theory suggests the name stems from a palatalised version of the Mongolian and Turkic word tenggiz, meaning "ocean", "oceanic" or "wide-spreading". (Lake Baikal and ocean were called tenggiz by the Mongols. However, it seems that if they had meant to call Genghis tenggiz they could have said (and written) "Tenggiz Khan", which they did not. Zhèng (Chinese: 正) meaning "right", "just", or "true", would have received the Mongolian adjectival modifier -s, creating "Jenggis", which in medieval romanization would be written "Genghis"[citation needed]. It is likely that the 13th century Mongolian pronunciation would have closely matched "Chinggis". See Lister and Ratchnevsky, referenced below, for further reading. The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Baikal redirects here. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ...


The English spelling "Genghis" is of unclear origin. Weatherford claims it to derive from a spelling used in original Persian reports. However, review of historical Persian sources does not confirm this.[30]


According to the Secret History, Temüjin was named after a powerful warrior of a rival tribe that his father Yesükhei had taken prisoner. The name "Temüjin" is believed to derive from the Turkic word temur, meaning iron (modern Mongolian: төмөр, tömör, modern Turkish: demir ). This name would imply skill as a blacksmith. The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ...


More likely, as no evidence has survived to indicate that Genghis Khan had any exceptional training or reputation as a blacksmith, the name indicated an implied lineage in a family once known as blacksmiths. The latter interpretation is supported by the names of Genghis Khan's siblings, Temülin and Temüge, which are derived from the same root word.


Name and spelling variations

Genghis Khan's name is spelled in variety of ways in different languages such as Chinese: 成吉思汗; pinyin: Chéngjísī Hán, Turkic: Cengiz Han, Chengez Khan, Chinggis Khan, Chinggis Xaan, Chingis Khan, Jenghis Khan, Chinggis Qan, Djingis Kahn etc. Temüjin is written in Chinese as simplified Chinese: 铁木真; traditional Chinese: 鐵木眞; pinyin: Tiěmùzhēn. Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


Short timeline

  • c. 1155–1167: Temüjin born in Hentiy, Mongolia.
  • At the age of nine—Temüjin's father Yesükhei poisoned by the Tatars, leaving him and his family destitute
  • c. 1184: Temüjin's wife Börte kidnapped by Merkits; calls on blood brother Jamuka and Wang Khan (Ong Khan) for aid, and they rescued her.
  • c. 1185: First son Jochi born, leading to doubt about his paternity later among Genghis' children, because he was born shortly after Börte's rescue from the Merkits.
  • 1190: Temüjin unites the Mongol tribes, becomes leader, and devises code of law Yassa.
  • 1201: Wins victory over Jamuka's Jadarans.
  • 1202: Adopted as Ong Khan's heir after successful campaigns against Tatars.
  • 1203: Wins victory over Ong Khan's Keraits. Ong Khan himself is killed by accident by allied Naimans.
  • 1204: Wins victory over Naimans (all these confederations are united and become the Mongols).
  • 1206: Jamuka is killed. Temüjin given the title Genghis Khan by his followers in Kurultai (around 40 years of age).
  • 1207–1210: Genghis leads operations against the Western Xia, which comprises much of northwestern China and parts of Tibet. Western Xia ruler submits to Genghis Khan. During this period, the Uyghurs also submit peacefully to the Mongols and became valued administrators throughout the empire.
  • 1211: After kurultai, Genghis leads his armies against the Jin Dynasty that ruled northern China.
  • 1215: Beijing falls, Genghis Khan turns to west and the Khara-Kitan Khanate.
  • 1219–1222: Conquers Khwarezmid Empire.
  • 1226: Starts the campaign against the Western Xia for forming coalition against the Mongols, being the second battle with the Western Xia.
  • 1227: Genghis Khan dies after conquering the Tangut people. How he died is uncertain, although legend states that he was thrown off his horse in the battle, and contracted a deadly fever soon after.

Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Founded 1930 Capital Öndörkhaan Area 80,300 km² Population  â€¢ Total (2004)  â€¢ Density 71,200 0. ... Yesugei Baghatur or Yesugei The Brave (11XX–1180) (Yesügei, Yesükhei) was a Mongol Khan (or ruler). ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... This article is about the people. ... Börte Ujin was the Grand Empress of the Mongol Khan Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire. ... The Merkit, Merged, or Mergid (Merged means wise ones, adept ones, skillful ones, (skillful) archers, or hunters in Mongolian) were a Mongol tribe with a fierce reputation that inhabited southeastern Siberia during the Middle Ages. ... Jamuqa was a Mongol military and political leader and the chief rival to Temüjin, later Genghis Khan, in the unification of the Mongol tribes. ... Wang Khan, also Ong Khan, was the title given to the Kerait ruler Toghrul by the Jurchen Jin Dynasty of China. ... Jochi (also spelled Jöchi) (c. ... Börte Ujin was the Grand Empress of the Mongol Khan Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire. ... The Merkit, Merged, or Mergid (Merged means wise ones, adept ones, skillful ones, (skillful) archers, or hunters in Mongolian) were a Mongol tribe with a fierce reputation that inhabited southeastern Siberia during the Middle Ages. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Yassa, alternatively Yasa or Yasaq, is a written code of laws created by Genghis Khan. ... Jamuqa was a Mongol military and political leader and the chief rival to Temüjin, later Genghis Khan, in the unification of the Mongol tribes. ... This article is about Wang Khan Toghrul, ruler of the Kerait. ... For other uses, see inheritance (disambiguation). ... This article is about the people. ... This article is about Wang Khan Toghrul, ruler of the Kerait. ... A Mongol people (though some historians claim a Turkic origin) living in Central Asia. ... The Naimans (Naiman also means eight in Mongolian) were a Mongol people dwelling on the steppe of central Asia, closely related to the Kara-Khitai, and subservient to them until 1177. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Kurultai (Tatar: Qorıltay, Azerbaijani: Qurultay; Kurulmak meaning to assemble in Turkish, also Khural meaning meeting in Mongolian) is a political and military council of ancient Mongol and Turkic chiefs and khans. ... Peking redirects here. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Rashid al-Din asserts that Genghis Khan lived to the age of 72, placing his year of birth at 1155. The Yuanshi (元史, History of the Yuan dynasty, not to be confused with the era name of the Han Dynasty), records his year of birth as 1165. According to Ratchnevsky, accepting a birth in 1155 would render Genghis Khan a father at the age of 30 and would imply that he personally commanded the expedition against the Tanguts at the age of 72. Also, according to the Altan Tobci, Genghis Khan's sister, Temülin, was nine years younger than he; but the Secret History relates that Temülin was an infant during the attack by the Merkits, during which Genghis Khan would have been 18, had he been born in 1155. Zhao Hong reports in his travelogue that the Mongols he questioned did not know and had never known their ages.
  2. ^ Bourgoin, Stella (2002). The Life and Legacy of Chingis Khan. University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
  3. ^ Morgan, David (1990). The Mongols (Peoples of Europe), 58. 
  4. ^ THE MONGOLS - PART I. Republican China. Retrieved on 2008-05-20.
  5. ^ Ratchnevsky, Paul (1991). Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy. Blackwell Publishing, 9–10. ISBN 0-631-16785-4. 
  6. ^ The Emperors of Emperors. California State University, Chico. Retrieved on 2008-05-20.
  7. ^ Genghis Khan Biography (1162/7–1227). The Biography Channel. Retrieved on 2008-05-20.
  8. ^ Ratchnevsky 1991, p. 126
  9. ^ Ratchnevsky 1991, pp. 136–7
  10. ^ Grousset, Rene (1944). Conqueror of the World: The Life of Chingis-khan. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 670-00343-3. 
  11. ^ a b Man, John (2004). Genghis Khan: Life, Death and Resurrection. London; New York: Bantam Press. ISBN 0-593-05044-4. 
  12. ^ De Hartog, Leo (1988). Genghis Khan: Conqueror of the World. London, UK: I.B. Tauris, 122–123. 
  13. ^ Haenisch, Erich (1948). Die Geheime Geschichte der Mongolen, 133, 136. 
  14. ^ Heissig, Walther (1964). Die Mongolen. Ein Volk sucht seine Geschichte, 124. 
  15. ^ Palace of Genghis Khan unearthed. BBC (2004-10-07). Retrieved on 2008-05-20.
  16. ^ Pocha, Jehangir S. (2005-05-10). Mongolia sees Genghis Khan's good side. International Herald Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-05-20.
  17. ^ Ismi Didikle (Turkish). Ismi Didikle. Retrieved on 2008-05-05.
  18. ^ Christopher Kaplonski: The case of the disappearing Chinggis Khaan
  19. ^ Once Shunned, Genghis Khan Conquers Mongolia Again
  20. ^ BBC NEWS | Business | Genghis Khan may get protection
  21. ^ BBC News | ASIA-PACIFIC | Mongolia glorifies Genghis Khan
  22. ^ BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Post-communist Mongolia's struggle
  23. ^ Inner Mongolia Travel Guide
  24. ^ "The Legacy of Genghis Khan" at Los Angeles County Museum of Art--again
  25. ^ Zerjal, et el. (2003). "The Genetic Legacy of the Mongols". The American Journal of Human Genetics 72 (3): 717–721. doi:10.1086/367774. Retrieved on 2007-12-28. 
  26. ^ Genetics: Analysis Of Genes And Genomes By Daniel L. Hartl, Elizabeth W. Jones, pg. 309.
  27. ^ Phoenix From the Ashes: A Tale of the Book in Iran
  28. ^ Civilizations: How we see others, how others see us
  29. ^ Zerjal, et el. (2003). "The Genetic Legacy of the Mongols". The American Journal of Human Genetics 72 (3): 717–721. doi:10.1086/367774. Retrieved on 2007-12-28. 
  30. ^ Timothy May. Book Review. North Georgia College and State University. Retrieved on 2008-02-20.

Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... Altan Tobci is the 17th century Mongolian chronicle. ... Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Blackwell Publishing was formed in 2001 from two Oxford-based academic publishing companies, Blackwell Science and Blackwell Publishers and is the worlds leading society publisher, partnering with 665 academic and professional societies. ... California State University, Chico is the second-oldest campus in the California State University system. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Biography Channel (or bio. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the state. ... Viking Press was founded on March 1, 1925, in New York City, by Harold K. Guinzburg and George S. Oppenheim. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the state. ... Bantam Press is an imprint of Transworld Publishers which is a British publishing division of Random House. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... I.B. Tauris is a publishing house based in London and specializing in non-fiction. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Ratchnevsky, Paul (1992, c1991). Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy [Čingis-Khan: sein Leben und Wirken], tr. & ed. Thomas Nivison Haining, Oxford, UK; Cambridge, Mass., USA: B. Blackwell. ISBN ISBN 0-631-16785-4. 

Further reading

  • Brent, Peter (1976). The Mongol Empire: Genghis Khan: His Triumph and His Legacy. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. ISBN 029777137X. 
  • Bretschneider, Emilii (1888, repr. 2001). Mediæval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources; Fragments Towards the Knowledge of the Geography & History of Central & Western Asia, Trübner's Oriental Series. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co (repr. Munshirm Manoharlal Pub Pvt Ltd). ISBN 81-215-1003-1. 
  • Cable, Mildred; Francesca French (1943). The Gobi Desert. London: Landsborough Publications. 
  • Charney, Israel W. (ed.) (1994). Genocide: A Critical Bibliographic Review. New York: Facts on File Publications. 
  • De Hartog, Leo (1988). Genghis Khan: Conqueror of the World. London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd.. 
  • (French) Farale, Dominique (2002). De Gengis Khan à Qoubilaï Khan : la grande chevauchée mongole, Campagnes & stratégies. Paris: Economica. ISBN 2-7178-4537-2. 
  • (French) Farale, Dominique (2007). La Russie et les Turco-Mongols : 15 siècles de guerre. Paris: Economica. ISBN 978-2-7178-5429-9. 
  • "Genghis Khan". Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia. (2005). World Almanac Education Group. Retrieved on 2008-05-22.  Via the Internet Archive's copy of the History Channel Web site.
  • Smitha, Frank E. Genghis Khan and the Mongols. Macrohistory and World Report. Retrieved on 2005-06-30.
  • Kahn, Paul (adaptor) (1998). Secret History of the Mongols: The Origin of Chingis Khan (expanded edition): An Adaptation of the Yüan chʾao pi shih, Based Primarily on the English Translation by Francis Woodman Cleaves, Asian Culture Series. Boston: Cheng & Tsui Co.. ISBN 0-88727-299-1. 
  • Kennedy, Hugh (2002). Mongols, Huns & Vikings. London: Cassell. ISBN ISBN 0-304-35292-6. 
  • Kradin, Nikolay; Tatiana Skrynnikova (2006). Imperiia Chingis-khana (Chinggis Khan Empire). Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura. ISBN 5-02-018521-3.  (Russian) (summary in English)
  • Kradin, Nikolay; Tatiana Skrynnikova (2006). "Why do we call Chinggis Khan's Polity 'an Empire'". Ab Imperio 7 (1): 89–118. 5-89423-110-8. 
  • Lamb, Harold (1927). Genghis Khan: The Emperor of All Men. New York: R. M. McBride & company. 
  • Lister, R. P. (2000 [c1969]). Genghis Khan. Lanham, Maryland: Cooper Square Press. ISBN 0-8154-1052-2. 
  • Man, John (2004). Genghis Khan: Life, Death and Resurrection. London; New York: Bantam Press. ISBN ISBN 0-593-05044-4. 
  • Man, John (1997, 1998, 1999). Gobi: Tracking the Desert. London; New Haven, Conn: Weidenfeld & Nicolson; Yale University Press. ISBN 0-7538-0161-2. 
  • May, Timothy (2001). Mongol Arms. Explorations in Empire: Pre-Modern Imperialism Tutorial: The Mongols. San Antonio College History Department. Retrieved on 2008-05-22.
  • Morgan, David (1986). The Mongols, The Peoples of Europe. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-17563-6. 
  • Saunders, J.J. (1972, repr. 2001). History of the Mongol Conquests. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812217667. 
  • Stevens, Keith. "Heirs to Discord: The Supratribal Aspirations of Jamuka, Toghrul, and Temüjin"PDF (72.1 KiB) Retrieved 22 May 2008.
  • Stewart, Stanley (2001). In the Empire of Genghis Khan: A Journey among Nomads. London: Harper Collins. ISBN ISBN 0-00-653027-3. 
  • Valentino, Benjamin A. (2004). Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801439655. 
  • Weatherford, Jack (2004). Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World. New York: Crown. ISBN 0-609-61062-7. 
  • Zerjal, Xue, Bertorelle, Wells, Bao, Zhu, Qamar, Ayub, Mohyuddin, Fu, Li, Yuldasheva, Ruzibakiev, Xu, Shu, Du, Yang, Hurles, Robinson, Gerelsaikhan, Dashnyam, Mehdi, Tyler-Smith (2003). "The Genetic Legacy of the Mongols". The American Journal of Human Genetics (72): 717–721;. doi:10.1086/367774. 

Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan (1215 - 1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260-1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279-1294) of the Yuan Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... The History Channel is a cable television channel, dedicated to the presentation of historical events and persons, often with frequent observations and explanations by noted historians as well as reenactors and witnesses to events, if possible. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Harold Albert Lamb (1892 - April 9, 1962) was an American historian and novelist. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Primary sources

  • Juvaynī, Alā al-Dīn Atā Malik, 1226–1283 (1997). Genghis Khan: The History of the World-Conqueror [Tarīkh-i jahāngushā], tr. John Andrew Boyle, Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97654-3. 
  • Rashid al-Din Tabib (1995). A Compendium of Chronicles: Rashid al-Din's Illustrated History of the World Jami' al-Tawarikh, Sheila S. Blair (ed.), The Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art, Vol. XXVII, Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-727627-X. 
  • Rashid al-Din Tabib (1971). The Successors of Genghis Khan (extracts from Jami’ Al-Tawarikh), tr. from the Persian by John Andrew Boyle, UNESCO collection of representative works: Persian heritage series, New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-03351-6. 
  • (2004) The Secret History of the Mongols: A Mongolian Epic Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century [Yuan chao bi shi], tr. Igor De Rachewiltz, Brill's Inner Asian Library vol. 7, Leiden; Boston: Brill. ISBN 90-04-13159-0. 

Rashid al-Din Tabib also Rashid ad-Din Fadhlullah Hamadani (1247 - 1318), was a Persian physician, writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history volume, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language. ... The Jami al-tawarikh (Compendium of Chronicles) or Universal History is an Iranian work of literature and history written by Rashid al-Din at the start of the 14th century. ... Rashid al-Din Tabib also Rashid ad-Din Fadhlullah Hamadani (1247 - 1318), was a Persian physician, writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history volume, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language. ...

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  • Book Review of Genghis Khan by Leo De Hartog
  • Genghis Khan and the Mongols
  • Welcome to The Realm of the Mongols
  • Parts of this biography were taken from the Area Handbook series at the Library of Congress
  • Coverage of Temüjin's Earlier Years
  • Estimates of Mongol warfare casualties
  • Genghis Khan on the Web (directory of some 250 resources)
  • Mongol Arms
  • LeaderValues
  • ‘Ala’ al-Din ‘Ata Malik Juvayni (A History of the World-Conqueror Ghengis Genghis Khan, Ata al-Mulk Juvayni and Rashid al-Din Hamadani)
  • BBC Radio 4 programme In Our Time, topic was "Genghis Khan", 1 February 2007. With Peter Jackson, Professor of Medieval History at Keele University, Naomi Standen, Lecturer in Chinese History at Newcastle University, and George Lane, Lecturer in History at the School of Oriental and African Studies and presented by Melvyn Bragg.
Genghis Khan
House of Borjigin (1206–1402)
Born: 1162 Died: 1227
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Position Established
Khagan of Mongol Empire
1206–1227
Succeeded by
The Ögedei Khan
Khagans of Mongol Empire
Genghis Khan (1215–1227) | Tolui Khan (regent) (1227–1229) | Ögedei Khan (1229–1241) | Töregene Khatun (regent) (1241–1245) | Güyük Khan (1246–1248) | Möngke Khan (1251–1259) | Khublai Khan (1260–1294)

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Alaiddin Ata-ul-Mulk Juvayni (1226 - 1283) was a Persian historian who wrote the famous Tarikh-i-Jehan Ghusha (finished in 1259CE). ... Rashid al-Din Tabib also Rashid ad-Din Fadhlullah Hamadani (1247 - 1318), was a Persian physician, writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history volume, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language. ... old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... In Our Time is a discussion programme hosted by Melvyn Bragg on BBC Radio 4 in the United Kingdom. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Keele University is a research-intensive campus university located near Newcastle-under-Lyme in Staffordshire, England. ... For the Australian university, see University of Newcastle, Australia. ... The School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) is a specialist constituent of the University of London committed to the arts and humanities, languages and cultures and the law and social sciences concerning Asia, Africa, and the Near and Middle East. ... Melvyn Bragg, Baron Bragg, FRSL, FRTS (born 6 October 1939, in Wigton, Cumberland) is a British author and broadcaster. ... Borjigin (plural Borjigit or Borjigid; Khalkha Mongolian: Боржигин, Borjigin; Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) were the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, Kağan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, Kağan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... Tolui,also rendered Toluy or Tolui Khan (Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 1190–1232), was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. ... Ögedei Khan, (Mongolian: , Ögöödei; also Ogotai or Oktay; c. ... Töregene Khatun ruled as regent of the Mongol Empire from the death of her husband Ögedei Khan in 1241 until the election of her eldest son Güyük Khan in 1246. ... Güyük (c. ... Möngke Khan (Мөнх хаан), also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu or Mangku (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; c. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ...

Persondata
NAME Genghis Khan
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Temüjin
SHORT DESCRIPTION Founder of the Mongol Empire
DATE OF BIRTH c. 1162
PLACE OF BIRTH in Khentii Province in Mongolia
DATE OF DEATH 1227
PLACE OF DEATH Western Xia

Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... Founded 1930 Capital Öndörkhaan Area 80,300 km² Population  â€¢ Total (2004)  â€¢ Density 71,200 0. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Genghis Khan - MSN Encarta (1732 words)
Genghis Khan (1167?-1227), Mongol conqueror and founder of the Mongol Empire, which spanned the continent of Asia by the time of his death.
Genghis Khan’s father, Yesugei, was a local chieftain and nephew of the former khan (ruler) of the Mongol tribe.
Genghis Khan, rejoined by his sons, advanced south in the autumn of 1221 and defeated this new adversary on the banks of the Indus River.
Sons and Daughters of Genghis Khan (1215 words)
Genghis Khan was born under his real name Temujin as the son of a Mongol tribal leader.
Genghis Khan who was forced to lead a modest life and who had experienced much injustice as a youth, chose his advisors and generals by their merits and capabilities and not by status of birth.
The descendants of Genghis Khan are today mainly dispersed over the Republic of Mongolia as an independent nation with its capital Ulaan Baatar, and in the South the Autonomous Region of Inner Mongolia as a part of China.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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