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Encyclopedia > Genetic history of Europe
Europe Portal
The diversion of Haplogroup F and its descendants.

European populations have a complicated demographic and genetic history, including many layers of successive migrations between different time periods, from the first appearance of Homo sapiens in the Upper Paleolithic to contemporary immigration. Image File history File links Portal. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup F (defining mutations M89, P14, and M213) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... This article deals with the European people as an ethnic group or ethnic groups. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another. ... The term Archaic Homo sapiens refers generally to the earliest members of the species Homo sapiens, which consisted of the Neanderthals of Europe and the Middle East, the Neanderthal-like hominids of Africa and Asia, and the immediate ancestors of all these hominids. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ...

Contents

Relation to other populations

Percentage genetic distances among major continents based on 120 classical polymorphisms
Africa Oceania East Asia Europe
Oceania 24.7
East Asia 20.6 10
Europe 16.6 13.5 9.7
America 22.6 14.6 8.9 9.5

A study by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza of the Stanford University, School of Medicine, using 120 blood polymorphisms provides information on genetic relatedness of the various continental populations[1]. Genetic distance is a measure used to quantify the genetic differences between two populations. It is based on the principle that two populations that share similar frequencies of a trait are more closely related than populations that have more divergent frequencies of a trait. In its simplest form it is the difference in frequencies of a particular trait between two populations. For example the frequency of RH negative individuals is 50.4% among Basques, 41.2% in France and 41.1% in England. Thus the genetic difference between the Basques and French is 9.2% and the genetic difference between the French and the English is 0.1% for the RH negative trait. Averaged over several traits this can give the overall genetic relatedness of various populations[2]. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (born January 25, 1922) is an Italian population geneticist born in Genoa, who has been a professor at Stanford University since 1970 (now emeritus). ... Genetic distance is a measure of the disimilarity of genetic material between different species or individuals of the same species. ... This article is about the Basque people. ...


According to the study all non-African populations are more closely related to each other than to Africans consistent with the hypothesis that all non-Africans are descended from a single African population. Europeans are most closely related to East Asians and least related to Africans. However of all the non-African populations, Europeans are most closely related to Africans. As the genetic distance from Africa to Europe (16.6) is shorter than the genetic distance from Africa to East Asia (20.6) and even much shorter than the Genetic distance from Africa to Australia. Cavalli-Sforza proposes that the simplest explanation for this short genetic distance is that substantial gene exchange has taken place between the nearby continents. Cavalli-Sforza also proposes that both Asian and African populations contributed to the settlement of Europe which began 40 000 years ago. The overall contributions from Asia and Africa were estimated to be around two-thirds and one-third, respectively. Europe has a genetic variation in general of about a third of that of other continents.[3][2]


According to Guglielmino et al. (1990),

Principal coordinate analysis shows that Lapps/Sami are almost exactly intermediate between people located geographically near the Ural mountains and speaking Uralic languages, and central and northern Europeans. Hungarians and Finns are definitely closer to Europeans. An analysis of genetic admixture between Uralic and European ancestors shows that Lapps/Sami are slightly more than 50% European, Hungarians are 87% European, and Finns are 90% European. There is basic agreement between these conclusions and historical data on Hungary. Less is known about Finns and very little about Lapps/Sami.[4]

European population substructure

European population substructure from 2007 (many of the participants were Americans, not Europeans), a clustering analysis using the computer programme STRUCTURE and 9724 SNPs.

In 2006, an autosomal analysis comparing samples from various European populations concluded that “there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between ‘northern’ and ‘southern’ European population groups”. Most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Greek, Armenian, Portuguese, and Spanish) have >85% membership in the ‘southern’ population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have >90% in the ‘northern’ population group. Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewish origin also showed >85% membership in the ‘southern’ population, consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups." [14]It should be noted that many of the participants in this study were actually American citizens who self identified with different European ethnicities and not Europeans. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 503 pixelsFull resolution (1960 × 1232 pixel, file size: 879 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 503 pixelsFull resolution (1960 × 1232 pixel, file size: 879 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... DNA strand 1 differs from DNA strand 2 at a single base-pair location (a C/T polymorphism). ...


Somewhat contradicting these findings, a similar 2007 study using samples exclusively from Europe found that the most important genetic differentiation in Europe occurs on a line from the north to the south-east (northern Europe to the Balkans), with another east-west axis of differentiation across Europe. Its findings were consistent with earlier mtDNA and Y-chromosonal based results supporting the theory that modern Iberians (Spanish and Portuguese) hold the most ancient European genetic ancestry, as well as separating Basques and Sami from other European populations. It confirmed that the English and Irish cluster with other Northern and Eastern Europeans such as Germans and Poles while some Basque and Italian individuals also clustered with Northern Europeans. Despite these stratifications it noted the unusually high degree of European homogeneity: "there is low apparent diversity in Europe with the entire continent-wide samples only marginally more dispersed than single population samples elsewhere in the world."[5] The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...


In fact, according to another European wide study, the main components in the European genomes appear to derive from ancestors whose features were similar to those of modern Basques and Near Easterners, with average values greater than 35% for both these parental populations, regardless of whether or not molecular information is taken into account. The lowest degree of both Basque and Near Eastern admixture is found in Finland, whereas the highest values are, respectively, 70% ("Basque") in Spain and more than 60% ("Near Eastern") in the Balkans.[15][16] Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an ethnic group who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ...


In 2008 a company called "DNA Tribes Europa" has used 13 DNA markers to differentiate genetic related groups in Europe. It offeres a specialized analysis for people of European descent, including a detailed comparison to genetic sub-regions of Europe. These genetic sub-regions include both geographical territories and endogamous trans-national communities, who have retained unique genetic characteristics. The determined regions i.e. populations are the next: Ashkenazi, Balkan, Basque, Celtic, Finno-Ugrian, Germanic, Greek, Italian, Norse, Polish, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish. [6] Individuals within each Europe sub-region obtain a spectrum of regional genetic affinities. Because of close genetic relationships within Europe, individuals in a subregion can inherit genetic material that is most common in other sub-regions. Individuals from sub-regions with a history of ethnic endogamy or geographic isolation (such as the Ashkenazi, Basque, or Celtic sub-regions) exhibit higher frequencies of primarily ingroup genetic affiliation. Individuals from centrally located sub-regions, such as the Balkan or Germanic regions, exhibit more variety in genetic affiliations and lower frequencies of primarily in-group genetic affiliation.[7] The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an ethnic group who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. ... Look up Celtic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ... This article or section should be merged with Hellenes Greeks in Ancient History In Latin literature, Græci (or Greeks, in English) is the name by which Hellenes are known. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... Norse is an adjective relating things to Denmark, Norway, Iceland and Sweden. ... You may also be looking for the plural of the word pole. ... Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an ethnic group of East Slavic people, which live primarily in Russia and neighboring countries. ... Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. ...


Haplogroups

Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups

Distribution of R1a (purple) and R1b (red). Two of the three most common Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in Europe. Black represents all the other haplogroups.

There are three major Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups which largely account for most of Europe's present-day population[8][9]. Image File history File links Y-Haplogroup_R1_distribution. ... Image File history File links Y-Haplogroup_R1_distribution. ... Distribution of R1a (purple) and R1b (red), after McDonald (2005). ... Distribution of R1a (purple) and R1b (red) In human genetics, Haplogroup R1b (M343) (previously called Hg1 and Eu18) is the most frequent Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe. ... In human genetics, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y chromosome (called Y-DNA). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... In human genetics, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y chromosome (called Y-DNA). ... In the study of molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on a chromosome. ...

Most common of all haplogroups among western Europeans is R1b.[10][11] The exact following values of Hg R1b are: Basques: 88.1%; Irish: 81.5%; Welsh: 89.0%; Scots: 77.1%; Non-Basque Spaniards: 68.0 (Catalans: 79.2; Andalusians: 65.5); Portuguese(South): 56.0%; Portuguese (North): 62.0%; British: 68.8; English (Central): 61.9% Belgians: 63.0; French: 52.2; Danes: 41.7%, Norwegian: 25.9; Swedish: 20.0; German: 47.9; Italian (Calabria): 32.4; Italian (Sardinia): 22.1%; Italian (North-central): 62.0; Slovenian: 21%; Croatian (mainland): 15.7%; Czech & Slovak: 35.6%; Polish: 16.4%; Bulgarian: 17.0%; Serbian: 10.6%; Greek: 22.8%; Cypriot: 9.0%; Albanian: 17.6%; Romanian: 18.0%; Hungarian: 13.3%.[12] In the study of molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on a chromosome. ... Distribution of R1a (purple) and R1b (red) In human genetics, Haplogroup R1b (M343) (previously called Hg1 and Eu18) is the most frequent Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe. ... Atlantic Europe is a geographical and anthropological term for the western portion of Europe which borders the Atlantic Ocean At its widest definition, it comprises Spain, France and the British Isles. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ... In the study of molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on a chromosome. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup I is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup IJ, itself a derivative of Haplogroup F. Y-DNA Haplogroup I (the letter I, not the number 1) represents nearly one-fifth of the population of Europe. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... In the study of molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on a chromosome. ... Distribution of R1a (purple) and R1b (red), after McDonald (2005). ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Distribution of R1a (purple) and R1b (red) In human genetics, Haplogroup R1b (M343) (previously called Hg1 and Eu18) is the most frequent Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup R1b (M343) (previously called Hg1 and Eu18) is the most frequent Y-chromosome haplogroup in Europe. ...


Each haplogroup also have subclades.[13] R1a and R1b are subclades of Haplogroup R (Y-DNA)[14] Two main subgroups of Haplogroup I (Y-DNA) are I-M253/I-M307/I-P30/I-P40 which according to the International Society of Genetic Genealogy, "has highest frequency in Scandinavia, Iceland, and northwest Europe." The other is I-S31 which according to the International Society of Genetic Genealogy, "includes I-P37.2, which is the most common form in the Balkans and Sardinia, and I-S23/I-S30/I-S32/I-S33, which reaches its highest frequency along the northwest coast of continental Europe."[15] In genetics, subclade is a term used to describe a subgroup of a subgenus or haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup R is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup P, associated with the M207 mutation. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup I is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup IJ, itself a derivative of Haplogroup F. Y-DNA Haplogroup I (the letter I, not the number 1) represents nearly one-fifth of the population of Europe. ...


There is an ongoing debate regarding Neolithic Europe, with evidence both for and against a demic diffusion from the Near East: G Barbujani1 and L Chikhi (2006) state, "Genetic studies have failed to settle the controversy so far, because they have been interpreted in different ways... A rather heated debate followed, and is still continuing."[16] Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC Europe in ca. ... An archaeological term that refers to population diffusion into and across an area previously uninhabited by that group, possibly displacing, replacing, or intermixing with a pre-existing population (e. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ...


Also, around 4,500 years ago, Haplogroup N3 began moving across from west of the Ural mountains, and seems to follow closely the spread of the Finno-Ugric languages.[8] In human genetics, Haplogroup N (LLY22G) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ˌfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ...


Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups

About mitochondrial DNA haplogroups (mtDNA), according to University of Oulu Library (Finland): Hypothesized map of human migration based on mitochondrial DNA. In human genetics, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. These haplogroups trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... The University of Oulu (Oulun yliopisto in Finnish) is the second largest university in Finland. ...

Classical polymorphic markers (i.e. blood groups, protein electromorphs and HLA antigenes) have suggested that Europe is a genetically homogeneous continent with a few outliers such as the Saami, Sardinians, Icelanders and Basques (Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1993, Piazza 1993). The analysis of mtDNA sequences has also shown a high degree of homogeneity among European populations, and the genetic distances have been found to be much smaller than between populations on other continents, especially Africa (Comas et al. 1997).

The mtDNA haplogroups[17] of Europeans are surveyed by using a combination of data from RFLP analysis of the coding region and sequencing of the hypervariable segment I. About 99% of European mtDNAs fall into one of ten haplogroups: H, I, J, K, M, T, U, V, W or X (Torroni et al. 1996a). Each of these is defined by certain relatively ancient and stable polymorphic sites located in the coding region (Torroni et al. 1996a)... Haplogroup H, which is defined by the absence of a AluI site at bp 7025, is the most prevalent, comprising half of all Europeans (Torroni et al. 1996a, Richards et al. 1998)... Six of the European haplogroups (H, I, J, K, T and W) are essentially confined to European populations (Torroni et al. 1994, 1996a), and probably originated after the ancestral Caucasoids became genetically separated from the ancestors of the modern Africans and Asians.[18]

mtDNA Haplogroup N1a while presently rare (0.18%-0.3%) occurred in as many as 25% of Neolithic Europeans and has subsequently been absorbed into the current populations [19][20]. In human genetics Haplogroup N1a is a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...


Paleolithic migrations

The prehistory of the European peoples can be traced by the examination of archaeological sites, linguistic studies, and by the examination of the DNA of the people who live in Europe now, or from recovered ancient DNA. Much of this research is ongoing, with discoveries still being continually made, and theories rise and fall. Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages in order to establish their historical relatedness. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Ancient DNA can be loosely described as any DNA recovered from biological samples that have not been preserved specifically for later DNA analyses. ...

Europe 20,000 years ago, showing coastline, extent of Ice caps and regions where refugia are thought to have been situated.[21]

Modern humans (Cro Magnon) began to colonize Europe in the Paleolithic about 40,000 years ago, as evidenced by the spread of the Aurignacian culture. Modern humans may have arrived along two major routes either side of the Black Sea. By about 25,000 years ago the prior inhabitants (our cousin species H. neanderthalensis) were either killed off or absorbed into the population and ultimately became extinct.[22] About 22,000 years ago the last Ice Age (often referred to as the Last Glacial Maximum or LGM) began, rendering much of Europe uninhabitable. Humans may only have occupied certain regions of Europe at this time, these are often called refuges (or refugia) and were located along the northern Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts, as well as in the Balkans. As the glaciers receded from about 16,000 years ago, the populations that had occupied the refuges are thought to have begun to spread and colonise northern Europe.[23][24] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1900x1264, 128 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prehistoric settlement of Great Britain and Ireland ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1900x1264, 128 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prehistoric settlement of Great Britain and Ireland ... For the avant garde collective, see Cromagnon (band). ... Aurignacian is the name of a culture of the Upper Palaeolithic present in Europe and south west Asia. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... Temperature proxies for the last 40,000 years The Last Glacial Maximum refers to the time of maximum extent of the ice sheets during the last glaciation, approximately 21 thousand years ago. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Balkan redirects here. ... Holocene glacial retreat had a profound effect on landscapes in many areas that were covered by ice at the Last Glacial Maximum. ...


After a less severe cold event around 12000-10000 years ago there was an increasing use of microliths and reliance on the coast and sea. Styles of tool making varied from location to location, suggesting that the population of Europe was settling down. Martin Richards showed that about 11% of modern mtDNA types arrived from the Middle East during the Mesolithic [25]. These show a significant decline from SE to NW Europe. However Stephen Oppenheimer says that there was further gene flow from Iberia to NW Europe [26]. In northern Europe the gene flow was largely from SE Europe and Asia. The population of Europe were hunter-gatherers until the advent of agriculture about eight millennia ago. A microlith is a small stone tool, typically knapped of flint or chert. ... Stephen Oppenheimer is a well-known expert in the field of synthesizing DNA studies with archaeological, anthropological, linguistic and other field studies. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ...


Neolithic migrations

Further information: Neolithic Europe and Neolithic Revolution

The duration of the Neolithic varied from place to place, starting with the introduction of farming and ending with the introduction of bronze implements. In SE Europe it was approximately 7000-3000 BC while in NW Europe it was 4500-1700 BC. Besides the introduction of new plants and animals, the Neolithic also saw the beginning of the use of pottery. The latter allows the tracing of the movement of ideas and possibly people across Europe. The period possibly also saw the spread of Indo-European languages across Europe. One hypothesis is that they spread with farming while another is they came later from the Pontic steppes by expansion of the Kurgan people. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC Europe in ca. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ...


Some academics [27] theorise that farming was introduced by people who migrated from the Near East, and that these farmers introduced the Indo-European languages to Europe. This theory is typically associated with the Anatolian hypothesis of Indo-European origins, though it has also been argued that widespread migration is not necessary to support the theory.[28] Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the seventh to fifth millennium BC. The Anatolian hypothesis of Proto-Indo-European origin is the suggestion that the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) lived in Anatolia during the Neolithic era, and associates the distribution of historical Indo-European languages with...


The largest admixture to the European paleolithic/mesolithic stock was due to the neolithic revolution of the 7th to 5th millennia BC.[29] Three main mtDNA gene groups have been identified as contributing Neolithic entrants into Europe: J, T1 and U3 (in that order of importance) [30]. With others they amount to around 20% of the gene pool [31]. There is little published information on male immigration during the Neolithic but Oppenheimer suggests that haplotypes J and Eb3 migrated along the coast of Europe at this time. Gene flow from SE to NW Europe seems to have continued. The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ...


Bronze to Iron Age migrations

The Bronze Age saw the development of long distance trading networks, particularly along the Atlantic Coast and in the Danube valley. There was migration from Norway to Orkney and Shetland in this period (and to a lesser extent to mainland Scotland and Ireland). There was also migration from Germany to eastern England. Oppenheimer could find no genetic evidence for any Iron Age migration to Britain.


Other theories about the origins of the Indo-European language centre around a hypothetical Proto-Indo-European people, who are traced, in the Kurgan hypothesis, to somewhere north of the Black Sea at about 4500 BCE. They domesticated the horse, and are considered to have spread their culture and genes across Europe. It has been difficult to identify what these "Kurgan" genes might be. Another approach – the Anatolian hypothesis – suggests an origin in Anatolia with a later expansion from eastern Europe. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Map of Indo European migrations from ca. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the seventh to fifth millennium BC. The Anatolian hypothesis of Proto-Indo-European origin is the suggestion that the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) lived in Anatolia during the Neolithic era, and associates the distribution of historical Indo-European languages with...


To what extent Indo-European migrations replaced the indigenous Mesolithic peoples is debated, but a consensus has been reached that technology and language transfer played a more important role in this process than actual gene-flow.[32] The indigenous peoples of Europe are those peoples identified as indigenous peoples, as per the modern global interpretation of that term. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ...


During the Iron Age, Celts are recorded as having moved into northern Italy, Eastern Europe and Anatolia.


Medieval to Early Modern admixture

Further information: Sub-Saharan DNA admixture in Europe, History of the Roma people, and Turkic expansion

There is some admixture of Sub-Saharan African DNA, due to the Early Modern African slave trade It shows a decreasing cline from the southwest to the northeast, which corresponds with the areas most involved in slave trade. Not every population has been studied yet, but enough have so that a picture is starting to emerge. The amount of black admixture in Europe today ranges from a few percent in Iberia to almost nil around the Baltic.[33] Sub-Saharan African DNA is scattered throughout the European continent. ... The Roma people, often referred to as Gypsies, are an ethnic group who live primarily in Europe. ... The present distribution of Turkic languages bears witness to the Early Medieval westward expansion of Turkic tribes. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ... The slave trade in Africa existed for thousands of years. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ...


According to a summary study by Pereira et al. 2005, sub-Saharan mtDNA L haplogroups were found at rates of 3.83% in Iberians (Portuguese and Spanish), 2.86% in Sardinians, 2.38% in Albanians, 1% in the British/Irish (indigenous whites only), 0.94% in Sicilians, 0.62% in a German-Danish sample. In human genetics, Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In the study of molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on a chromosome. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... A sample is that part of a population which is actually observed. ...


Sub-Saharan African Y-chromosomes are much less common in Europe, for the reasons discussed above. The small presence of the Haplogroups E(xE3b) (i.e. clades of E other than E3b) and Haplogroup A in Europe is almost exclusively attributable to the slave trade, as these haplogroups are characteristic of western, central and southern Africans and are barely observed elsewhere.[34] Haplotype A has been detected in Portugal (3%), France (2.5% in a very small sample), Germany (2%), Sardinia (1.6%), Austria (0.78%), Italy (0.45%), Spain (0.42%) and Greece (0.27%). By contrast, North Africans have about 5% paternal sub-Saharan admixture.[35] Languages Berber languages Religions Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly Kabyle catholic) Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... For other uses, see Father (disambiguation). ...


North and Northeast African influences

There are a number of genetic markers which are characteristic of Horn African and North African populations which are to be found in European populations signifying ancient and modern population movements across the Mediterranean. These markers are to be found particularly in Mediterranean Europe but some are also prevalent, at low levels, throughout the continent. The spread of the Megaliths and its Cultures seem to have been carried, or kept maritime connections with, the Mediterranean and Northern Africans. The Horn of Africa. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The southern half of Europe is shown in shades of red. ... Megalithic tomb, Mane Braz, Brittany Bronze age wedge tomb in the Burren area of Ireland For the record label, see Megalith Records. ...


Y-chromosome DNA

The general parent Y-chromosome Haplogroup E1b1b (formerly known as E3b), originating either in the Horn of Africa[36] or the Near East[37], is by far the most common clade in North and Northeast Africa, and is also common throughout the majority of Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean and South Eastern Europe. E1b1b reaches its highest concentration in Greece and the Balkan region, but also enjoys a significant presence in other regions such as Hungary, Italy, Iberia and Austria. [17].[38]. The Y chromosome is one of the sex-determining chromosomes in humans and most other mammals (the other is the X chromosome). ... The Horn of Africa. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... ...


Outside of North and Northeast Africa, E1b1b's two most prevalent clades are E1b1b1a (E-M78, formerly E3b1a) and E1b1b1b (E-M81, formerly E3b1b).


E1b1b1a is the most common subclade of E1b1b and is present throughout Europe. Its main route of entry into the European continent was through Anatolia during the Neolithic, explaining the high frequency of this haplotype in the Balkan region. It is also relatively frequent in the Mediterranean countries. Unlike, E1b1b1b which is thought to have entered Europe in more recent times, this haplotype denotes a very ancient Northeast African contribution to the European gene-pool.


A study from Semino (published 2004) showed that Y-chromosome haplotype E1b1b1b (E-M81), is specific to North African populations and almost absent in Europe except the Iberia (Spain and Portugal) and Sicily.[39] Another 2004 study showed that E1b1b1b is found present, albeit at low levels throughout Southern Europe (ranging from 1.5% in Northern Italians, 2.2% in Central Italians, 1.6% in southern Spaniards, 3.5% in the French, 4% in the Northern Portuguese, 12.2% in the southern Portuguese and 41.2% in the genetic isolate of the Pasiegos from Cantabria)[40]. The findings of this latter study contradict a more thorough analysis Y-chromosome analysis of the Iberian peninsula according to which haplogroup E1b1b1b surpasses frequencies of 10% in Southern Spain. The study points only to a very limited influence from northern Africa and the Middle East both in historic and prehistoric times.[41] The absence of microsatellite variation suggests a very recent arrival from North Africa consistent with historical exchanges across the Mediterranean during the period of Islamic expansion, namely of Berber populations.[38]. However a more thorough study about Y-chromosome lineages in Portugal revealed that "The mtDNA and Y data indicate that the Berber presence in that region dates prior to the Moorish expansion in 711 AD... Our data indicate that male Berbers, unlike sub-Saharan immigrants, constituted a long-lasting and continuous community in the country".[42] The Y chromosome is one of the sex-determining chromosomes in humans and most other mammals (the other is the X chromosome). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Languages Berber languages Religions Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly Kabyle catholic) Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ...


Haplotype V(p49/TaqI), a characteristic North African haplotype, may be also found in the Iberian peninsula, and a decreasing North-South cline of frequency clearly establishes a gene flow from North Africa towards Iberia which is also consistent with Moorish presence in the peninsula.[18]. This North-South cline of frequency of halpotype V is to be observed throughout the Mediterranean region, ranging from frequencies of close to 50% in southern Portugal to around 10% in southern France. Similarly, the highest frequency in Italy is to be found in the southern island of Sicily (28%).[19] [43] For other uses, see moor. ...


A wide ranging study (published 2007) using 6,501 unrelated Y-chromosome samples from 81 populations found that: “Considering both these E-M78 sub-haplogroups (E-V12, E-V22, E-V65) and the E-M81 haplogroup, the contribution of northern African lineages to the entire male gene pool of Iberia (barring Pasiegos), continental Italy and Sicily can be estimated as 5.6%, 3.6%, and 6.6%, respectively.”[44]


Mitochondrial DNA

Genetic studies on Iberian populations also show that North African mitochondrial DNA sequences (haplogroup U6) and sub-Saharan sequences (Haplogroup L), although present at only low levels, are still at much higher levels than those generally observed elsewhere in Europe. [45][46][47] Haplotype U6 have also been detected in Sicily at very low levels. It happens also to be a characteristic genetic marker of the Saami populations of Northern Scandinavia.[20] It is difficult to ascertain that U6's presence is the consequence of Islam's expansion into Europe during the Middle Ages, particularly because it is more frequent in the north of the Iberian Peninsula rather than in the south. In smaller numbers it is also attested too in the British Islands, again in its northern and western borders. It may be a trace of a prehistoric neolithic/megalithic expansion along the Atlantic coasts from North Africa, perhaps in conjunction with seaborne trade. One subclade of U6 is particularly common among Canarian Spaniards as a result of native Guanche (proto-berber) ancestry. Hypothesized map of human migration based on mitochondrial DNA. In human genetics, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. These haplogroups trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Under the Interpretation Act 1978 of the United Kingdom, the term British Islands refers to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, together with the Crown Dependencies: the Bailiwicks of Jersey and of Guernsey (which in turn includes the smaller islands of Alderney, Herm and Sark) in the... Languages Spanish language Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Latin peoples, including other Spanish peoples The Canarians are an ethnic group or nation living in the archipelago of the Canary Islands (an autonomous community of Spain), near the coast of Western Africa. ... Guanches (also: Guanchis or Guanchos) were the first known inhabitants of the Canary Islands. ...


On the other hand, the distribution of mtDNA Haplogroup L, is consistent with modern historical data, being more frequent in Iberia than in the rest of Europe and more frequent in the south of the peninsula than in the north. Islamic domination, as well as the slave trade, is likely to have been a factor leading to its presence in some modern-day southern Iberian populations. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Genes, peoples, and languages - Cavalli-Sforza 94 (15): 7719 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  2. ^ a b Genes, Peoples, and Languages By L. L. (Luigi Luca) Cavalli-Sforza ISBN 0520228731
  3. ^ First Chapter: 'Genes, Peoples, and Languages'
  4. ^ Uralic genes in Europe by Guglielmino CR, Piazza A, Menozzi P, Cavalli-Sforza LL [1]
  5. ^ Measuring European Population Stratification using Microarray Genotype Data [2]
  6. ^ http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-europa.html
  7. ^ "DNA Tribes Europa". A new genetic map of living humans in interconnected world regions - E. Valaitis and L. Martin, p. 13.
  8. ^ a b DNA Heritage [3]
  9. ^ Semino et al (2000),The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans, Science Vol 290. Note: Haplogroup names are different in this article. For ex: Haplogroup I is referred as M170
  10. ^ World haplogroup maps [4]
  11. ^ Y-chromosome DNA Haplogroups [5]
  12. ^ Oxford Journals [6]
  13. ^ Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2006 [7]
  14. ^ Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades [8]
  15. ^ Y-DNA Haplogroup I and its Subclades [9]
  16. ^ Population genetics: DNAs from the European Neolithic. [10][11]
  17. ^ World mtDNA haplogroup map [12]
  18. ^ Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in human populations, Oulu University Library (Finland) [13]
  19. ^ Haak, Wolfgang, et al. "Ancient DNA from the First European Farmers in 7500-Year-Old Neolithic Sites" Science, vol. 310, pg. 1016 (2005)
  20. ^ Balter, Michael "Ancient DNA Yields Clues to the Puzzle of European Origins" Science, vol. 310, pg. 964 (2005)
  21. ^ Coastline sketched from Mithen (2003) pp. 108-109, Extent of refugia infered from Oppenheimer (2006) p. 103.
  22. ^ Richard G. Klein (March 2003). "Paleoanthropology: Whither the Neanderthals?". Science 299 (5612): 1525-1527. DOI:10.1126/science.1082025.
  23. ^ Antonio Torroni et al. "A Signal, from human mtDNA, of Postgalcian Recolonization in Europe, Am. J. Human Gen.69:844-852 (2001)
  24. ^ Ornella Semin et al. The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo Sapiens Sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective Science 290:1155-1159, 2000.
  25. ^ Tracing European founder lineages in the Near Eastern mtochondrial gene pool, Am. J. of Human Genetics, 67, 1251
  26. ^ The Origins of the British
  27. ^ such as Bellwood and Renfrew
  28. ^ Nicholas Wade, "Before the Dawn", ch. 10. ISBN 1594200793
  29. ^ Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca, Paolo Menozzi, and Alberto Piazza. (1994). The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08750-4.
  30. ^ Oppenheimer
  31. ^ Richards
  32. ^ See Bryan Sykes, The Seven Daughters of Eve, 1st American ed. (New York: Norton, 2001) for an entertaining account of how this consensus was reached. For historical reasons, in the 1980s mtDNA researchers believed that the Indo-European expansion was overwhelmingly a spread of technology and language, not of genes, while the those who studied Y-chromosome lineages believed the opposite. Gradually the mtDNA guys (Sykes) admitted more physical migration into their scenarios, while the Y folks (Peter Underhill) accepted more technology-copying. Eventually, both groups independently reached a 20% Neolithic - 80% Paleolithic ratio of genetic contribution to today's European population. The mtDNA vs. Y discrepancy is explained by noting that in such conquest-based migrations, a common pattern is invading foreign males producing offspring with indigenous females, though significant numbers of females of the spreading culture would also arrive with post-conquest settlers. However, where migrations are essentially economic (as most migrations appear to be) the scenario of male family members preceding females into new territory looking for opportunities is equally probable.
  33. ^ Pereira et al. 2005 (view the specific data here)
  34. ^ Sanchez et al. (2005). "High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males". European Journal of Human Genetics; 13:856–866
  35. ^ Cruciani et al. 2004, Flores et al. 2004, Brion et al. 2005, Brion et al. 2004, Rosser et al. 2000, Semino et al. 2004, and DiGiacomo et al. 2003 Bosch et al. 2001 High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Variation Shows a Sharp Discontinuity and Limited Gene Flow between Northwestern Africa and the Iberian Peninsula
  36. ^ Semino et al. (2004), Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area, American Journal of Human Genetics, 74: 1023–1034.
  37. ^ Y-DNA Haplogroup E and its Subclades - 2008
  38. ^ a b * Semino et al. (2004) Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area
  39. ^ Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area
  40. ^ Cruciani et al, 2004, Phylogeography of the Y-Chromosome Haplogroup E3b
  41. ^ Reduced Genetic Structure for Iberian Peninsula: implications for population demography. (2004)
  42. ^ Y-chromosome Lineages from Portugal, Madeira and Açores Record Elements of Sephardim and Berber Ancestry
  43. ^ Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12
  44. ^ Fluvio Cruciani, Et al. ,"Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12", Molecular Biology and Evolution, Volume 24, Number 6: June 2007, Oxford University Press, Pp. 1307
  45. ^ "Haplogroup U6 is present at frequencies ranging from 0 to 7% in the various Iberian populations, with an average of 1.8%. Given that the frequency of U6 in NW Africa is 10%, the mtDNA contribution of NW Africa to Iberia can be estimated at 18%. This is larger than the contribution estimated with Y-chromosomal lineages (7%) (Bosch et al. 2001)."Joining the Pillars of Hercules: mtDNA Sequences Show Multidirectional Gene Flow in the Western Mediterranean (2003)
  46. ^ "Although the absolute value of observed U6 frequency in Iberia is low, it reveals a considerable North African female contribution, if we keep in mind that haplogroup U6 is not very common in North Africa itself and virtually absent in the rest of Europe. Indeed, because the range of variation in western North Africa is 4-28%, the estimated minimum input is 8.54%"African female heritage in Iberia: a reassessment of mtDNA lineage distribution in present times (2005)
  47. ^ "Our results clearly reinforce, extend, and clarify the preliminary clues of an "important mtDNA contribution from northwest Africa into the Iberian Peninsula" (Côrte-Real et al., 1996; Rando et al., 1998; Flores et al., 2000a; Rocha et al., 1999)(...) Our own data allow us to make minimal estimates of the maternal African pre-Neolithic, Neolithic, and/or recent slave trade input into Iberia. For the former, we consider only the mean value of the U6 frequency in northern African populations, excluding Saharans, Tuareg, and Mauritanians (16%), as the pre-Neolithic frequency in that area, and the present frequency in the whole Iberian Peninsula (2.3%) as the result of the northwest African gene flow at that time. The value obtained (14%) could be as high as 35% using the data of Corte-Real et al. (1996), or 27% with our north Portugal sample." Mitochondrial DNA affinities at the Atlantic fringe of Europe (2003)

Bryan Sykes is Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford, and a Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford. ... The Seven Daughters of Eve is a book by Bryan Sykes that presents the theory of mitochondrial genetics in a clear and non-specialistic manner. ... In human genetics, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y chromosome (called Y-DNA). ... Since its inception in 1948, The American Journal of Human Genetics has provided a record of research and review relating to heredity in humans and to the application of genetic principles in medicine and public policy, as well as in related areas of molecular and cell biology. ...

See also

Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ... This article deals with the European people as an ethnic group or ethnic groups. ... // Origins of modern humans see also single-origin hypothesis, multiregional hypothesis. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Whites redirects here. ...

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