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Encyclopedia > Genetic genealogy

Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. Genetic genealogy involves the use of genealogical DNA testing to determine the level of genetic relationship between individuals. Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... // A genealogical DNA test involves examining the nucleotides at specific locations on a persons DNA. The tests results are meant to have no informative medical value and do not determine specific genetic diseases or disorders (see possible exceptions in Medical information below); they are intended only for use in...

Contents


Uses

Paternal and maternal lineages

The two most common types of genetic genealogy tests are the Y-DNA (paternal line) and mtDNA (maternal line) genealogical DNA tests. These tests involve the comparison of the DNA of one individual to that of another to scientifically determine how many generations ago the two individuals shared their most recent common ancestor. These tests allow two individuals to determine with reasonable certainty that they are related within a certain time frame, or with reasonable certainty that they are not related within a certain time frame. A number of searchable Y-DNA databases are open to the public and available online. Among them: // A genealogical DNA test involves examining the nucleotides at specific locations on a persons DNA. The tests results are meant to have no informative medical value and do not determine specific genetic diseases or disorders (see possible exceptions in Medical information below); they are intended only for use in... DNA replication Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid which carries genetic instructions for the biological development of all cellular forms of life and many viruses. ... Science in the broadest sense refers to any knowledge or trained skill, especially (but not exclusively) when this is attained by verifiable means. ... The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual which is an ancestor of all of them. ...

  • The Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation accessible at http://www.smgf.org;
  • Ysearch accessible at http://www.ysearch.org;
  • Ybase accessible at http://www.ybase.org;
  • YHRD accessible at http://www.yhrd.org.

Biogeographical and ethnic origins

Additional DNA tests exist for determining biogeographical and ethnic origin, but these test have less relevance for traditional genealogy. Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ...


See biogeographic ancestry, genealogical DNA test and population genetics (the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies). Biogeographic ancestry is a concept of lineage that looks at kinship and descent based on biogeography, a combination of biology and geography. ... // A genealogical DNA test involves examining the nucleotides at specific locations on a persons DNA. The tests results are meant to have no informative medical value and do not determine specific genetic diseases or disorders (see possible exceptions in Medical information below); they are intended only for use in... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Allele frequency is a measure of the relative frequency of an allele on a genetic locus in a population. ...


Human migration

Genealogical DNA testing methods are also being used on a longer time scale to trace human migratory patterns and determine, for example, when the first humans came to North America and how they got there. Human migration denotes any movement by humans from one locality to another, often over long distances or in large groups. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Benefits

Genetic genealogy gives genealogists a means to check or supplement the historical record with information from genetic data. A positive test match with another individual may: For other senses of this word, see history (disambiguation). ... Information as a concept bears a diversity of meanings, from everyday usage to technical settings. ... Data is the plural of datum. ...

  • provide locations for further genealogical research
  • help determine ancestral homeland
  • discover living relatives
  • validate existing research
  • confirm or deny suspected connections between families
  • prove or disprove theories regarding ancestry

Drawbacks

The main reasons people cite for not wanting to be DNA tested is cost or concerns over privacy issues. However, costs are becoming increasingly affordable. Additionally, privacy and confidentiality of one's genetic markers can be restricted to families or groups. In such databases, listing of individuals is often anonymous and identified by a number which may only be known to the individual.


Finally, Y-DNA and mtDNA testing each only trace a single lineage (one's father's father's father's etc. lineage or one's mother's mother's mother's etc. lineage). At 10 generations back, an individual has 1024 ancestors and a Y-DNA or mtDNA test is only studying one of those 1024 ancestors, as well as their decendants and siblings (same sexed siblings for Y-DNA or all siblings for mtDNA).


See also

Important concepts

An allele is any one of a number of viable DNA codings of the same gene (sometimes the term refers to a non-gene sequence) occupying a given locus (position) on a chromosome. ... Allele frequency is a measure of the relative frequency of an allele on a genetic locus in a population. ... An electropherogram is a plot of fluorescence units over time. ... // A genealogical DNA test involves examining the nucleotides at specific locations on a persons DNA. The tests results are meant to have no informative medical value and do not determine specific genetic diseases or disorders (see possible exceptions in Medical information below); they are intended only for use in... Genetic recombination is the transmission-genetic process by which the combinations of alleles observed at different loci (plural of locus) in two parental individuals become shuffled in offspring individuals. ... A haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on the chromosome. ... A haplotype, a contraction of the phrase haploid genotype, is the genetic constitution of an individual chromosome. ... The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual which is an ancestor of all of them. ... A short tandem repeat (STR) in DNA occurs when a pattern of two or more nucleotides is repeated and the repetitions are directly adjacent to each other. ... A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism or SNP (pronounced snip) is a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide - A, T, C, or G - in the genome differs between members of the species. ... A Y-STR is a short tandem repeat (STR) on the Y chromosome. ...

Related fields

Archaeogenetics, a term coined by Colin Renfrew, refers to the application of the techniques of molecular population genetics to the study of the human past. ... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Genetic fingerprinting, DNA testing, DNA typing, and DNA profiling are techniques used to distinguish between individuals of the same species using only samples of their DNA. Its invention by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester was announced in 1985. ... DNA sequencing is the process of determining the nucleotide order of a given DNA fragment, called the DNA sequence. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Molecular genetics is the field of biology which studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. ...

Patrilineal relationships

Patrilineality (a. ... The XY sex-determination system is a well-known sex-determination system. ... In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-mrca) is the male counterpart to mitochondrial Eve: the most recent common ancestor from whom all male human Y chromosomes are descended. ... Y-chromosomal Aaron is the name given to the hypothesised ancestor of the Kohanim (singular Kohen or Kohane), a patrilineal priestly caste in Judaism. ... The cover to the hardback edition of Adams Curse Adams Curse: A Story of Sex, Genetics, and the Extinction of Men is a 2003 book by Oxford University human genetics professor Bryan Sykes expounding his hypothesis that with the declining sperm count in men and the continual atrophy...

Matrilineal relationships

Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) (from Greek mitos thread + khondrion granule) is an organelle, variants of which are found in most eukaryotic cells[1]. Mitochondria are sometimes described as cellular power plants, because their primary function is to convert organic materials into energy in the form of ATP... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA that is located in mitochondria. ... Mitochondrial Eve is the name given by researchers to the woman who is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor of all living humans. ... The X chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in mammals (the other is the Y chromosome). ...

Biogeography, ethnicity and migration

Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In paleoanthropology, the single-origin hypothesis (or Out-of-Africa model) is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. ...

Projects

The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The goal of the International HapMap Project is to develop a haplotype map of the human genome, also referred to as the HapMap, which will describe the common patterns of human genetic variation. ... In the summer of 1999, Mr. ...

Lists

It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: listcruft If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... This is a list of mummies who have been DNA tested along with a brief decription of when and where they lived. ... This is a list of DNA tested historical figures. ... This is a list of genetic results derived from historical figures. ...

External links and resources

News

  • MSNBC — Genetic Genealogy Front Page
  • dnaconsultants.com — Current DNA News
  • jgg-online.blogspot.com — On-line Journal of Genetics and Genealogy

Mailing lists and forums

Additional information

Organizations

DNA databases

  • Ysearch — Largest public access Y-DNA database
  • Mitosearch — Largest public access mtDNA database
  • Ybase — public access Y-DNA database
  • Mitochondrial DNA Concordance
  • SMGF Database
  • Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database — YHRD
  • Y-Plex/Y-STR

DNA surname project databases


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kerchner's DNA Testing & Genetic Genealogy Information and Resources Page (1199 words)
Download free copy of my Genetics & Genealogy - An Introduction - a Genetic Genealogy 101 report.
Read and review online my Genetic Genealogy Glossary of Genetic Genealogy terms and definitions.
DNA Genealogy (Genetic Genealogy) Historical Timeline by Georgia Bopp
Genetic genealogy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (413 words)
Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy.
Genetic genealogy involves the use of genealogical DNA testing to determine the level of genetic relationship between individuals.
Genetic genealogy gives genealogists a means to check or supplement the historical record with information from genetic data.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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