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Encyclopedia > Genetic engineering
Elements of genetic engineering
Elements of genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct manipulation of an organism's genes.[1] Engineering is different from traditional breeding, where the organism's genes are manipulated indirectly; genetic engineering uses the techniques of molecular cloning and transformation to alter the structure and characteristics of genes directly. Genetic engineering endeavors have found some success in improving crop technology, the manufacture of synthetic human insulin through the use of modified bacteria, the manufacture of erythropoietin in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and the production of new types of experimental mice such as the oncomouse (cancer mouse) for research. Animation of a section of DNA rotating. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... Molecular cloning refers to the procedure of isolating a defined DNA sequence and obtaining multiple copies of it in vivo. ... Look up transformation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... The OncoMouse or Harvard mouse is a type of laboratory mouse that has been genetically modified using modifications designed by Philip Leder and Timothy Stewart of Harvard University to carry a specific gene called an activated oncogene. ...


Since a protein sequence is specified by a segment of DNA called a gene, novel versions of that protein can be produced by changing the DNA sequence of the gene. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ...

Contents

Engineering

Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn.
Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn.

There are several ways through which genetic engineering is accomplished. Essentially, the process has four main steps: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 599 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 599 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Binomial name Berliner 1915 Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ...

  1. Isolation of the genes of interest
  2. Insertion of the genes into a transfer vector
  3. Transformation of cells of organism to be modified
  4. Separation of the genetically modified organism (GMO) from those that have not been successfully modified

Isolation is achieved by identifying the gene of interest that the scientist wishes to insert into the organism, usually using existing knowledge of the various functions of genes. DNA information can be obtained from cDNA or gDNA libraries, and amplified using PCR techniques. If necessary, i.e. for insertion of eukaryotic genomic DNA into prokaryotes, further modification may be carried out such as removal of introns or ligating prokaryotic promoters. In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Transfection. ... In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is single-stranded DNA synthesized from a mature mRNA template. ... gDNA is the abbreviation of the term Genomic Deoxyribonucleic acid. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Prokaryotes are unicellular (in rare cases, multicellular) organisms without a nucleus. ... Diagram of the location of introns and exons within a gene. ...


Insertion of a gene into a vector such as a plasmid can be done once the gene of interest is isolated. Other vectors can also be used, such as viral vectors, and non-prokaryotic ones such as liposomes, or even direct insertion using gene guns. Restriction enzymes and ligases are of great use in this crucial step if it is being inserted into prokaryotic or viral vectors. Daniel Nathans, Werner Arber and Hamilton Smith received the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their isolation of restriction endonucleases. Figure 1: Illustration of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed showing chromosomal DNA and plasmids. ... A liposome is a spherical vesicle with a membrane composed of a phospholipid bilayer used to deliver drugs or genetic material into a cell. ... The gene gun is a device for injecting cells with genetic information, originally designed for plant transformation. ... A restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA. The enzyme makes two incisions, one through each of the sugar-phosphate backbones (i. ... In biochemistry, a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyse the joining of two molecules (ligation or glue together) by forming a new chemical bond, with concomitant hydrolysis of ATP or other similar molecules. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... A restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA. The enzyme makes two incisions, one through each of the sugar-phosphate backbones (i. ...


Once the vector is obtained, it can be used to transform the target organism. Depending on the vector used, it can be complex or simple. For example, using raw DNA with DNA guns is a fairly straightforward process but with low success rates, where the DNA is coated onto particles such as gold and fired directly into a cell. Other more complex methods, such as bacterial transformation or using viruses as vectors have higher success rates. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Transfection. ...


After transformation, the GMO can be isolated from those that have failed to take up the vector in various ways.


Applications

The first genetically engineered medicine was synthetic human insulin, approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 1982. Scientists used bacteria in which they inserted plasmids containing the directions for insulin, they were then able to use the bacteria to produce and harvest artificial insulin. Another early application of genetic engineering was to create human growth hormone as replacement for a drug that was previously extracted from human cadavers. In 1987 the FDA approved the first genetically engineered vaccine for humans, for hepatitis B. Since these early uses of the technology in medicine, the use of GM has gradually expanded to supply a number of other drugs and vaccines. One of the best known applications of genetic engineering is the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) such as foods and vegetables that resist pest and bacteria infection and have longer freshness than otherwise. Not to be confused with inulin. ... FDA redirects here. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Cadaver (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year 1987. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been deliberately altered. ...


There are potentially momentous biotechnological applications of GM, for example oral vaccines produced naturally in fruit, at very low cost for most of the country. Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...


Genetic engineering and research

Although there has been a tremendous[1] revolution in the biological sciences in the past twenty years, there is still a great deal that remains to be discovered. The completion of the sequencing of the human genome, as well as the genomes of most agriculturally and scientifically important animals and plants, has increased the possibilities of genetic research immeasurably. Expedient and inexpensive access to comprehensive genetic data has become a reality with billions of sequenced nucleotides already online and annotated. A graphical representation of the normal human karyotype. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ...

Knockout mice
Knockout mice
  • Loss of function experiments, such as in a gene knockout experiment, in which an organism is engineered to lack the activity of one or more genes. This allows the experimenter to analyze the defects caused by this mutation, and can be considerably useful in unearthing the function of a gene. It is used especially frequently in developmental biology. A knockout experiment involves the creation and manipulation of a DNA construct in vitro, which, in a simple knockout, consists of a copy of the desired gene which has been slightly altered such as to cripple its function. The construct is then taken up by embryonic stem cells, where the engineered copy of the gene replaces the organism's own gene. These stem cells are injected into blastocysts, which are implanted into surrogate mothers. Another method, useful in organisms such as Drosophila (fruitfly), is to induce mutations in a large population and then screen the progeny for the desired mutation. A similar process can be used in both plants and prokaryotes.
  • Gain of function experiments, the logical counterpart of knockouts. These are sometimes performed in conjunction with knockout experiments to more finely establish the function of the desired gene. The process is much the same as that in knockout engineering, except that the construct is designed to increase the function of the gene, usually by providing extra copies of the gene or inducing synthesis of the protein more frequently.
Green Fluorescent Protein ribbon diagram. From PDB 1EMA.
Green Fluorescent Protein ribbon diagram. From PDB 1EMA.
  • Tracking experiments, which seek to gain information about the localization and interaction of the desired protein. One way to do this is to replace the wild-type gene with a 'fusion' gene, which is a juxtaposition of the wild-type gene with a reporting element such as Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) that will allow easy visualization of the products of the genetic modification. While this is a useful technique, the manipulation can destroy the function of the gene, creating secondary effects and possibly calling into question the results of the experiment. More sophisticated techniques are now in development that can track protein products without mitigating their function, such as the addition of small sequences which will serve as binding motifs to monoclonal antibodies.
  • Expression studies aim to discover where and when specific proteins are produced. In these experiments the DNA sequence before the DNA that codes for a protein, known as a gene's promoter is reintroduced into an organism with the protein coding region replaced by a reporter gene such as GFP or an enzyme that catalyzes the production of a dye. Thus the time and place where a particular protein is produced can be observed. Expression studies can be taken a step further by altering the promoter to find which pieces are crucial for the proper expression of the gene and are actually bound by transcription factor proteins; this process is known as promoter bashing.

Image File history File links PCWmice1. ... Image File history File links PCWmice1. ... A gene knockout is a genetically engineered organism that carries one or more genes in its chromosomes that has been made inoperative. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... In vitro (Latin: within the glass) refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a test tube, or, generally, in a controlled environment outside a living organism. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... The blastocyst is an early stage of the human (or any other mammal) development early in pregnancy. ... Type species Drosophila funebris (Fabricius, 1787) Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called fruit flies, or more appropriately vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger... Prokaryotes are unicellular (in rare cases, multicellular) organisms without a nucleus. ... For the file format that describes the 3D structures of molecules found in the Protein Data Bank, see Protein Data Bank (file format). ... It has been suggested that mGFP be merged into this article or section. ... A promoter is a regulatory region of DNA located upstream (towards the 5 region) of a gene, providing a control point for regulated gene transcription. ...

Human genetic engineering

See also: Human Genetic Engineering

Human genetic engineering can be used to treat genetic disease, but there is a difference between treating the disease in an individual and in changing the genome that gets passed down to that person's descendants (germ-line genetic engineering). Human genetic engineering refers to the controlled modification of the human genome, which is the genome of Homo sapiens, composed of 23 pairs of chromosomes with a total of approximately 3 billion DNA base pairs containing an estimated 30,000 genes. ... A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused, at least in part, by the genes of the person with the disease. ...


Human genetic engineering is already being used on a small scale to allow infertile women with genetic defects in their mitochondria to have children.[2] Healthy human eggs from a second mother are used. The child produced this way has genetic information from two mothers and one father.[2] The changes made are germ line changes and will likely be passed down from generation to generation, thus are a permanent change to the human genome.[2] In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ...


Human genetic engineering has the potential to change human beings' appearance, adaptability, intelligence, character and behavior. It may potentially be used in creating more dramatic changes in humans. There are many unresolved ethical issues and concerns surrounding this technology, and it remains a controversial topic.


References

  1. ^ Genetic engineering - Definitions from Dictionary.com. dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-26.
  2. ^ a b c BBC News. news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-04-26.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Reading list

The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...

See also

Bioethics is the ethics of biological science and medicine. ... Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Biological engineering (a. ... In agriculture, Canola is a trademarked cultivar of genetically engineered rapeseed variants from which rapeseed oil is obtained. ... For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ... Ethics of technology is a subfield of Ethics addressing the ethical questions specific to the Technology Age. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [10], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... In evolutionary biology, the field of experimental evolution is concerned with testing the theory of evolution in controlled experiments. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another. ... Genetic pollution, genetic contamination or genetic swamping happens when original set of naturally evolved (wild) region specific genes / gene pool of wild animals and plants become hybridized with domesticated and feral varieties or with the genes of other nonnative wild species or subspecies from neighboring or far away regions. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn. ... A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been deliberately altered. ... A transgene is a gene or genetic material which has been transferred by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another. ... Human genetic engineering refers to the controlled modification of the human genome, which is the genome of Homo sapiens, composed of 23 pairs of chromosomes with a total of approximately 3 billion DNA base pairs containing an estimated 30,000 genes. ... Ice-minus bacteria is a nickname given to a variant of the common bacterium Pseudomonas syringae (). This strain of lacks the ability to produce a certain surface protein, usually found on wild-type ice-plus . This protein found on the outer bacterial cell wall acts as the nucleating centers for... This is a list of emerging technologies. ... The Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ... GloFish are a type of zebrafish with recombinant DNA. Genes for fluorescent proteins have been inserted into their genome to produce their fluorescent colors. ... Research ethics involves the application of fundamental ethical principles to a variety of topics involving scientific research. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker. ... Synthetic biology has long been used to describe an approach to biology that attempts to integrate different areas of research in order to create a more holistic understanding of life. ... Transgenic bacteria, refers to bacteria which have been genetically engineered. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

External links

General

News

Wikinews has related news:
Genetically altered mice are "superathletes," November 2, 2007
Wikiversity
At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Genetic engineering at:
Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Genetic engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2248 words)
An iconic image of genetic engineering; this "autoluminograph" from 1986 of a glowing transgenic tobacco plant bearing the luciferase gene of the firefly, illustrating the possibilities of genetic engineering.
Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM) and gene splicing are terms for the process of manipulating genes, usually outside the organism's normal reproductive process.
Many opponents of current genetic engineering believe the increasing use of GM in major crops has caused a power shift in agriculture towards Biotechnology companies, which are gaining excessive control over the production chain of crops and food, and over the farmers that use their products, as well.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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