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Encyclopedia > Genetic distance

Genetic distance is a measure of the disimilarity of genetic material between different species or individuals of the same species.

All of life today is based upon the molecule of inheritance, DNA or Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. DNA molecules are a double helix, similar to a spiral staircase, in which the backbone sides are comprised of alternating 5 carbon deoxigenated ribose sugar and a phosphate molecule, whilst the "rungs" of the staircase are nitrogenous purine and pyrimidine bases. These bases are Adenine (A), which pairs always with Thyamine (T), and Guanine (G), which pairs always with Cytosine (C). It is the sequence of these bases on the helix, (eg ATTTCGCCAAG) which is copied and passed to descendents in cellular reproduction. For other uses, see inheritance (disambiguation). ... Space-filling model of a section of DNA molecule Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life (and many viruses). ... Space-filling model of a section of DNA molecule Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life (and many viruses). ... A helix (pl: helices), from the Greek word έλικας/έλιξ, is a twisted shape like a spring, screw or a spiral staircase. ... Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, which is similar to benzene and pyridine and that contains two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-membered ring. ... Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, adenine (A) binds to thymine (T) via two hydrogen bonds to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in nucleic acids (, DNA and RNA). ... Cytosine is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at... Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ...

By comparing the percentage difference between the same genes or junk DNA of different species, a figure can be obtained, which is a measure of "genetic distance". Depending upon the difference, and correcting this for known rates of evolution, genetic distance can be used as a tool to construct cladograms showing the family tree of all living beings. This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... In molecular biology, junk DNA is a collective label for the portions of the DNA sequence of a chromosome or a genome for which no function has been identified. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ...

For instance, the fact that the genetic disatnce of Chimpanzees and Human beings is only 1.6% (they are about 98.4% identical), suggests that Human beings and Chimpanzees last had a common ancestor about 5 million years ago, and that Chimpanzees are more closely related to Humans than they are to Gorillas (about 9 million years ago) and Orang Utan (about 12 million years ago). Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often abbreviated to chimp, is the common name for two species in the genus Pan. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei Distinguish from guerilla. ... For the chess opening, see Sokolsky Opening. ...



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