FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Genesis" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Genesis

Genesis (Greek: "birth," "origin") is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament of the Bible. Jewish tradition considers the Pentateuch to have been written by Moses, so Genesis is sometimes also called The First Book of Moses. Look up Genesis, genesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 454 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (757 × 1000 pixel, file size: 514 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Another version of this image can be found here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 454 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (757 × 1000 pixel, file size: 514 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Another version of this image can be found here. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


Genesis recounts a history of the world from the Creation to the descent of the Children of Israel into Ancient Egypt. It contains some of the best-known stories of the Old Testament, including Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, Noah's Ark, the Tower of Babel, the biblical PatriarchsAbraham, Isaac, Jacob—and the story of Joseph. It also has important clues to ancient Israelite cosmology and theology, notably the Covenant linking God to his Chosen People and the people to the Promised Land. This article is about the biblical text. ... The Children of Israel, or Bnei Yisrael (בני ישראל) in Hebrew (also Bnai Yisrael, Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... Cain and Abel redirect here. ... This article is about the vessel described in the Hebrew scriptures. ... This article is about the Biblical story. ... The Patriarchs, known as the Avot in Hebrew, are Abraham, his son Isaac and his grandson Jacob. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Joseph may refer to: People with the name Joseph: Joseph (name), about the given name Joseph (given name), for people with the given name Joseph Joseph (surname), for people with the last name Joseph Saint Joseph (disambiguation), for saints named Joseph Joseph (Hebrew Bible) In places: Joseph, Utah Joseph, Oregon... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Various groups have considered themselves chosen by God for some purpose such as to act as Gods agent on earth. ... Main article: Land of Israel The Kingdom of David and Solomon. ...


Biblical scholars view Genesis as a composite text made up of originally independent and often parallel sources, few if any of them earlier than the 10th century BC, and that it did not reach its final form until the 5th century BC.


Christians link many events and people in Genesis to Jesus Christ, who is said to be the "new Adam" with a new covenant. Muslims revere Adam, Abraham, and other figures in Genesis but regard the book as a corrupted version of Allah's true revelation.(eg.They regard these figures as prophets who did not commit any grave sins but were sent from time to time to guide mankind). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...

Contents

Title

Tanakh
Torah | Nevi'im | Ketuvim
Books of the Torah
1. Genesis
2. Exodus
3. Leviticus
4. Numbers
5. Deuteronomy

The title "Genesis" comes from the Greek Γένεσις, meaning "birth", "creation", "cause", "beginning", "source" or "origin". In Hebrew, Genesis is called בְּרֵאשִׁית, B'reshit or Bərêšîth,[1]"in the beginning", after the first words of the text in Hebrew, and in line with the other four books of the Pentateuch. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... Naomi entreating Ruth and Orpah to return to the land of Moab by William Blake, 1795 Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld: Ruth in Boazs Field, 1828 The Book of Ruth (Hebrew: מגילת רות, Megilat Rut, the Scroll of Ruth) is one of the books of the Ketuvim (Writings) of the Tanakh (the... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... 1. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Megillah redirects here. ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi) (originally meaning songs sung to a harp, from psallein play on a stringed instrument, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ... Ecclesiastes, Qohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... The Book of Lamentations (Hebrew מגילת איכה) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Book Of Ezekiel is rapper Freekey Zekeys debut album and debut on Diplomat Records/Asylum. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Tobias and the Angel, by Filippino Lippi The Book of Tobit (or Book of Tobias in older Catholic Bibles) is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox and Anglican biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics... Judith with the Head of Holophernes, by Christophano Allori, 1613 (Pitti Palace, Florence) The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded by Jews and Protestants. ... 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ... Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ... The Wisdom of Ben Sira (or The Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach or merely Sirach), also called Ecclesiasticus (not to be confused with Ecclesiastes) by some Christians, is a book written circa 180–175 BC. The author, Yeshua ben Sira, was a Jew who had been living in Jerusalem... It has been suggested that Epistle of Jeremy be merged into this article or section. ... Letter of Jeremiah is an Apocryphal book consisting of a letter ascribed to Jeremiah to the Jews in exile in Babylon warning them against idolatry by demonstrating its unreasonableness. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... The additions to Daniel comprise of three additional chapters appended to the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel from the Greek Septuagint. ... Megillah redirects here. ... By far the most important of the many synods held at Jerusalem (see Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed. ... 1 Esdras is a book from the Septuagint (LXX) translation of the Old Testament regarded as a deuterocanonical book in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy, but rejected as apocryphal by Jews, Catholics, and most Protestants. ... 1. ... The Biblical book 3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the deuterocanonical books. ... The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over passion. ... This short work of only 15 verses purports to be the penitential prayer of the Judean king Manasseh, who is recorded in the Bible as one of the most idolatrous (2 Kings 21:1-18). ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... In the Septuagint and for Eastern Orthodox Christians, 2 Esdras refers to the combination of Ezra and Nehemiah. ... The Book of Jubilees (ספר היובלים), sometimes called the Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A series of three books in the Ethiopian Biblical canon. ... 4 Baruch, also known as the Paraleipomena of Jeremiah when combined with the Epistle of Jeremy, is a text regarded as apocryphal by all Christian denominations except for the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... Psalms 152 to 155 are additional Psalms found in the Syriac Peshitta, in Greek Septuagint manuscripts, and in the Qumran scrolls: 11QPs(a)154,155. ... 2 Baruch or the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch is a Jewish pseudepigraphical text written in the late 1st century CE or early 2nd century CE, after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 CE. It is not part of the canon of either the Jewish or most Christian... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Summary

Rolf Rendtorff's division of Genesis into a primeval history and Patriarchal cycles - Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Joseph - is followed here for convenience in organising the summary. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Primeval history

"In the beginning God[2] created the heavens and the earth.[3] The earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the face of the waters." God makes the first day and night; the "firmament" separating "the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament;" dry land and seas and plants and trees which grew fruit with seed; the sun, moon and stars in the firmament give light upon the earth; creates air-breathing sea creatures and birds; and on the sixth day, makes "the beasts of the earth according to their kinds." "Then God said, Let us make man in our image ... in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them."[4] On the seventh day God rests from the task of completing the heavens and the earth: "So God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it, because on it God rested from all his work which he had done in creation." At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... The Deeps is the English term for the Hebrew Tehwom, found in the opening verses of the Book of Genesis. ... Firmament is a name for the sky or the heavens, generally used in the context of Christianity, Judaism and Islam. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... This article concerns the Sabbath in Christianity. ...


God forms a man "of dust from the ground,"[5] and breathes into the man's nostrils, "and man became a living being."[6] God sets the man in the Garden of Eden and permits him to eat of all the fruit within it, except that of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, "for in the day that you eat of it you shall die." God makes "every beast of the field and every bird of the air, ... and whatever the man called each living creature, that was its name ... but for the man there was not found a helper fit for him." God causes the man to sleep, and makes a woman from one of the man's ribs, and the man awakes and names his companion Woman, "because she was taken out of Man."[7] "And the man and his wife were both naked, and were not ashamed."[8] Life on Earth redirects here. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ... In the Bibles Book of Genesis, the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil was the tree in the middle of the Garden of Eden from which God forbade Adam and Eve to eat. ...


The serpent tells the woman that she will not die if she eats the fruit of the tree: "When you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God,[9] knowing good and evil." So the woman eats and gives to the man who also eats. "Then the eyes of both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together and made themselves aprons." God curses the serpent: "upon your belly you shall go, and dust you shall eat all the days of your life;" the woman he punishes with pain in childbirth and with subordination to man: "your desire shall be for your husband, and he shall rule over you;" and the man he punishes with a life of toil: "In the sweat of your face you shall eat bread till you return to the ground." The man names his wife Eve,[10] "because she was the mother of all living." "Behold," says God, "the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil," and expels the couple from Eden, "lest he put forth his hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever," and the gate of Eden is sealed by a cherub and a flaming sword "to guard the way to the tree of life."[11] For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ... Bouguereaus LInnocence (Innocence). Both the child and the lamb represent fragility and peacefulness, as seen in religious art. ... The Tree-of-Life is a fictional plant (the ancestor of yams, with similar appearance and taste) in Larry Nivens Known Space universe, for which all Hominids have an in-built genetic craving. ... CHERUB is a series of childrens books written by the author Robert Muchamore about a group of children who are trained to be agents working for the British Government in the top secret organisation known as CHERUB. It is similar to the British security service MI5, and is based... Delacroix painting of an angel expelling Adam and Eve with a flaming sword A flaming sword is a sword glowing with flame due to some supernatural power. ...


Adam and Eve have two sons, Cain and Abel, the first a farmer, the second a shepherd. Cain murders his brother, and, asked by God what has become of Abel, replies, "Am I my brother's keeper?" God then curses Cain: "When you till the ground, it shall no longer yield to you its strength; you shall be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth." Cain fears that whoever meets him will kill him, but God places a mark on Cain, with the promise that "if any slays Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold." Cain settles in the land of Nod,[12] "away from the presence of the LORD.[13] Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... Cain and Abel redirect here. ... This page is about the band from Australia; see Cain for information about the mark of Cain. ... Fernand-Anne Piestre Cormons painting titled Cain flying before Jehovahs Curse, c. ...


The descendants of Cain are Enoch, Irad, Mehujael, Methushael, and Lamech. Seth is born to replace Abel.[14] Enoch (from Hebrew: חֲנוֹךְ, Standard Tiberian meaning initiated, dedicated, disciplined; Greek: ενωχ, ; traditional English: Enoch) is a Hebrew name. ... Irad (עִירָד Wild ass; dragon, Standard Hebrew ʿIrad, Tiberian Hebrew ʿÎrāḏ), in the Bible, was one of the antediluvian patriarchs, son of Enoch, grandson of Cain and the father of Mehujael. ... Mehujael is the Biblical name given in Genesis 4:18 of a descendant of Cain, son of Irad and father of Methusael. ... Methusael (Hebrew מְתוּשָׁאֵל champion of God, Standard Hebrew MÉ™tuÅ¡aʼel, Tiberian Hebrew Məṯûšāʼēl) is the Biblical name given in Genesis 4:18 of a descendant of Cain, son of Mehujael and father of Lamech. ... Lamech (in Hebrew לֶמֶך Lemmech) is the name of two men appearing in the genealogies of Adam in the book of Genesis. ... This article is about the Biblical Seth. ...


The generations of Adam are described, including Enoch, who "walked with God...[and] was no more, for God took him",[15] Methuselah, and Noah. The ante-antediluvian Patriarchs are notable for their extreme longevity, with Methuselah living 969 years. The list ends with the birth of Noah's sons, from whom all humanity is descended.[16] Enoch (Hebrew: חֲנוֹךְ; Tiberian: , Standard: ) is a name occurring twice in the generations of Adam. ... Methuselah or Metushélach (Hebrew: / Standard  / Tiberian  /  ; Man of the dart, or alternatively when he dies/died, it will be sent/has been sent) is the oldest person whose age is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ...


God sets the days of man at 120 years.[17] "The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men, and they bore children to them. These were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown."[18] For other uses, see Nephilim (disambiguation). ... There are several theories concerning the identity of the sons of God (bnei elohim, בני האלהים, contrasted with daughters of men) identified in the book of Genesis. ...


Angered by the wickedness of mankind, God selects Noah,[19] "a righteous man, blameless in his generation," and commands him to build an Ark, and to take on it his family and representatives of the animals.[20] God destroys the world with a Flood,[21] and afterwards enters into a covenant with Noah and his descendants, the entire human race, promising never again to destroy mankind in this way.[22] This article is about the vessel described in the Hebrew scriptures. ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ...


Noah plants a vineyard, drinks wine, and falls into a drunken sleep. Ham "uncovers his fathers nakedness," and Noah places a curse on Ham's son Canaan, saying that he and all his descendants shall henceforth be slaves to Ham's brothers Shem and Japheth[23] Ham (חָם, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , , Geez Kam), according to the Genealogies of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan. ... The Drunkenness of Noah by Giovanni Bellini, depicting Ham (center) laughing at his father, while Shem and Japheth cover him. ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Shem (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Greek: Σημ, SÄ“m ; Arabic:  ; Geez: Sham ; renown; prosperity; name) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. ... Japheth (Hebrew. ...


The seventy generations of the descendants of Noah are named, "and from these the nations spread abroad on the earth after the flood."[24] Men decide to build "a tower with its top in the heavens" in the land of Shinar, "lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth." God fears the ambition of mankind: "This is only the beginning of what they will do; and nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them. Come, let us go down, and there confuse their language, that they may not understand one another's speech." And so mankind is scattered over the face of the earth, and the city "was called Babel, because there the LORD confused the language of all the earth."[25][26] The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... This article is about the Biblical story. ... Shinar (Hebrew Šin`ar, Septuagint Σεννααρ Sennaar) is a broad designation applied to Mesopotamia, occurring eight times in the Hebrew Bible. ...


The Generations of Shem brings the biblical genealogy down to the generation of Abraham.[27]


Abraham

Terah leaves Ur of the Chaldees with his son Abram,[28] Abram's wife Sarai, and his nephew Lot, the son of Abram's brother Haran, towards the land of Canaan. They settle in the city of Haran, where Terah dies.[29] God commands Abram, "Go from your country and your kindred and your father's house to the land that I will show you, and I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you, and make your name great, so that you will be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and him who curses you I will curse; and by you all the families of the earth shall bless themselves." So Abram and his people and flocks journey to the land of Canaan, where God appears to Abram and says, "To your descendants I will give this land.[30] Terah or Térach (Hebrew: תֶּרַח / תָּרַח, Standard  / Tiberian  /  ; Wanderer; loiterer) // Terah was the father of Abraham mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... Ur KaÅ›dim or Ur of the Chaldees (אור כשדים) is the town in the Hebrew Bible and related literature where Abraham was said to have been born. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... According to the Bible and the Quran, Lot (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: لوط, ; Hidden, covered[1]) was the nephew of the patriarch, Abraham or Abram. ... Haran (הָרָן) was a son of Terah, and brother of Nahor and Abram. ...


Abram is forced by famine to go into Egypt, where Pharaoh takes possession of his wife, the beautiful Sarai, who Abram has misrepresented as his sister. God strikes the king and his house with plagues, so that he returns Sarai and expels Abram and all his people from Egypt.[31] For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ...


Abram returns to Canaan and separates from Lot in order to put an end to disputes about pasturage. He gives Lot the valley of the Jordan River, as far as Sodom, whose people "were wicked, great sinners against the LORD." To Abram God says, "Lift up your eyes, and look ... for all the land which you see I will give to you and to your descendants for ever. I will make your descendants as the dust of the earth; so that if one can count the dust of the earth, your descendants also can be counted. Arise, walk through the length and the breadth of the land, for I will give it to you."[32] The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest...


Lot is taken prisoner during a war between the King of Shinar[33] and the King of Sodom and their allies, "four kings against five." Abram rescues Lot and is blessed by Melchizedek, king of Salem (the future Jerusalem) and "priest of God Most High". Abram refuses the King of Sodom's offer of the spoils of victory, saying: "I have sworn to the LORD God Most High, maker of heaven and earth, that I would not take a thread or a sandal-thong or anything that is yours, lest you should say, `I have made Abram rich.'"[34] Shinar (Hebrew Šin`ar, Septuagint Σεννααρ Sennaar) is a broad designation applied to Mesopotamia, occurring eight times in the Hebrew Bible. ... Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek — by Dieric Bouts the Elder, 1464–67 Melchizedek or Malki-tzédek (מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק / מַלְכִּי־צָדֶק, Standard Hebrew Malki-ẓédeq / Malki-ẓádeq, Tiberian Hebrew Malkî-ṣéḏeq / Malkî-ṣāḏeq), sometimes written Malchizedek, Melchisedec, Melchisedech, Melchisedek or Melkisedek, is a figure mentioned by various sects of both Christian and Judaic traditions. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


God makes a covenant with Abram, promising that Abram's descendants shall be as numerous as the stars in the heavens, that they shall suffer oppression in a foreign land for four hundred years, but that they shall inherit the land "from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates."[35] For alternative meanings of Nile, see Nile (disambiguation) The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The Nile (Arabic: ا&#1604... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ...


Sarai, being childless, tells Abram to take his Egyptian handmaiden, Hagar, as wife. Hagar becomes pregnant with Ishmael,[36] and God appears to her to promise that the child will be "a wild ass of a man, his hand against every man and every man's hand against him," whose descendants "cannot be numbered."[37] The dismissal of Hagar, 1612 by Pieter Pietersz Lastman Hagar (Hebrew הָגָר Stranger, Standard Hebrew Hagar, Tiberian Hebrew ; Arabic هاجر; Hagar), according to the Abrahamic faiths, was an Egyptian handmaiden (or slave-girl) of Sarah, wife of Abraham. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ...


God makes a covenant with Abram: Abram will have a numerous progeny and the possession of the land of Canaan, and Abram's name is changed to "Abraham"[38] and that of Sarai to "Sarah," and circumcision of all males is instituted as an external sign of the covenant. Abraham asks of God that Ishmael "might live in Thy sight," but God replies that Sarah will bear a son, who will be named Isaac,[39] and that it is with Isaac and his descendants that the covenant will be established. "As for Ishmael, I have heard you; behold, I will bless him and make him fruitful and multiply him exceedingly; he shall be the father of twelve princes, and I will make him a great nation. But I will establish my covenant with Isaac."[40] This article is about male circumcision. ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ...


God appears again to Abraham. Three strangers[41] appear, and Abraham receives them hospitably. God tells him that Sarah will shortly bear a son, and Sarah, overhearing, laughs: "After I have grown old, and my husband is old, shall I have pleasure?"[42] God tells Abraham that he will punish Sodom, "because the outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is great and their sin is very grave." The strangers depart. Abraham protests that it is not just "to slay the righteous with the wicked," and asks if the whole city can be spared if even ten righteous men are found there. God replies: "For the sake of ten I will not destroy it."[43] For other uses, see Sodom and Gomorrah (disambiguation). ...


The two[44] messengers are hospitably received by Lot. The men of Sodom surround the house and demand to have sexual relations with the strangers; Lot offers his two virgin daughters in place of the messengers, but the men refuse. Lot and his family are led out of Sodom, and Sodom and Gomorrah are destroyed by fire-and-brimstone; but Lot's wife, looking back, is turned to a pillar of salt. Lot's daughters, fearing that they will not find husbands and that Lot's line will die out, make their father drunk and lie with him; their children become the ancestors of the Moabites and Ammonites.[45] This article is about sexual practices (i. ... According to the Bible and the Quran, Lot (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: لوط, ; Hidden, covered[1]) was the nephew of the patriarch, Abraham or Abram. ... According to the Bible and the Quran, Lot (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: لوط, ; Hidden, covered[1]) was the nephew of the patriarch, Abraham or Abram. ... Fire and brimstone is a motif in Christian preaching that uses vivid descriptions of hell and damnation to encourage the listeners to fear divine wrath and punishment. ... Missing image Image:pillarofsaltangel. ... Moab (מוֹאָב Seed of father/leader, Standard Hebrew Moʾav, Tiberian Hebrew Môʾāḇ) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... For the extinct mollusc see Ammonite. ...


Abraham represents Sarah as his sister before Abimelech,[46] king of Gerar. God visits a curse of barrenness upon Abimelech and his household and warns the king that Sarah is Abraham's wife, not his sister. Abimelech restores Sarah to Abraham, loads them both with gifts and sends them away.[47] pages edit history. ...


Isaac

Sarah gives birth to Isaac, saying, "God has made laughter for me, everyone who hears will laugh over me." At Sarah's insistence Ishmael and his mother Hagar are driven out into the wilderness. While Ishmael is near dying, an angel speaks to Hagar and promises that God will not forget them but will make of Ishmael a great nation; "Then God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water; and she went, and filled the skin with water, ... And God was with the lad, and he grew up..." Abraham enters into a covenant with Abimelech, who confirms his right to the well of Beer-sheba.[48] Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... Hebrew   (Standard) Bəʼer ŠévaÊ» Arabic بِئْرْ اَلْسَبْعْ ( ) Name Meaning Well of the Oath(see also) Government City Also Spelled Beer Sheva (officially) District South Population 185,500 (Metro 531,000) (2005) Jurisdiction 54,000 dunams (54 km²) Mayor Yaacov Turner Beersheba (Hebrew romanization Beer Sheva), the largest city in the...


God puts Abraham to the test by demanding the sacrifice of Isaac. Abraham obeys; but, as he is about to lay the knife upon his son, God restrains him, promising him numberless descendants.[49] On the death of Sarah, Abraham purchases Machpelah for a family tomb[50] and sends his servant to Mesopotamia, Nahor's home, to find among his relations a wife for Isaac; and Rebekah, Nahor's granddaughter, is chosen.[51] Other children are born to Abraham by another wife, Keturah, among whose descendants are the Midianites; and he dies in a prosperous old age and is buried in his tomb at Hebron.[52] Abraham Sacrificing Isaac by Laurent de LaHire, 1650 Akedah or the Binding of Isaac (‎, Akedát Yitzhák) in Genesis 22, is narration from the Hebrew Bible, in which God asks Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac on Mount Moriah. ... The Cave of the Patriarchs is considered to be the spiritual center of the ancient city of Hebron. ... Arabic الخليل Government City Also Spelled al-Khalil (officially) al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 166,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city in the southern Judea...


Jacob

Isaac's wife Rebecca is barren, but Isaac prays to God, and she gives birth to the twins Esau,[53] and Jacob.[54] While the twins were still in the womb God stated that the two would be forever divided, and that the elder would serve the younger. When they are older, Esau the hunter sells his birthright to Jacob for a bowl of red porridge, and "therefore his name was called Edom."[55] Rebekah (Rebecca or Rivkah) (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ) is the wife of Isaac. ... Esaw redirects here. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Edomite redirects here. ...


Isaac represents Rebekah as his sister before Abimelech, king of Gerar. Abimelech learns of the deception and is angered. Isaac is fortunate in all his undertakings in that country. His prosperity excites the jealousy of Abimelech, who sends him away; but the king sees that Isaac is blessed by God and makes a covenant with him at the well of Beer-sheba.[56]


Jacob deceives his father Isaac and obtains the blessing of prosperity[57] which should have been Esau's. Fearing Esau's anger he flees to Haran, the home of his mother's brother Laban.[58] Isaac, prohibiting Jacob from marrying a Canaanite woman, tells him to go and marry one of Laban's daughters. On the way, Jacob falls asleep on a stone and dreams of a ladder stretching from Heaven to Earth and thronged with angels, and God promises him prosperity and many descendants; and when he awakes Jacob sets the stone as a pillar[59] and names the place Bethel.[60] Canaanite can describe anything pertaining to Canaan: in particular, its languages and inhabitants. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... Bethel (בית אל), also written as Beth El or Beth-El, is a Semitic word that has acquired various meanings. ...


Jacob hires himself to Laban on condition that, after having served for seven years as a herdsman, he shall marry the younger daughter, Rachel, with whom he is in love. At the end of this period Laban gives him the elder daughter, Leah, explaining that it is the custom to marry the elder before the younger. Jacob serves another seven years for Rachel, and he has sons by his two wives and their two handmaidens, the ancestors of the tribes of Israel. Jacob then works another six years, deceiving Laban to increase his flocks at his uncle's expense, and gains great wealth in sheep, goats, camels, donkeys and slave-girls. This article is about the Biblical character. ... Look up Leah, לֵאָה in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a list of the Tribes of Israel. ...


Jacob flees with his family and flocks from Laban; Laban pursues and catches him, but God warns Laban not to harm Jacob, and they are reconciled.[61] On approaching his home he is in fear of Esau, to whom he sends presents under the care of his servants, and then sends his wives and children away. "And Jacob was left alone; and a man wrestled with him until the breaking of the day."[62] Neither Jacob nor the stranger can prevail, but the man touches Jacob's thigh[63] and pleads to be released before daybreak, but Jacob refuses to release the being until he agrees to give a blessing; the stranger then announces to Jacob that he shall bear the name "Israel", "for you have striven with God and with men, and have prevailed."[64] and is freed. "The sun rose upon him as he passed Penuel,[65] limping because of his thigh."[66]


The meeting with Esau proves friendly, and the brothers are reconciled: "to see your face is like seeing the face of God," is Jacob's greeting. The brothers part, and Jacob settles near the city of Shechem.[67] Jacob's daughter Dinah goes out, and "Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her, he seized her and lay with her and humbled her".[68] Shechem asks Jacob for Dinah's hand in marriage, but the sons of Jacob deceive the men of Shechem and slaughter them and take captive their wives and children and loot the city. Jacob is angered that his sons have brought upon him the enmity of the Canaanites, but his sons say, "Should he treat our sister as a harlot?"[69] Shechem is a name of geographical places. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...


Jacob goes up to Bethel; there "God said to him, Your name is Jacob; no longer shall your name be called Jacob, but Israel shall be your name. So his name was called Israel"; and Jacob sets up a stone pillar at the place and names it Bethel. He goes up to his father Isaac at Hebron, and there Isaac dies and is buried.[70]


Joseph

Jacob makes a coat of many colours[71] for his favourite son, Joseph. Jacob's son Judah takes a Canaanite wife and has two sons, Er and Onan; Er dies, and his widow Tamar, disguised as a prostitute, tricks Judah into having a child by her (Onan, who should have fathered the child, refused). She gives birth to twins, the elder of whom is Pharez, ancestor of the future royal house of David. Joseph's jealous brothers sell him to some Ishmaelites and show Jacob the coat, dipped in goat's blood, as proof that Joseph is dead. Meanwhile the Midianites[72] sell Joseph to Potiphar, the captain of Pharaoh's guard,[73] but Potiphar's wife, unable to seduce Joseph, accuses him falsely, and he is cast into prison.[74] Here he correctly interprets the dreams of two of his fellow prisoners, the king's butler and baker.[75] Joseph next interprets the dream of Pharaoh, of seven fat cattle and seven lean cattle, as meaning seven years of plenty followed by seven years of famine, and advises Pharaoh to store grain during the good years. He is appointed second in the kingdom, and, in the ensuing famine, "all the earth came to Egypt to Joseph to buy grain, because the famine was severe over all the earth."[76] Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh. ... otheruses}} The story of Onan is found in the Bible in Genesis 38:1-10. ... In the Bible Tamar - תָּמָר Date Palm, Standard Hebrew Tamar, Tiberian Hebrew Tāmār was the daughter-in-law of Judah, to whose eldest son, Er, she was married (Gen. ... In the Book of Genesis, Pharez or Péretz (פֶּרֶץ / פָּרֶץ Breach, Standard Hebrew Péreẓ / Páreẓ, Tiberian Hebrew Péreá¹£ / Pāreá¹£) is the son of Judah by the Canaanitish woman Tamar. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... According to Quranic tradition Ibrahim had two wives Sarah and Hajira. ... According to the Bible, Midian (מִדְיָן Strife; judgment, Standard Hebrew Midyan, Tiberian Hebrew Miḏyān) was a son of Abraham and his concubine Keturah (Genesis 25:1-6). ... Potiphar (or Potifar) (Hebrew: פּוֹטִיפַר / פּוֹטִיפָר, Standard  Tiberian  /  ; Egyptian origin:  ; the one whom Ra gave. ...


Jacob sends his sons to Egypt to buy grain. The brothers appear before Joseph, who recognizes them but does not reveal himself. After having proved them on this and on a second journey, and they having shown themselves so fearful and penitent that Judah even offers himself as a slave, Joseph reveals his identity, forgives his brothers the wrong they did him, and he promises to settle in Egypt both them and his father[77] Jacob brings his whole family to Egypt, where Pharaoh assigns to them the land of Goshen.[78] Jacob receives Joseph's sons Ephraim and Manasseh among his own sons,[79] then calls his sons to his bedside and reveals their future to them.[80] Jacob dies and is interred in the family tomb at Machpelah (Hebron). Joseph lives to see his great-grandchildren, and on his death-bed he exhorts his brethren, if God should remember them and lead them out of the country, to take his bones with them. The book ends with Joseph's remains being "put in a coffin in Egypt."[81] The Land of Goshen (Hebrew גֹּשֶׁן, Standard Hebrew Góšen, Tiberian Hebrew Gōšen) is the region around the city with the modern name Fakus in the eastern Nile delta in Egypt referenced in the Biblical story of Joseph. ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ...


Composition

Bereshit aleph, or the first chapter of Genesis, written on an egg, which is kept in the Israel Museum.
Bereshit aleph, or the first chapter of Genesis, written on an egg, which is kept in the Israel Museum.

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (765x907, 247 KB) The original from which this was cropped. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (765x907, 247 KB) The original from which this was cropped. ... The road sign The Shrine of the Book The Israel Museum (‎, Muzion Yisrael) in Jerusalem, was founded in 1965 as Israels national museum. ...

Manuscripts

The oldest extant Masoretic (Hebrew) manuscripts of Genesis are the Aleppo Codex dated to ca. 920 AD, and the Westminster Leningrad Codex dated to 1008 AD. There are also fragments of unvocalized Hebrew Genesis texts preserved in some Dead Sea scrolls (1st century BC). According to tradition the Torah was translated into Greek (the Septuagint, or 70, from the traditional number of translators) in the 3rd century BC. The oldest Greek manuscripts include 2nd century BC fragments of Leviticus and Deuteronomy[82] and 1st century BC fragments of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and the Minor Prophets.[83] Relatively complete manuscripts of the Septuagint include the Codex Vaticanus and the Codex Sinaiticus of the 4th century and the Codex Alexandrinus of the 5th century—these are the oldest surviving nearly-complete manuscripts of the Old Testament in any language. There are minor variations between the Greek and Hebrew texts, and between the three oldest Greek texts. The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... The Aleppo Codex (the Keter (Crown) Aram Tzova) is the oldest complete manuscript Hebrew Bible, though scrolls of individual books of the Tanakh are much older (see Dead Sea scrolls). ... Leningrad Codex (cover page E, folio 474a) The Leningrad Codex (Codex Leningradensis) is the oldest surviving complete copy of the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible, dated 1008. ... The Dead Sea Scrolls comprise roughly 900 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea) in the West Bank. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... A minor prophet is a book in Minor Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible also known to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Page from Codex Vaticanus Graece 1209, B/03 The Codex Vaticanus (The Vatican, Bibl. ... A portion of the Codex Sinaiticus, containing Esther 2:3-8. ... Folio 65v from the Codex Alexandrinus contains the end of the Gospel of Luke with the decorative tailpiece found at the end of each book. ...


Composition

For much of the 20th century, academic scholarship on the origins of Genesis was dominated by the documentary hypothesis advanced by Julius Wellhausen in the late 19th century. This sees Genesis as a composite work assembled from originally independent sources: the J text, named for its use of the term YHWH (JHWH in German) as the name of God; the E text, named for its characteristic usage of the term "Elohim" for God; and the P, or Priestly source, named for its peoccupation with the Aaronid priesthood. These texts were composed independently between 950 BC and 500 BC and underwent numerous processes of redaction, emerging in their current form in around 450 BC. Several anomalous sources not traceable to any of the three major documents have been identified, notably Genesis 14 (the battle of Abraham and the "Kings of the East"), and the "Blessing of Jacob" contained in the Joseph narrative. One such work, the Book of Generations, was used by the Redactor (final editor of the Pentateuch) to provide the narrative framework for Genesis, ten occurrences of the toledot (Hebrew "generations") formula introducing ten units of the book.[84] A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ... Julius Wellhausen (May 17, 1844 - January 17, 1918), was a German biblical scholar and Orientalist. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... Holy name redirects here. ... This article is about the Hebrew word. ... The Priestly Source (P) is the most recent of the four sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... The Book of generations is a partially lost text that the modern documentary hypothesis claims was used by the redactor of the torah to connect up parts of the priestly source and the JE source. ... The Torah redactor (R) is, according to the documentary hypothesis, the figure who assembled hypothetical source texts of the Torah—the Deuteronomist text (D), the Priestly text P, and JE (an earlier joining of the Jahwist text [J] and the Elohist text [E])—into a single work. ...


For centuries, Moses had been believed to have been the author of Genesis, and Wellhausen's hypothesis was thus received by traditionally-minded Jews and Christians as an attack on one of their central beliefs. But in the first half of the 20th century the science of Biblical archaeology, developed by William F. Albright and his followers, combined with the new methods of biblical scholarship known as source criticism and tradition history, developed by Hermann Gunkel, Robert Alter and Martin Noth, seemed to demonstrate that the stories of Genesis (or at least, the stories of the Patriarchs—the early part of Genesis from the Creation to the Tower of Babel—were already regarded as legendary by mainstream scholarship) were based in genuinely ancient oral tradition grounded in the material culture of the 2nd millennium BC. Thus by the middle of the 20th century it seemed that archaeology and scholarship had reconciled Wellhausen with a modified version of authorship by Moses.[85] Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible. ... William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 - September 19/20, 1971) was an evangelical Methodist archaelogist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on ceramics. ... Source Criticism is an aspect of historical criticism, a method of literary study used especially in the field of biblical criticism that seeks to understand a literary piece better by attempting to establish the sources used by the author and/or redactor who put the literary piece together. ... Tradition history/criticism is a methodology of Biblical criticism that was developed by Hermann Gunkel. ... Translated and abridged from the German version of wikipedia. ... Robert Alter is a Biblical scholar, and a professor of Hebrew and Comparative Literature at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has taught since 1967. ... Martin Noth (August 3, 1902 - May 30, 1968 was a German scholar of the Hebrew Bible who specialized in the pre-Exilic history of the Hebrews. ...


This consensus collapsed in the 1970s. The immediate cause was the publication of two seminal books, Thomas L. Thompson's "The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives" (1974), and John Van Seters's "Abraham in History and Tradition" (1975), both of which pointed out that the archaeological evidence connecting the author of Genesis to the 2nd millennium BC could equally well apply to the 1st millennium, and that oral traditions were not nearly so easily recoverable as Gunkel and others had said. A third influential work, R. N. Whybray's "The Making of the Pentateuch" (1987), analysed the assumptions underlying Wellhausen's work and found them illogical and unconvincing, and William G. Dever attacked the philosophical foundations of Albrightean biblical archaeology, arguing that it was neither desirable nor possible to use the bible to interpret the archaeological record. Thomas L. Thompson is a Baháí[1] American biblical theologian, born Jan 7, 1939 in Detroit Michigan. ... The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives (Walter de Gruyter, Berlin/Nwe York, 1974) is a book by biblical scholar Thomas L. Thompson, Professor of Old Testament Studies at the University of Copenhagen. ... John Van Seters is a notable scholar on the Ancient Near East. ... This article is confusing for some readers, and needs to be edited for clarity. ... R.N. Whybray (1923-1997) was a Biblical scholar and specialist in Hebrew studies. ... The Making of the Pentateuch (The Making of the Pentateuch: A Methodological Study, JSOT Press, Sheffield, 1987) by R. N. Whybray, Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Studies at the University of Hull (UK), was a major contribution to the field of Old Testament studies, and specifically to theories on... William G. Dever is an American archaeologist, specialising in the history of Israel and the Near East in Biblical times, who was Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona from 1975 to 2002. ...


The theories currently being advanced can be divided into three models: revisions of Wellhausen's documentary model, of which Richard Elliot Friedman's is one of the better known;[86] fragmentary models such as that of R. N. Whybray, who sees the Torah as the product of a single author working from a multitude of small fragments rather than from large coherent source texts;[87] and supplementary models such as that advanced by John Van Seters, who sees in Genesis the gradual accretion of material over many centuries and from many hands.[88] The 19th century dating of the final form of Genesis and the Pentateuch to c. 500-450 BC continues to be widely accepted irrespective of the model adopted,[89] although a minority of scholars known as biblical minimalists argue for a date largely or entirely within the last two centuries before Christ. Richard Elliot Friedman is a writer and Professor of Hebrew and Comparative Literature at UCSD. He is also Katzin Professor of Jewish Civilization: Hebrew Bible; Near Eastern Languages and Literatures. ... R.N. Whybray (1923-1997) was a Biblical scholar and specialist in Hebrew studies. ... John Van Seters is a notable scholar on the Ancient Near East. ... The article concerns the historicity of the Bible; i. ...


Alongside these new approaches to the history of the text has come an increasing interest in the way the narratives tell their stories, concentrating not on the origins of Genesis but on its meaning, both for the society which produced it and for the modern day, placing "a new emphasis on the narrative's purpose to shape audiences' perceptions of the world around them and to instruct them in how to live in this world and relate to its God."[90]


Themes

The Flammarion woodcut portrays the cosmos as described in Genesis chapter 1.
The Flammarion woodcut portrays the cosmos as described in Genesis chapter 1.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1162x973, 295 KB) There is also this alternate version of the same picture (with the original caption). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1162x973, 295 KB) There is also this alternate version of the same picture (with the original caption). ... Image and text from page 163 of Latmosphère: météorologie populaire, by Camille Flammarion, 1888. ...

Cosmology

Genesis 1-11 "appears to be a reformatting of motifs and characters from four Mesopotamian myths, Adapa and the South Wind, Atrahasis, the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Enuma Elish."[91] The Babylonian myths are inverted in the Hebrew retelling: for example, the Babylonian serpent-god Ningishzida is a friend of mankind who helps the human hero Adapa in his search for immortality, while Genesis' serpent is man's enemy, seeking to trick Adam out of the chance to attain immortality.[92] The inversions represent a rejection of the power of Babylon's gods in favour of the might of Yahweh; more than this, they replace the essentially optimistic worldview of the Mesopotamian mythos - "things were not nearly as good to begin with as they have become since" - with a worldview in which the world was created perfect but grew steadily worse, "until God finally had to do away with all mankind except for the pious Noah who would beget a new and better stock."[93] Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Adapa or Adamu son of Ea (according to Sayce) was a Babylonian mythical figure who accidentally rejected the gift of immortality. ... The 18th century BC Akkadian Atra-Hasis epic, named after its human hero, contains both a creation and a flood account, and is one of three surviving Babylonian flood stories. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... Enûma Elish is the creation epic of Babylonian mythology. ... The Sumerian god Ningizzida accompanied by two gryphons. ... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ...


The religion of the Patriarchs

In 1929 Albrecht Alt proposed that the Hebrews arrived in Canaan at different times and as different groups, each with its nameless "gods of the fathers," In time these gods were assimilated with the Canaanite El, and names such as "El, God of Israel" emerged. The "god of Abraham" then became identified with the "god of Isaac" and so on. Finally "Yahweh" was introduced in the Mosaic period. The authors of Genesis, living in a later period when Yahweh had become the only God, partly obscured and partly preserved this history in their attempt to demonstrate that the patriarchs shared their own monotheistic worship of Yahweh. According to Alt, the theology of the earliest period and of later fully-developed monotheistic Judaism were nevertheless identical: both Yahweh and the tribal gods revealed himself/themselves to the patriarchs, promised them descendants, and protected them in their wanderings; they in turn enjoyed a special relationship with their god, worshipped him, and established holy places in his honour. Albrecht Alt (born 20 September 1883 in Stübach (Franconia); died 24 April 1956 in Leipzig), was a leading German Protestant theologian. ... EL or El may mean: Electroluminescence, an optical and electrical phenomenon where a material such as a natural blue diamond emits light when an electric current is passed through it. ...


In 1934 Julius Lewy, drawing on the recently discovered Ugarit texts, argued that the "god of Abraham" was not anonymous, but was probably El Shaddai, "El of the Mountain", El being identified with a mythical holy mountain. The name Shaddai, however, remains mysterious, and has also been identified with both a specific city and with a Hebrew root meaning "breast".[94] In 1962 Frank Moore Cross concluded that the name Yahweh developed as one of the many epithets of El: "El the creator, he who causes to be." For Cross the continuity between El and Yahweh explained how the other El-names could continue to be used in Genesis, and why Baal - in Canaanite mythology a rival to El who gradually took over the father-god's position - was regarded with such hostility.[95] More recently, Mark S. Smith has returned to the Ugarit texts to show how polytheism "was a feature of Israelite religion down through the end of the Iron Age and how monotheism emerged in the seventh and sixth centuries." [96] Excavated ruins at Ras Shamra. ... Shaddai was a late Bronze age Amorite city on the banks of the Euphrates river, in northern Syria, as well as the name, or a signifying epithet of a West Semitic deity, whose name was attached by the Hebrews to that of El as one of the names of God... Frank Moore Cross, Jr. ...


In contrast to this picture of a Canaanite background to Genesis, Lloyd R. Bailey (1968) and E.L. Abel (1973) have suggested that Abraham worshipped Sin the Amorite moon-god of Harran, pointing, among other things, to Abraham's association with Harran and Ur, both centres of the cult of Sin, to the epithet "Father of the gods" applied to Sin (comparable to Abram's name, "Exalted Father") and to the close similarity between names associated with Abraham and with Sin: Sarah/Sarratu (Sin's wife); Milcah/Malkatu (Sin's daughter); and Terah/Ter (a name of Sin).[97] M. Haran has also distinguished between Canaanite and Patriarchal religion, pointing out that the Patriarchs never worship at existing shrines but build their own, fitting a semi-nomadic lifestyle. He also points to the invocation of Shaddai by Baalam and the identification of the Patriarchal God with the "sons of Eber" in Genesis 10:21 as evidence that their god was not originally Canaanite. Gordon Wenham has pointed out that Il/El is a well-known member of the third-millennium Mesopotamian pantheon, concluding: "Whether El was ever identified with the moon god is uncertain. To judge from the names of Abraham's relations and the cult of his home town, his ancestors at least were moon-god worshippers. Whether he continued to honour this god identifying him with El, or converted to El, is unclear."[98] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For the language, see Amorite language. ... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Åžanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Åžanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... Milcah (Hebrew for queen) is the name of two women in the Hebrew Bible: Milcah daughter of Haran in Genesis, and Milcah daughter of Zelophehad in Numbers and Joshua. ... Terah or Térach (Hebrew: תֶּרַח / תָּרַח, Standard  / Tiberian  /  ; Wanderer; loiterer) // Terah was the father of Abraham mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... Gordon Wenham is a theologian and author of several books about the Bible. ...


Covenants

The covenants are a major theme in Genesis, "yet it has long been recognised that many of the promises are not original parts of the stories in which they are found."[99] Otto Eissfeldt, an early scholar of the Ugarit texts, recognised that in Ugarit the promise of a son was given to kings together with promises of blessing and numerous descendants, a clear parallel to the pattern of Genesis. Claus Westermann, (1964 and 1976), analysing the Genesis covenants in the light of Ugarit and Icelandic sagas, came to the conclusion that the Patriarchal stories were usually lacking any promises in their original form. Westermann saw the promise of a son in Genesis 16:11 and 18:1-15 as genuine, as well as the promise of land behind 15:7-21 and 28:13-15; the rest he saw as representing later editors.[100] Rolf Rendtorff accepts Westermann's thesis that the Patriarchal stories were originally independent, and suggests that the promises were added to link the stories of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob into cycles which grew through a process of gradual accretion into the final book. John Van Seters, in contrast, sees Genesis as a late and unified composition, from which it is impossible to excise the Covenants without doing damage to the overall narrative.[101] Rev. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... John Van Seters is a notable scholar on the Ancient Near East. ...


Genesis and subsequent tradition

Christianity

The early Church, with its Jewish roots, assumed an authoritative nature for Genesis and based its own emerging theology on this and other Jewish holy texts. The author of the gospel of John paraphrased Genesis 1 to personify the eternal logos (Greek λογος, "reason", "word", "speech"): "In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God." This passage marks the first definitive emergence of the distinctive Christian concept of the Trinity, and thus of Christianity's emerging break with Judaism in the late 1st century. The serpent of Eden became Satan, and Genesis 3:15, "He shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his heel," became the Protevangelium, the "First Gospel", predicting the coming of the Messiah who would be victorious over evil and Satan; Jesus was interpreted as the "new Adam" who would redeem mankind from the sin of Eden, and the Ark of Noah became symbolic of the Church itself, offering salvation through the waters of baptism. The Abrahamic covenant was reinterpreted to further underline the separation from Judaism: God's promise of a chosen people had passed from the children of Abraham, who had rejected Jesus, and was bestowed upon all those who accepted the new Covenant between God, in the divine person of his Son, and his Church. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ...


Not only the general theology of Christianity but also specific narrative details of the new faith drew on the authority of Genesis: thus the three angelic strangers who visit Abraham to announce the birth of Isaac are paralleled by the (inferred) three magi who visit the infant Jesus; and the tale of Joseph in Egypt is echoed by the Holy Family's flight into Egypt. For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... Jacopo Bellinis Madonna and Child Blessing depicts the infant Jesus in the act of blessing the viewer The Child Jesus, or Christ Child is Jesus as an infant up to the age of twelve, when he was considered to have become adult, following both the Jewish custom of his... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Islam

Many of the stories from Genesis are retold in the Qur'an, with frequent variations. The Qur'an emphasises the moral stature of the Prophets; stories such as the drunkenness of Lot therefore find no place in it. While Islam accepts the Torah in principle, the view of Islamic scholarship is that the revelation given to earlier times had become somehow corrupted, and that the only valid text is that revealed by god to his prophet Mohammed. The Qur'an is believed by them to be the final revelation, contains the essence of all previous revelations, including the Torah. Christians in turn believe the New Testament to be this final revelation. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... According to the Bible and the Quran, Lot (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: لوط, ; Hidden, covered[1]) was the nephew of the patriarch, Abraham or Abram. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


See also

Enûma Eliš is the Babylonian creation epic. ... The Bible is a compilation of various texts or books of different age. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... The article concerns the historicity of the Bible. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible refers to the common portions of the Jewish and Christian canons. ... Bill Reids sculpture The Raven and The First Men, showing part of a Haida creation story. ... In Jewish services, the Torah is read over the course of a year, with one major portion read each week in the Sabbath morning service. ... Bereishit, Bereshit, Bereishis, Breshith, Beresheet, or Bereshees (בראשית, Hebrew for in beginning,” the first word in the parsha) is the first weekly parsha or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. ... Noach is the second weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. ... Lech-Lecha, Lekh-Lekha, or Lech-Lcha (לך לך – Hebrew for go!” or leave! or go for you – the first two words in the parshah) is the third weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. ... Vayeira, Vayera, or Va-yera (וירא — Hebrew for and He appeared,” the first word in the parshah) is the fourth weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. ... Chayei Sarah, Chaye Sarah, or Hayye Sarah (חַיֵּי שָׂרָה — Hebrew for “life of Sarah,” the first words in the parshah) is the fifth weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. ... Toledot, Toldot, or Toldoth (תּוֹלְדֹת — Hebrew for “line” or “story,” the second word and the first distinctive word in the parshah) is the sixth weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. ... Vayetze, Vayeitzei, or Vayetzei (Hebrew for “and he left”) is the seventh weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. ... Vayishlach or Vayishlah (וישלח – Hebrew for “and he sent,” the first word of the parshah) is the eighth weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. ... Vayeshev, Vayeishev, or Vayesheb (וישב – Hebrew for “and he lived,” the first word of the parshah) is the ninth weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. ... Miketz or Mikeitz (מקץ – Hebrew for “at the end,” the second word – and first distinctive word – of the parshah) is the tenth weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. ... Vayigash (ויגש – Hebrew for “and he went up” or “then he went up,” the first word of the parshah) is the eleventh weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. ... Vayechi, Vayehi, or Vayhi (ויחי – Hebrew for “and he lived”) is the twelfth weekly parshah or portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the last in the book of Genesis. ... This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... The framework interpretation (also known as the literary framework view, framework theory, or framework hypothesis) is an interpretation of the first chapter of the Book of Genesis which holds that the seven-day creation account found therein is not a literal or scientific description of the origins of the universe... Allegorical interpretations of Genesis is devoted to historical and contemporary non-literal regarding the book of Genesis. ... Genesis Rabba, (Breshit Rabba in Hebrew), is a religious text holy to classical Judaism. ... This article is about the biblical text. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Hebrew word #7225 in Strong's
  2. ^ Genesis uses the words YHWH and Elohim (and El) for God; the combined form in Gen.2 and 3,YHWH Elohim, usually translated as "LORD God", is unique to these two chapters.
  3. ^ Genesis 1. This is the reading found in most English translations; however, the Hebrew is less clear-cut, and Rashi translated this passage as: "In the beginning of God's creation of heaven and earth, the earth was without form and empty...", while the Genesis Rabba has: "In the beginning of God's creation....when the earth was without form and empty....God said, 'Let there be light."See the translation of Genesis at World ORT, [1], footnote to verse 1.
  4. ^ The Hebrew for "man" can have the generalized meaning of "mankind", but creates problems with rendering pronouns in English translation.
  5. ^ Hebrew Adamah, earth, and Adam, man. Both are related to adom, red, and dam blood.
  6. ^ "The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being”) is often translated “soul,” but the word usually refers to the whole person. The phrase נֶפֶשׁ חַיַּה (nefesh khayyah, “living being”) is used of both animals and human beings." Netbible (see fn. 4)
  7. ^ Ishah, woman, and ish, man
  8. ^ Genesis 2.
  9. ^ Sometimes translated as a plural: "You shall be as gods."
  10. ^ Hebrew Havva, "life".
  11. ^ Genesis 3.
  12. ^ Literally, "in the land of Wandering".
  13. ^ Genesis 4.
  14. ^ Genesis 4.
  15. ^ The meaning of this phrase at Genesis 5:24 was the subject of much discussion in later Jewish literature, being taken by the rabbinic commentators to mean that Enoch did not die.
  16. ^ Genesis 5.
  17. ^ The text implies that God is limiting the human lifespan to 120 years, as reached by Moses; but many individuals after this point are recorded as living longer, and later Jewish commentators interpreted the passage to mean that God was giving mankind 120 years to repent before sending the Flood.
  18. ^ Genesis 6. The term Nephilim is mentioned in Genesis, Enoch and Jubilees as applying to a pre-Flood race; but in Numbers 13:33 the Hebrew scouts sent to spy out the Promised Land report them as living there. References to "post-Flood Nephilim" gave rise to Talmudic traditions that their forebear, Og of Bashan, had survived the Deluge by clinging to the outside of the Ark.
  19. ^ Hebrew "Rest": Noah's father Lamech gives this name to his son saying, "Out of the ground which the Lord has cursed this one shall bring us relief from our work and from the toil of our hands." (Gen.5:29)
  20. ^ Genesis 6.
  21. ^ Genesis 7. and Genesis 8.
  22. ^ Genesis 9. The details of the covenant are: God forbids the eating of flesh with blood, "that is, its life," still in it, forbids murder, and institutes the death penalty for murderers; in return, God promises never again to visit a deluge upon all the world, and places the first rainbow in the clouds as a sign of the covenant.
  23. ^ Genesis 9.
  24. ^ Genesis 10.
  25. ^ Hebrew Babal, "confusion"; but if the story is based on the ziggurat of Babylon the etymology is incorrect, as the Akkadian "Babilu", the English Babylon, means "Gate of God"
  26. ^ Genesis 11.
  27. ^ Genesis 12.
  28. ^ Hebrew ab, "father", plus ram, "exalted".
  29. ^ Genesis 11.
  30. ^ Genesis 12.
  31. ^ Genesis 12.
  32. ^ Genesis 13.
  33. ^ An inexact location, but roughly equivalent to the lands of the Tigris and Euphrates.
  34. ^ Genesis 14.
  35. ^ Genesis 15. The "river of Egypt", traditionally identified not with the Nile but with Wadi el Arish in the Sinai, and the Euphrates, represent the supposed bounds of Israel at its height under Solomon.
  36. ^ Hebrew Yishmael, "God will hear".
  37. ^ Genesis 16.
  38. ^ The name Abraham has no meaning in Hebrew. It is traditionally supposed to signify "Father of Multitudes," although the Hebrew for this would be "Abhamon".
  39. ^ Hebrew Yitzhak, "he laughed," sometimes rendered as "he rejoiced" - three explanations of the name are given, the first in this chapter where Abraham laughs when told that Sarah will bear a son.
  40. ^ Genesis 17.
  41. ^ Often translated as "angels", but the Hebrew refers to men.
  42. ^ The second explanation of the name Isaac - in the first, at chapter 17, it is Abraham who laughs.
  43. ^ Genesis 18. Abraham's intercession on behalf of the people of Sodom is the foundation of the important Jewish tradition of righteousness.
  44. ^ Genesis 18 describes three messengers, Genesis 19 two. The traditional gloss is that God was one of the three who came to Abraham and stayed with him while the other two went on to Sodom.
  45. ^ Genesis 19.
  46. ^ Literally, "father-king", apparently a title.
  47. ^ Genesis 20.
  48. ^ Genesis 21.
  49. ^ Genesis 22.
  50. ^ Genesis 23.
  51. ^ Genesis 24.
  52. ^ Genesis 25.
  53. ^ Hebrew Esav, "made" or "completed".
  54. ^ Hebrew Yaakov, from a root meaning "crooked, bent", usually interpreted as meaning "heel" - according to the narrative he was born second, holding Esau's heel. The precise meaning is unclear.
  55. ^ Edom, literally "red". Genesis 25.
  56. ^ Genesis 26.
  57. ^ "May God give you of the dew of heaven, and of the fatness of the earth, and plenty of grain and wine. 29: Let peoples serve you, and nations bow down to you. Be lord over your brothers, and may your mother's sons bow down to you. Cursed be every one who curses you, and blessed be every one who blesses you!" (Genesis 27:28-29)
  58. ^ Genesis 27.
  59. ^ Traditionally the place where this pillar is erected is identified as the site of the Holy of Holies within the Jewish Temple at Jerusalem.
  60. ^ Genesis 28. The name Bethel in Hebrew and related West Semitic languages means "House of El;" in later Jewish tradition the name was taken to mean "House of God."
  61. ^ Genesis 31.
  62. ^ Literally, "a stranger," traditionally interpreted as an angel or as God.
  63. ^ Hebrew wayyiga bekap-yereko. This is usually translated as "struck (or touched) the hollow of his thigh"; but yerek is also applied to male or female genitals, suggesting that the intended meaning is that the stranger seized Jacob's scrotum, and Jacob's subsequent injury can be construed as a hernia rather than a dislocated hip or thigh. See Lyle Eslinger, "The Case of an Immodest Lady Wrestler", Vetus Testamentum, XXXI 3 (1981), pp273-274
  64. ^ Hebrew Yisrael, "He will struggle with God;" but the second part of the quoted verse can be translated as: "for you have become great (sar) before God and men," implying that "Israel" means "He will be great (sar) before God."
  65. ^ Penuel or Peniel, literally "Face of God" - the sentence connects the mysterious stranger and the following passage about the meeting with Esau.
  66. ^ Genesis 32.
  67. ^ Genesis 33.
  68. ^ This passage is traditionally taken to mean that Shechem raped rather than seduced Dinah, but the text is not conclusive.
  69. ^ Genesis 34.
  70. ^ Genesis 35.
  71. ^ Hebrew Kethoneth passim This is traditionally translated as "coat of many colours", but can also mean long sleeves, or embroidered. Whatever translation is chosen, it means a royal garment.
  72. ^ The merchants are described first as Ishmaelites and later as Midianites. There have been many attempts to reconcile the discrepancy.
  73. ^ Genesis 37.
  74. ^ Genesis 39.
  75. ^ Genesis 40.
  76. ^ Genesis 41.
  77. ^ Genesis 42-45
  78. ^ Genesis 46-47
  79. ^ Genesis 48
  80. ^ Genesis 49
  81. ^ Genesis 50. The Book of Joshua describes the later burial of Joseph's bones in Shechem following the Exodus from Egypt.
  82. ^ Rahlfs nos. 801, 819, and 957
  83. ^ Rahlfs nos. 802, 803, 805, 848, 942, and 943
  84. ^ See Frank Moore Cross, The Priestly Work, in "Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic", 1973. The toledot are:
    1. The generations of the heavens and the earth (2:4).
    2. The generations of Adam (5:1).
    3. The generations of Noah (6:9).
    4. The generations of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah (10:1).
    5. The generations of Shem (11:10).
    6. The generations of Terah (11:27).
    7. The generations of Ishmael (25:12).
    8. The generations of Isaac (25:19).
    9. The generations of Esau (36:1, 9).
    10. The generations of Jacob (37:2).
  85. ^ See Gordon Wenham, "Pentateuchal Studies Today", Themelios 22.1, October 1996.
  86. ^ Richard Elliot Friedman, "The Bible with Sources Revealed", 2003.
  87. ^ R. N. Whybray, "The Making of the Pentateuch: A Methodological Study", JSOT Press, Sheffield, 1987.
  88. ^ John Van Seters, "Abraham in History and Tradition", Yale University Press, ISBN 0300040407, 1975.
  89. ^ For an overview of current critical theories on the origins of the Pentateuch, see Source Analysis: Revisions and Alternatives. For a more detailed treatment, see "An overlooked message: the critique of kings and affirmation of equality in the primeval history" from Biblical Theology Bulletin, Winter 2006.
  90. ^ "What's New in Interpreting Genesis", 1995
  91. ^ "Genesis' Genesis, The Hebrew Transformation of the Ancient Near Eastern Myths and Their Motifs.
  92. ^ "Genesis' Genesis, The Hebrew Transformation of the Ancient Near Eastern Myths and Their Motifs. See the end of the article for a full list of the inversions in Genesis 1-11.
  93. ^ T. Jacobson, "The Eridu Genesis", JBL 100, 1981, pp.529, quoted in Gordon Wenham, "Exploring the Old Testament: The Pentateuch", 2003, p.17.
  94. ^ See Biblical Studies Org. and David Biale, "The God With Breasts: El Shaddai in the Bible, 1982.
  95. ^ Frank Moore Cross, "Yahweh and the God of the Patriarchs, 1962 and 1973.
  96. ^ Mark S. Smith, "The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts", 2002. Review of "Origins of Biblical Monotheism", Journal of Hebrew Scriptures, Vol. 4 (2002-2003).
  97. ^ Lloyd Bailey, "Israelite El Sadday and Amorite Bel Sade" and E.L. Abel, "The Nature of the Patriarchal God El Sadday".
  98. ^ Gordon J. Wenham, "The Religion of the Patriarchs"
  99. ^ J.A. Emerton, "The Origin of the Promises to the Patriarchs in the Older Sources of the Book of Genesis".
  100. ^ Westermann distinguished four types of promise: a son; descendents; blessing; land. He regarded promises as early if they were not combined and if they were intrinsic to the narrative.
  101. ^ Summarised from "The Patriarchs: History and Religion".

James Strong (1822-1894) Strongs Concordance (strictly Strongs Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible) is a concordance of the King James Bible (KJV) that was constructed under the direction of Dr. James Strong (1822–1894) and first published in 1890. ... A 16th-century depiction of Rashi Note: For the astrological concept, see Rashi - the signs. ... Genesis Rabba, (Breshit Rabba in Hebrew), is a religious text holy to classical Judaism. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... According to several books of the Old Testament, Og (pronounced , , or ; meaning gigantic) was an ancient Amorite king of Bashan who, along with his sons and army, was slain by Moses and his men at the battle of Edrei (probably modern day Dara, Syria). ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy of Holies. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of Semitic languages. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Frank Moore Cross, Jr. ... The Making of the Pentateuch (The Making of the Pentateuch: A Methodological Study, JSOT Press, Sheffield, 1987) by R. N. Whybray, Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Studies at the University of Hull (UK), was a major contribution to the field of Old Testament studies, and specifically to theories on... This article is confusing for some readers, and needs to be edited for clarity. ...

Further reading

  • Umberto Cassuto, From Noah to Abraham. Eisenbrauns, 1984. ISBN 965-223-540-7 (A scholarly Jewish commentary.)
  • Isaac M. Kikawada & Arthur Quinn, Before Abraham was – The Unity of Genesis 1-11. Nashville, Tenn., 1985. (A challenge to the Documentary Hypothesis.)
  • Nehama Leibowitz, New Studies in Bereshit, Genesis. Jerusalem: Hemed Press, 1995. (A scholarly Jewish commentary employing traditional sources.)
  • Henry M. Morris, The Genesis Record: A Scientific and Devotional Commentary on the Book of Beginnings. Baker Books, 1981. ISBN 0-8010-6004-4 (A creationist Christian commentary.)
  • Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI), In the Beginning. Edinburgh, 1995. (A Catholic understanding of the story of Creation and Fall.)
  • Jean-Marc Rouvière, Brèves méditations sur la création du monde. L'Harmattan Paris, 2006.
  • Nahum M. Sarna, Understanding Genesis. New York: Schocken Press, 1966. (A scholarly Jewish treatment, strong on historical perspective.)
  • Nahum M. Sarna, The JPS Torah Commentary: Genesis. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1989. (A mainstream Jewish commentary.)
  • E. A. Speiser, Genesis, The Anchor Bible. Volume 1. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1964. (A translation with scholarly commentary and philological notes by a noted Semitic scholar. The series is written for laypeople and specialists alike.)
  • Bruce Vawter, On Genesis: A New Reading. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1977. (An introduction to Genesis by a fine Catholic scholar. Genesis was Vawter's hobby.)
  • Avivah Gottlieb Zornberg, The Beginning of Desire: Reflections on Genesis. New York: Doubleday, 1995. (A scholarly Jewish commentary employing traditional sources.)

Umberto Cassuto, also known as Moshe David Cassuto, (1883 - 1951), was born in Florence, Italy. ... Nechama Leibowitz (1905 in Riga, Latvia – 12 April 1997 in Jerusalem) was a noted Israeli biblical scholar and commentator, who rekindled an intense interest in the study of the Bible and its commentaries among Jews everywhere. ... Henry M. Morris Henry Madison Morris, Ph. ... Baker Book House is a Christian book publisher based in Grand Rapids, Michigan. ... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Nahum M. Sarna (1923–2005) Nahum Mattathias Sarna (March 27, 1923–June 23, 2005) (Hebrew: נחום סרנה) was a modern Biblical scholar who is best known for the study of Genesis and Exodus represented in his Understanding Genesis (1966) and his contributions to the first two volumes of the JPS Torah Commentary... Nahum M. Sarna (1923–2005) Nahum Mattathias Sarna (March 27, 1923–June 23, 2005) (Hebrew: נחום סרנה) was a modern Biblical scholar who is best known for the study of Genesis and Exodus represented in his Understanding Genesis (1966) and his contributions to the first two volumes of the JPS Torah Commentary... Garden City is the name of several places around the world. ... Doubleday is one of the largest book publishing companies in the world. ...

External links

Online texts and translations of Genesis


  Results from FactBites:
 
Genesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4713 words)
Genesis begins with a description of God's creation of the world, Adam and Eve and their banishment from the Garden of Eden, the story of Cain and Abel, and the story of Noah and the great flood.
Lamech's sons are the first dwellers in tents and owners of herds (Genesis 4:20, Jabal is called the "father of such as dwell in tents"), and they are the earliest inventors of musical instruments (Genesis 4:21) and workers in brass and iron (Genesis 4:22).
In Genesis chapter 6, verse 2, the sons of God (the men who turned back to God after the original fall), took daughters of men (women who were in rebellion against God) to be their wives.
Genesis (band) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5078 words)
Genesis recorded its first album, 1969's From Genesis to Revelation, after striking a deal with Jonathan King, an alum of their school and a songwriter and producer who had a hit single at the time called "Everyone's Gone to the Moon".
Genesis also re-introduced the band's flair for lengthy pieces in "Home by the Sea", which did particularly well in Asia for its use of the pentatonic scale.
Their first album, From Genesis to Revelation was a plain fl album cover with Genesis written in a green gothic typeface on the top left of the cover.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m