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Encyclopedia > Generation X

Generation X is a term used to describe generations in many countries around the world born from 1964 to around 1980. The term has become used in demography, the social sciences, and marketing, though it is most often used in popular culture. Generation X may refer to: Generation X, the period roughly between 1959 and 1980, especially in reference to people born during this time. ... // Traditionally, a generation has been defined as “the average interval of time between the birth of parents and the birth of their offspring. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Next big thing redirects here. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ...


History of the term


In the U.S. Gen X was originally referred as the "baby bust" generation because of the small number of births following the baby boom.[citation needed]

In the UK the term was first used in a 1964 study of British youth by Jane Deverson. Deverson was asked by Woman's Own magazine to conduct a series of interviews with teenagers of the time. The study revealed a generation of teenagers who "sleep together before they are married, don't believe in God, dislike the Queen, and don't respect parents," which was deemed unsuitable for the magazine because it was a new phenomenon. Deverson, in an attempt to save her research, worked with Hollywood correspondent Charles Hamblett to create a book about the study. Hamblett decided to name it Generation X.[1] Womans Own is a British lifestyle magazine aimed at women. ... “Young Men” redirects here. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary [1]; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, and their respective overseas territories and dependencies. ... Generation X is a 1965 book by Charles Hamblett and Jane Deverson. ...


The term was first used in popular culture in the late 1970s by UK punk rock band Generation X led by Billy Idol. It was later expanded on by Canadian novelist Douglas Coupland in Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture (1991), which describes the angst of those born between roughly 1960 and 1965, who felt no connection to the cultural icons of the baby boom generation. Coupland himself was born in 1961. In Coupland's usage, the X referred to the namelessness of a generation that was coming into an awareness of its existence as a separate group but feeling overshadowed by the boomer generation of which it was ostensibly a part. Coupland took the X from Paul Fussell's 1983 book Class, where the term "Category X" designated a region of America's social hierarchy, rather than a generation.[2] However, this term has transcended its roots in that country and expanded into other areas of the West. Coupland first wrote of Generation X in September 1987 (Vancouver Magazine, "Generation X," pp. 164-169, 194), which was a precursor to the novel and slightly preceded the term "twentysomething". Coupland referred to those born from 1958 to 1966 in Canada or from 1958 to 1964 in the United States (see trailing edge boomer). As Coupland explained in a 1995 interview, "In his final chapter, Fussell named an 'X' category of people who wanted to hop off the merry-go-round of status, money, and social climbing that so often frames modern existence." As the term Generation X later became somewhat interchangeable with twenty something, he later revised his notion of Generation X to include anyone considered twenty something in the years 1987 to 1991.[3] In fact, while the book is often seen as being an accurate description of the generation, Coupland maintains that the book was meant to show the lack of a single description for it. In the US, at times the term "baby busters" is used interchangeably with "Generation X," Reagan Generation and MTV Generation can typically denote those born starting in 1965, with various dates offered for its ending year. In this sense, 1975 may be an appropriate cut-off year as the "echo boomer" cohort (recognized by the Census Bureau and other demographers) started in 1976 as birth rates began to rise. Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Generation X were a pop-influenced punk rock band, formed on 21 November 1976 by Billy Idol, Tony James and John Towe. ... Billy Idol (born William Michael Albert Broad) is an British musician and singer. ... Douglas Coupland (born December 30, 1961) is a major Canadian fiction writer as well as a playwright and visual artist. ... Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture, published in 1991, is the first novel by Douglas Coupland. ... A baby boomer is someone who was born during the period of increased birth rates when economic prosperity arose in many countries following World War II. In the United States, the term is iconic and more properly capitalized as Baby Boomers and commonly applied to people with birth years from... Paul Fussell (born 1924, Pasadena, California) is a cultural historian and a professor emeritus of English literature of the University of Pennsylvania. ... Vancouver Magazine is an English-language lifestyle magazine focused on Vancouver, British Columbia and the Lower Mainland. ... Vancouver Magazine is an English-language lifestyle magazine focused on Vancouver, British Columbia and the Lower Mainland. ... A twenty-something is a person in the age group 20 to 29. ... Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ... Baby Busters is a term which is used interchangeably with Generation X and 13th Generation to describe those people born between approximately 1965 and 1980. ...

13th generation

In the 1991 book Generations, William Strauss and Neil Howe called this generation the "13th Generation" because it's the 13th to know the flag of the United States (counting back to the peers of Benjamin Franklin). Strauss and Howe defined the birth years of the 13th Generation as 1965 to 1981 based on examining peaks and troughs in cultural trends rather than simply looking at birth rates.[4] Howe and Strauss speak of influences that they believe have shaped Generation 13. These influences are as follows: For the text connected to the documentary hypothesis about the origin of the Torah, see Book of generations. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ...

  • Disaffectation with governance, a lack of trust in leadership, particularly institutional leadership
  • Rampant political apathy
  • Increase in divorce (institution of marriage)
  • Increase in mothers in the workplace
  • The zero population growth movement
  • Availability of birth control pills ("Children were things you took pills not to have")
  • "Devil-child films"
  • Increase in educational variance
  • Decrease in educational funding and loan availability (simultaneous with increase in advertising for military service)
  • Inception of the Internet
  • The end of the Cold War

Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Zero Population Growth (ZPG) is a concept coined by American sociologist Kingsley Davis. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

Generation X in the United States

Generation X was generally marked early on by its lack of optimism for the future, nihilism, cynicism, skepticism, political apathy, alienation and distrust in traditional values and institutions. Following the publication of Coupland's book (and the subsequent popularity of grunge music) the term stretched to include more people, being appropriated as the generation that succeeded the Baby Boomers, and used by the media and the general public to denote people who were in their twenties. This article is about the philosophical position. ... Grunge redirects here. ...

For some of this generation, Generation X thinking has significant overtones of cynicism against things held dear to the previous generations, mainly the Baby Boomers. Some of those in Generation X tend to be very "consumer" driven and media savvy. Another cultural hallmark of Generation X was grunge music, which grew out of the frustrations and disenchantment of some teenagers and young adults. The fashion of grunge music was exemplified by the bands Smashing Pumpkins, Alice in Chains, Soundgarden, Pearl Jam, The Pixies, Sonic Youth, and Nirvana. The grunge of the 1990s was influenced by punk and heavy metal of the 1970s and 1980s. A baby boom is defined as a period of increased birth rates relative to surrounding generations. ... The Smashing Pumpkins (circa 1995) left to right: James Iha, DArcy, Billy Corgan and Jimmy Chamberlin. ... This article is about the grunge band. ... Soundgarden was an American rock band formed in Seattle, Washington in 1984 by lead singer and drummer Chris Cornell, lead guitarist Kim Thayil, and bassist Hiro Yamamoto. ... This article is about the rock group. ... This article is about the band named Pixies. ... Sonic Youth is an American alternative rock band formed in New York City in 1981. ... This article is about the American grunge band. ... Punk Rock is an anti-establishment music movement that began about 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified by The Ramones,the Misfits, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ...

The attitude of Generation X towards religion is more complex than other cultural norms of this highly diverse generation. Many Xers believe in God or at least "a higher power" and are accepting of the plurality of world religions. Other Generation Xers are indifferent or hostile toward religion. Generation Xers are influential in the emerging church and other movements aimed at deconstructing and re-evaluating the religion of their parents (much as many American Post World War II Baby Boomers had done in the 1960s and 1970s). One commonality of Generation X's religious perspective is a lack of dogmatism. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The emerging church (also known as the emerging church or the emergent church movement) is a Christian movement of the late 20th and early 21st century whose participants seek to engage postmodern people, especially the unchurched and post-churched. ...

Generation X, or the "Reagan Generation" as some have termed it, grew up during the end of the Cold War and the Ronald Reagan eras. As the first of their cohort reached adulthood, they experienced the collapse of the Soviet Union and the United States of America's emergence as the world's lone superpower. Generation X has been the largest generational military service block in American history and the most educated military force fielded by the United States with more enlisted and officer ranked persons holding Bachelor and Master's degrees than their World War II grandfathers. Generation X doesn't suffer the "Vietnam complex" fatigue of its parents and is more likely to identify themselves with their World War II grandparents in values, morals and practical living skills. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... For other meanings see cohort In statistics and demography, a cohort is a group of subjects — most often humans from a given population — defined by a condition on their date of birth. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

The attitude of American members of Generation X toward their country and the world was shaped to a major extent by the spread of peace and democracy that occurred after the fall of the European Communist countries during the early 1990s. Gen X is the first generation in nearly 100 years for whom a military draft was never called. The attitude of Gen X with regard to war may be broader than merely a reaction to the Boomer's opinions of the Vietnam War. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...

The employment of Generation X is volatile. Generation Xers grew up in a rapidly deindustrializing Western world, experienced the economic recession of the early 1990s and 2000s, saw traditional permanent job contracts being supplanted with unsecured short-term contracts, experienced offshoring and outsourcing and often experienced years of unemployment or underemployment at typical jobs, such as McJobs in their young adulthood. Many found themselves overeducated and underemployed, leaving a deep sense of insecurity in Generation Xers, whose usual attitude to work is Take the money and run. They no longer take any employment for granted, as their baby boomer counterparts did, nor do they consider unemployment a stigmatizing catastrophe. Deindustrialization is the process by which the manufacturing-based economy of a country or region declines. ... Offshore may refer to oil and natural gas production at sea; see oil platform. ... Outsourcing is subcontracting a process, such as product design or manufacturing, to a third-party company. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... McJob is slang for a low-paying, low-prestige job that requires few skills and offers very little chance of intracompany advancement. ...

The perception of Generation X during the early 1990s was summarized in a featured article in Time Magazine: (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...

. . .They possess only a hazy sense of their own identity but a monumental preoccupation with all the problems the preceding generation will leave for them to fix . . .This is the twenty-something generation, those 48 million young Americans ages 18 through 29 who fall between the famous baby boomers and the boomlet of children the baby boomers are producing. Since today's young adults were born during a period when the U.S. birthrate decreased to half the level of its postwar peak, in the wake of the great baby boom, they are sometimes called the baby busters. By whatever name, so far they are an unsung generation, hardly recognized as a social force or even noticed much at all...By and large, the 18-to-29 group scornfully rejects the habits and values of the baby boomers, viewing that group as self-centered, fickle and impractical. While the baby boomers had a placid childhood in the 1950s, which helped inspire them to start their revolution, today's twenty-something generation grew up in a time of drugs, divorce and economic strain. . .They feel influenced and changed by the social problems they see as their inheritance: racial strife, homelessness, AIDS, fractured families and federal deficits.[4]

In economics, a study was done (by Pew Charitable Trusts, the American Enterprise Institute, the Brookings Institute, the Heritage Foundation and the Urban Institute) that challenges the notion that each generation will be better off than the one that preceded it. The study, 'Economic Mobility: Is the American Dream Alive and Well?" focuses on the income of males 30-39 in 2004 (those born April, 1964 – March, 1974) and is based on Census/BLS CPS March supplement data.

The study, which made national headline news on May 25, 2007, emphasizes that in real dollars, that cohort made less (by 12%) than their fathers at the same age in 1974, thus reversing a historic trend. The study also suggests that per year increases in father/son family household income has slowed (from 0.9% to 0.3% average), barely keeping pace with inflation, though progressively higher each year due to more women entering the workplace contributing to family household income.

According to the US Census Bureau, from 1993 to 2006, males grossed less than their fathers (defined as the cohort 30-years prior, about the average age of fatherhood) at the same age, using combined real median income and based on the following criteria:[5]

  • At ages 25-34, those born from about 1965-1981
  • At ages 30-39, those born from about 1963-1976
  • At ages 25-39, those born from about 1964-1981

This trend may be the cause of one of the hallmarks of Generation X: entrepreneurship. Generation X has been characterized by their strong tendency to attempt to start businesses in unconventional areas, as opposed to seeking employment with established companies. It was this tendency that fueled the dot-com boom of the 1990s. Generation X was the first group to recognized the vast potential of the internet and the world wide web, and many of them started the currently dominant internet based companies (such as Google, Yahoo, and eBay). Some became multimillionaires before the age of 30, while many went bankrupt in the dot-com bust. Because many of the "dot-coms" were started in private homes, basements, and garages, and because the men and women who built the dot-coms worked in seclusion dressed informally, Generation X was accused of being a group of slovenly, lazy "slackers." Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations or revitalizing mature organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. ... Dot-com (also dotcom or redundantly dot. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... This article is about the corporation. ... Yahoo! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about the online auction center. ... Dot-com (also dotcom or redundantly dot. ...

Generation X was also marked by athleticism and environmentalism. The combination of a love of athletics and a love of nature gave birth to the extreme sports movement. Extreme sports included a variety of risky outdoor activities, such as snowboarding, bungee jumping, and rock climbing. Some extreme sports, such as snowboarding, are now mainstream sports, with Olympic and professional competitions. Others, such as bungee jumping, were fads that died out as Generation X matured. The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Extreme sports (now also known as action sports) is a general, somewhat hazily-defined term for a collection of newer sports involving adrenaline-inducing action. ... Snowboarder in a half-pipe Snowboarder riding off cornice Snowboarding contributes greatly to the economies of ski resorts Snowboarding is a sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope on a snowboard that is attached to ones feet using a boot/binding interface. ... Bungee Jump in Normandy, France (Souleuvre Viaduct) Bungee jumping (or bungy jumping) is the sport that originated from New Zealand and was created by maverick daredevil A J Hackett, and his original jump from a bridge in Greenhithe, Auckland. ... Climbers on Valkyrie at the Roaches. ... Olympic can mean: Olympic Games, an international multi-sport event: Olympic Games, the modern games held since 1896 Ancient Olympic Games, the ancient games held in Olympia, Greece between 776 BC and 393 AD Olympic (band), a Czech rock band Olympic (MTR) A MTR station in Hong Kong Olympic Airlines...

Generation X returned to the cities. Many American cities had been abandoned by the middle class in the late 1960s (a phenomenon called by some white flight). However, young people in the 1990s began returning to America's cities, revitalizing many downtown areas. White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ...

Prominent political causes of Generation X included anti-globalization, gay rights, environmentalism, opposition to South African Apartheid, and autonomy for Tibet. The Tibetan Freedom Concert toured three cities, drew over 270,000 attendees, and raised over two million dollars for the cause. In 1994, the campus organization Students for a Free Tibet was established, and currently has 650 chapters globally. During the late 1980s, students demonstrated to force colleges and universities to divest themselves of their South African holdings; the students typically constructed and inhabited shanties on university grounds to illustrate the deplorable conditions caused by Apartheid. These efforts generally succeeded in persuading universities to divest South African holdings. However, due to the absence of a pacifist movement amongst members of Generation X, this generation has sometimes been labeled as apathetic. Generation X displays a widespread tolerance of homosexuality, and Generation X is the oldest generation for which it was commonplace that homosexuals would not try to hide their orientation. Starting in the 1990s, young people demonstrated repeatedly in opposition of sweat-shopping and offshoring (collectively known as globalization). Such demonstrations in Genoa, Seattle, Madrid, Washington, and numerous other cities drew worldwide media attention. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... // Tibetan Freedom Concert Inception With the release of the Beastie Boys album Ill Communication in 1994, the Milarepa Fund was born. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Students For a Free Tibet is a nonprofit student-led organization that uses education, grassroots organizing and nonviolent direct action to advance the cause of Tibetan independence. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... In finance and economics, divestment or divestiture is the reduction of some kind of asset, for either financial or social goals. ... Pacifist may mean: an advocate of pacifism. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Offshore may refer to oil and natural gas production at sea; see oil platform. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ...

The dress and fashion of Generation X is generally individualistic, and during the 1990s it was quite baroque. Unique tattoos are popular among that generation, as is body piercing. Offbeat fashions included punk, deadhead, and goth. Individualism is a political and social philosophy that emphasizes individual liberty, belief in the primary importance of the individual and in the virtues of self-reliance and personal independence. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Punk fashion is the styles of clothing, hairstyles, cosmetics, jewelry, and body modifications of the punk subculture. ... A black-and-white photo of the above symbol was featured inside the album jacket of the self-titled Grateful Dead album along with the address below. ... Goths in southern Germany Gothic fashion is a style of dress of young people who identify themselves as goths. ...

International factors defining Generation X

In continental Europe, the generation is often known as Generation E, or simply known as the Nineties Generation, along the lines of such other European generation names as "Generation of 1968" and "Generation of 1914." In France, the term Génération Bof is in use, with "bof" being a French word for "whatever," considered by some French people to be the defining Generation-X saying. In Iran, they are called the Burnt Generation. In some Latin American countries the name "Crisis Generation" is sometimes used due to the recurring financial crisis in the region during those years. In the Communist bloc, these Generation-Xers are often known to show a deeper dislike of the Communist system than their parents because they grew up in an era of political and economic stagnation, and were among the first to embrace the ideals of Glasnost and Perestroika, which is why they tend to be called the Glasnost-Perestroika Generation. In USSR, in particular, they were often called "a generation of stokers and watchmen", referring to their tendency to take non-challenging jobs leaving them with plenty of free time, similar to Coupland's Xers. In Finland, the X-sukupolvi is sometimes derogatorily called pullamössösukupolvi (bun mash generation) by the Baby Boomers, saying "those whiners have never experienced any difficulties in their lives" (the recession of the early 1990s hit the Xers hardest--it hit just when they were about to join the work force), while the Xers call the Boomers kolesterolisukupolvi (cholesterol generation) due to their often unhealthy dietary habits. Japan has a generation with characteristics similar to those of Generation X, shin jin rui. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Look up whatever in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In macroeconomics, a Recession is a decline in any countrys Gross Domestic Product (GDP), or negative real economic growth, for two or more successive quarters of a year. ...

The aspects that bind Generation X across economic levels and cultures are the defining points of the 1970s: the Bretton Woods system and its subsequent failure, the impact of the first oral contraceptive pills on social-interaction dynamics, and the oil shock of 1973. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Pill redirects here. ... An Energy Crisis is any great shortfall (or price rise) in the supply of energy to an economy. ...

Other common international influences defining Generation X across the world include: increasingly flexible and varied gender roles for women contrasted with even more rigid gender roles for men, the unprecedented socio-economic impact of an ever increasing number of women entering the non-agrarian economic workforce, and the sweeping cultural-religious impact of the Iranian revolution towards the end of the 1970s in 1979. A bagpiper in military uniform. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ...

The international experience of a cultural transition like Generation X, although in various forms, revealed the inter-dependence of economies since World War II in 1945, and showed the huge impact of American economic policies on the world. For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ...

Generation X references

The section below is an attempt to compare differing concepts of Generation X birth years.

Best-selling authors

  • Cheung, Edward "Baby Boomers, Generation X and Social Cycles" "The Ultimate Generation X book"
  • Zemke, Ron & Raines, Claire & Filipczak, Bob "Generations at Work: Managing the Clash of Veterans, Boomers, Xers, and Nexters in Your Workplace" American Management Association, 2000, ISBN 0814404804.
    • 1960-1980
  • Ritchie, Karen "Marketing to Generation X" Free Press, 2002, ISBN 0743236580.
    • 1961-1981
  • Strauss, William & Howe, Neil "Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069" HarperCollins, 1992, ISBN 0688119123.
    • 1961-1981 (13th Generation)
  • Tulgan, Bruce "RainmakerThinking, Inc" "Managing Generation X: How to Bring Out the Best in Young Talent" Capstone Ltd, 2003, ISBN 1900961091. Interviewing thousands of Xers, his definition has undergone modification:
    • 1963-1981, with 1961 & 1962 as "cuspers" (1995), based on Strauss & Howe
    • 1963-1977, with 1961 & 1962 as cuspers (1996-2000)[5][6][7]
    • 1965-1977, with 1963 & 1964 as cuspers (2001)[8]
    • 1965-1977, with 1960-1964 as cuspers (2002-2006) but usually only referred to as Baby Boomers (1946-1964) in company newsletters
    • 1965-1977 (2007) those born 1946-1953 referred to as "older boomers", 1954-1964 as "younger boomers"
  • Foot, David "Footwork Consulting Inc." "Boom, Bust & Echo: How to Profit from the Coming Demographic Shift" Saint Anthony Messenger Press and Franciscan, 1997, ISBN 0921912978.
    • Generation X are post-birth-peak Boomers, 1960-1966 (Canada), 1958-1964 (US). Statistics Canada (US Census Bureau equivalent) also observes this demographic based on Foot's research.
  • Smith, J Walker & Clurman, Ann S "Rocking the Ages: The Yankelovich Report on Generational Marketing" Collins; Reprint edition, 1998, ISBN 0887309003.
    • Yankelovich Partners, One of the largest consumer research organizations in the US maintains the years 1965-1978. Trailing Boomers, 1960-1964, are referred to as the bridge between generations. The main distinction between bridgers and Xers is a brief economic boom for the former in the mid-eighties, whereas the latter generational cohort has never been able to presume economic success. "Trailing Boomers thus bridge generations - the last Boomers expecting perpetual abundance and the first Xers faced with breakdown and uncertainty." (p. 81)

For the text connected to the documentary hypothesis about the origin of the Torah, see Book of generations. ...

Contemporary references and definitions

  • The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (2000)
    • The generation following the post-World War II baby boom, especially people born in the United States and Canada from the early 1960s to the late 1970s.
  • Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2006)
    • The generation born between the mid 1960s and the mid 1970s, perceived as being disaffected and without direction.
  • Link Magazine: "Marketing Madness: A Postmortem for Generation X" (1997)
    • Examines the divergent age groups ascribed to the Generation X generational cohort by various media and demographers.
  • US Census Bureau "Census 2000 Ethnographic Study" (June 17, 2003)
    • "For the purpose of this study, Generation X is defined as people aged 21 to 32, that is, respondents born during the years 1968-1979. Various studies define Generation X differently by age, with some analysis' categorizing people born in 1961 as the cohort's oldest members, while others use a younger upper boundary to demarcate the age group (Craig and Earl Bennett, 1997). Only in hindsight will the boundaries for this cohort become clearer."
    • Craig, SC & Bennett, SE “After the Boom: The Politics of Generation X” Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc (1997), ISBN 0847683605. Gen-X starting age break by chapter/author(s): chpt 2 1965, chpt 3 1961, chpt 4 1963, chpt 5 1965, chpt 6 1964, chpt 8 1972 (Canada).[9]
  • Statistics Canada "Census Consultation Guide - Age, Sex, and Marital/Common-law Status" (1996/2001)
    • "Generation X. Generation Xers, the back-end boomers [1960-1966], entered the labor market in the early 1980s, when jobs were scarce. Since then, this generation has struggled to gain employment due to a weak economy and the bulk of the jobs being filled by the baby boomers. How will these people cope until the baby boomers begin to retire early in the next century? Are they more inclined to work at two or three jobs or seasonally?"


  • Time Magazine "Twentysomething" (cover story - July 16, 1990)
    • 18-29 year-olds (1961-1972) "Members of the tail end of the boom generation, now ages 26 through 29, often feel alienated from the larger group, like kid brothers and sisters who disdain the paths their siblings chose." (p. 57)
  • Time Magazine "Great X-pectations" (cover story - June 9, 1997) Three sets appeared in the story:
    • 1965-1977 (p. 58)
    • "If twentysomethings entered the decade floundering in the job market, did they deserve to be labeled dazed and confused?" [1961-1972] (p. 60)
    • 1965-1976 (p. 62)
  • New York Times "Yes, the Screen Is Tiny, but the Plans Are Big" (June 17, 2007)
    • Chart refers to Generation X as "Ages 27-40", indicating those born 1967-1980 [6]

Influential film and television

  • Office Space
  • The Breakfast Club (1985) and other films directed by John Hughes, especially those featuring the members of the "Brat Pack" such as Molly Ringwald.
  • Clerks (film) (1994). The story of two Generation X'ers working deadend jobs, struggling to find meaning in their relationships and their work. Filled with pop culture references, the movie is filled with rapid fire dialogue and offers a humorous portrait of Generation Xers emphasis on relationships over career. Kevin Smith's first movie.
  • Ferris Bueller's Day Off (film) (1986). Teen slacker movie. The film follows high school senior Ferris Bueller (Matthew Broderick), who, one spring day, decides to skip school and spend the day in downtown Chicago with his friends. Quintessentially X, when times were good in the 80s before the recession.
  • Fight Club (Film) (1999) based on the novel Fight Club (1996) by Chuck Palahniuk (b. 1962) and his own personal experiences. Producer David Fincher (b. 1962) said about the novel, it is “… a seminal coming of age for people who are coming of age in their 30s instead of their late teens or early 20s.” [10]
  • The show Friends (1994) is often known as a Generation X portrait. The characters were teenagers during the 1980s and have the typical attitude and lifestyle of their generation, especially in the employment and relationships subjects.
  • The television shows Beverly Hills, 90210 (1990), Melrose Place (1992), The Simpsons (1989), and Buffy the Vampire Slayer (1992 film, 1997 series) are other programs closely associated with the Gen Xers.
  • Heathers (1989) Influential dark comedy featuring Wynona Ryder and Christian Slater. Ryder's character typified the ironic, disaffected, and pessimistic view of the generation.
  • Pump Up the Volume (1990) Features Christian Slater as a radio deejay.
  • Reality Bites (film) (1994) written by Helen Childress. An aspiring videographer working on a documentary called Reality Bites about the disenfranchised lives of her friends and roommates. Their challenges, both documented and not, exemplify the career and other lifestyle choices and issues faced by their generation.
  • Rent (1996) A Broadway show that features characters dealing with AIDS, sexual identity, drug addiction, and technology. The rock score is influenced by the Gen X sound. Later filmed in 2005. Rent is relative to Gen Xers as Hair is to Baby Boomers.
  • Singles (film) (1992). A group of twenty-something friends, most of whom live in the same apartment complex, search for love and success in grunge-era Seattle. The soundtrack billed as the "music of a generation searching for itself" (Warner home video).
  • Slacker (1991). Much of the cast was born in the early 1960s, with others in the late 1950s and late 1960s, spanning the "Baby Bust" years.

Office Space is an American comedy film written and directed by Mike Judge. ... This article is about the 1985 film. ... For other people with this name, see John Hughes. ... The Brat Pack is a group of young actors and actresses who frequently appeared together in teen-oriented films in the 1980s and as well as socializing together off the set. ... Molly Kathleen Ringwald (born February 18, 1968) is an American actress, singer, and dancer. ... This article is about the film. ... This article is about the American screenwriter, film director, actor and comic book writer. ... Ferris Bueller redirects here. ... Matthew Broderick (born March 21, 1962) is a Tony Award-winning American film and stage actor who is perhaps best known for his roles as the title character in Ferris Buellers Day Off and Simba in Disneys The Lion King. ... Fight Club is a 1999 feature film adaptation of the 1996 novel Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk, adapted by Jim Uhls and directed by David Fincher. ... Fight Club[1] (1996) is the first published novel by American author Chuck Palahniuk. ... Charles Michael Chuck Palahniuk (pronounced )[1] (born February 21, 1962) is an American satirical novelist and freelance journalist of Ukrainian ancestry born in Pasco, Washington. ... David Leo Fincher (born August 28, 1962) is an American film director and music video director known for his dark and stylish films, particularly Fight Club and Se7en. ... This article is about the television show. ... Beverly Hills, 90210 is a primetime television soap opera that aired from October 4, 1990, to May 17, 2000, on FOX in the United States and subsequently on various networks around the world. ... Melrose Place is an American primetime soap opera that ran between 1992 and 1999, created by Darren Star for the FOX network. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Buffy the Vampire Slayer is a 1992 comedy film about a Valley Girl cheerleader (Kristy Swanson) chosen by fate to fight and kill vampires. ... For other uses, see Buffy the Vampire Slayer (disambiguation). ... This article is about the film Heathers. ... Winona Ryder Winona Ryder (born Winona Laura Horowitz on October 29, 1971) is an American actress. ... Christian Slater(born August 18, 1969) is an American actor. ... Pump Up the Volume (1990) is a dramedy written and directed by Allan Moyle and starring Christian Slater and Samantha Mathis. ... Christian Slater(born August 18, 1969) is an American actor. ... Reality Bites is a 1994 film written by Helen Childress and featuring the directorial debut of Ben Stiller. ... Rent is a rock musical, with music and lyrics by Jonathan Larson[1] inspired by and partially based on Giacomo Puccinis opera La bohème. ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Sexual identity is a term that, like sex, has two distinctively different meanings. ... Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Rent is the film adaptation of the award-winning Broadway musical Rent. ... This article is about the musical. ... A baby boom is any period of greatly increased birth rate during a certain period, and usually within certain geographical bounds. ... Singles (1992) is a film written and directed by Cameron Crowe. ... Grunge music (sometimes also referred to as the Seattle Sound) is an independent-rooted music genre that became a commercially successful offshoot of hardcore punk, thrash metal, and alternative rock in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... Slacker (1991) is an influential American independent film directed by Richard Linklater. ...

Famous and successful Gen X People


Jennifer Aniston (born February 11, 1969) is an Emmy- and Golden Globe Award-winning American film and television actress, best known for her role as Rachel Green in the popular television sitcom Friends. ... Naomi Campbell (born May 22, 1970) is an English supermodel, actress, singer, and author. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio (born November 11, 1974[1]) is a three-time Academy Award-nominated, SAG Award-nominated and Golden Globe Award-winning American actor who garnered world wide fame for his role as Jack Dawson in Titanic (1997). ... Matthew Paige Matt Damon (born October 8, 1970) is an American screenwriter and actor. ... Christopher Crosby Farley (February 15, 1964 – December 18, 1997) was an American comedian and actor. ... Elizabeth Stamatina Tina Fey (born May 18, 1970) is an Emmy-winning American writer, comedian and actress. ... Jamie Foxx (born December 13, 1967) is an American actor, singer, and stand-up comic. ... Ethan Green Hawke (born November 6, 1970) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor, writer and film director. ... Angelina Jolie (born Angelina Jolie Voight on June 4, 1975) is an American film actor, a former fashion model, and a Goodwill Ambassador for the UN Refugee Agency. ... Not to be confused with Kate Mosse. ... River Jude Phoenix (August 23, 1970 – October 31, 1993) was an Academy Award- and Golden Globe-nominated American film actor. ... William Bradley Brad Pitt (born December 18, 1963) is an Academy award-nominated American actor, film producer, and social activist. ... Julia Fiona Roberts (born October 28, 1967) is an Academy Award-winning American film actress and former fashion model. ... Winona Ryder (born October 29, 1971) is a two-time Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe-winning American actress. ... Brooke Christa Camille Shields[1] (born May 31, 1965) is an American actress and supermodel. ... For other persons of the same name, see Anna Smith. ... Hilary Ann Swank (born July 30, 1974) is a two-time Oscar winning American actress. ... Charlize Theron (born August 7, 1975) is a South African-American actress and former fashion model. ... Christopher Tucker (born August 31, 1972) is an American actor and comedian. ... Laurence Larry Wachowski (born June 21, 1965) and Andrew Andy Wachowski (born December 29, 1967) are American film directors and writers most famous for the Matrix series. ... Christopher Julius Rock III[5] (born February 7, 1965)[6][7] is an Emmy Award winning American comedian, actor, screenwriter, television producer, film producer and director. ... John Christopher Depp II[1] (born June 9, 1963) is an American actor, best known for his frequent portrayals of offbeat and eccentric characters such as Jack Sparrow in the Pirates of the Caribbean trilogy and the titular character of Tim Burtons Edward Scissorhands. ... This article is about the American screenwriter, film director, actor and comic book writer. ... Jason Edward Mewes (born June 12, 1974) is an American television and film actor known for playing foul-mouthed drug dealer Jay, the vocal half of Jay and Silent Bob from the films of Mewes longtime friend Kevin Smith. ... Douglas Coupland (born December 30, 1961) is a major Canadian fiction writer as well as a playwright and visual artist. ... Richard Morgan (b. ... Ed Norton redirects here. ... Kurt Donald Cobain (February 20, 1967 – c. ...


Maria Bartiromo is a business news anchor, reporter, and interviewer for CNBC television co-hosting the Closing Bell program from 3 to 5pm weekdays ET and is the host and managing editor for the nationally syndicated Wall Street Journal Report with Maria Bartiromo program. ... Carson Jones Daly (born June 22, 1973 in Santa Monica, California) is an American television personality. ... María de la Soledad Teresa OBrien[1] (born September 19, 1966) is an American television journalist who is currently the host of CNN Special Investigations Unit on CNN. OBrien is most known for anchoring the CNN marquee morning newscast American Morning from July 2003 [2]- April 3... EVOO redirects here. ...


Mariah Carey (born March 27, 1970) is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, music video director, and actress. ... William Patrick Corgan, Jr. ... Chris Cornell (born Christopher John Boyle on July 20, 1964) is an American musician best known as the lead singer, guitarist and songwriter of the rock bands Soundgarden (1984-1997) and Audioslave (2001-2007). ... Kurt Donald Cobain (February 20, 1967 – c. ... Courtney Love[1] (born Courtney Michelle Harrison on July 9, 1964) is an American rock musician. ... Sean John Combs (born November 4, 1969[1]) is an American record producer, CEO, clothing designer, actor, and rapper. ... This article is about the musician. ... David Eric Grohl (b. ... Audrey Faith Perry McGraw, known professionally as Faith Hill (born September 21, 1967), is an American country singer, known for her commercial success as well as her marriage to fellow country singer Tim McGraw. ... Also see the Arab singer Latifa Dana Elaine Owens (born March 18, 1970 in Newark, New Jersey) is a Grammy-winning American rapper/singer, model, and Academy Award-nominated actress. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kylie Ann Minogue, OBE (pronounced ,[1]mɪnoʊg;[2] born 28 May 1968) is an Australian Grammy and BRIT award-winning pop singer, songwriter and actress. ... Michael Trent Reznor (born May 17, 1965), is an American musician, singer, producer, and multi-instrumentalist. ... For the movie based on the life of the singer, see Selena (film). ... Layne Thomas Staley (August 22, 1967 - ca. ... Eddie Vedder (born Edward Louis Severson III on December 23, 1964 in Evanston, Illinois) is the lead singer and one of three guitarists for the rock band Pearl Jam. ... Scott Weiland (born Scott Richard Kline, October 27, 1967, Santa Cruz, California [1]) is an American musician, lyricist, and vocalist. ... David (Dave) Williams (February 29, 1972 – August 14, 2002) was the singer for the band Drowning Pool. ... 50 cents may refer to 50 subunits of currencies where the subunit is called a cent. ... Jay-Z (aka the Jigga, HOV and Hova, born Shawn Carter on December 4, 1970 in Brooklyn, New York) is an African American rapper/hip hop artist and record label executive; one of the most popular and successful rappers of the late 1990s and early 2000s. ...


Tucker Swanson McNear Carlson (born May 16, 1969) is a U.S. political news pundit who formerly co-hosted CNNs Crossfire and MSNBCs Tucker. ... Sean Hannity is a conservative political commentator. ... Bobby Jindal (born Piyush Jindal June 10, 1971, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana) is a Louisiana politician. ... Monica Samille Lewinsky (born July 23, 1973) is an American woman with whom the former United States President Bill Clinton admitted to having had an inappropriate relationship[1] while Lewinsky worked at the White House in 1995 and 1996. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... “Barack” redirects here. ... A Ted Rall cartoon depicting John Kerry and George W. Bush. ... Categories: People stubs | 1971 births | Bloggers | Political consultants ...


Andre Kirk Agassi (born April 29, 1970) is a former World No. ... Lance Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson on September 18, 1971) is a retired American professional road racing cyclist. ... Bonnie Kathleen Blair (born March 18, 1964 in Cornwall, New York) is a retired American speedskater. ... Thomas Edward Brady, Jr. ... Brett Hillbilly Favre (pronounced Farv, born on October 10, 1969 in Gulfport, Mississippi [1]) is an American football player, currently starting quarterback for the Green Bay Packers of the National Football League (NFL). ... This article is about noah the best peson in the world the American hotdog eater and blew up a game of hangman. ... Peyton Williams Manning (born March 24, 1976 in New Orleans, Louisiana) is an American football quarterback who plays for the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. ... Personal Information Birth December 30, 1975 ) Cypress, California Height 6 ft 1 in (1. ... Kristi Tsuya Yamaguchi (born July 12, 1971) is an American figure skater. ...


In addition, the bands the Pixies, Radiohead, Korn, The Red Hot Chili Peppers, and Green Day either were representative of the Grunge music sound associated with this generation or later became notable as members of Gen X. Craig C. Mello, PhD Craig Cameron Mello (born October 18, 1960 in New Haven, Connecticut) is one of the laureates of the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Andrew Z. Fire, for the discovery of RNA interference. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Tom Anderson(born October 13, 1975) is the President of the social networking website, MySpace. ... MySpace is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos. ... Chad Meredith Hurley (born 1977) is co-founder and Chief Executive Officer of the popular San Bruno, California-based video sharing website YouTube, one of the biggest providers of videos on the Internet. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... For the music producer/manager, see Larry Page (British singer and manager). ... This article is about the corporation. ... Ryan Wayne White (December 6, 1971 – April 8, 1990[1]) was a young man with AIDS from Kokomo, Indiana who became a national spokesman for AIDS, after being expelled from school because of his infection. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Pierre M. Omidyar (born 21 June 1967) is a French-born Iranian-American entrepreneur and philanthropist/economist, and the founder/chairman of the eBay auction site. ... This article is about the online auction center. ... This article is about Yahoos founder. ... Yahoo! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Yahoo! - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Digg is a community-based popularity website with an emphasis on technology and science articles, recently expanding to a broader range of categories such as politics and entertainment. ... This article needs cleanup. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The Pixies[1] are an American alternative rock band formed in Boston, Massachusetts in 1985. ... Radiohead are an English alternative rock band from Oxfordshire. ... This article is about the band. ... Red Hot Chili Peppers (from left): Flea, Chad Smith, John Frusciante and Anthony Kiedis Red Hot Chili Peppers are a Californian rock band who have combined aspects of funk and hip-hop with rock and roll, pioneering funk metal. ... This article is about the band Green Day. ... Grunge redirects here. ...


  1. ^ Asthana, Anushka & Thorpe, Vanessa. "Whatever happened to the original Generation X?". The Observer. January 23, 2005.
  2. ^ Interview with Douglas Coupland on CNN's Heads Up, May 28, 1994.
  3. ^ Smyth, Michael. "Review of Generation X". Calgary Herald. January 21, 1992.
  4. ^ Strauss, William & Howe, Neil. Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069. Perennial, 1992 (Reprint). ISBN 0-688-11912-3
  5. ^ US Census Bureau, [1] and [2]
  6. ^ Story, Louise, “IYes, the Screen Is Tiny, but the Plans Are Big," The New York Times, 17 June 2007 [3] retrieved 2007-06-17

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

For the video game, see Baby Boomer (video game). ... ‹ The template below (Generations) is being considered for deletion. ... Look up Generation Y in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This should not be a re-direct ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links

American generation succession

Preceded by
Baby boomer
(1943-1946) – (1957-1964)* [1]
Generation X
(1958-65) – (1975-81)* [2] [1]
Succeeded by
Generation Y
(1981-2001) – (1995-2001)* [1]
For the video game, see Baby Boomer (video game). ... Look up Generation Y in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Generation Brands (103 words)
Generation Brands is the largest decorative lighting company in North America.
The most successful lighting dealers and showrooms, the most discriminating lighting designers and decorators, and the most demanding end users universally depend on one or more of our brands to serve their customers and their requirements.
Generation Brands has 12 premier brands currently offering the industry's leading portfolio of fashionable and functional lighting fixtures, ceiling fans, and decorative products for residential and commercial applications.
RealEstateJournal | Generation X May Boost Sagging Real-Estate Market (1054 words)
Generation X, typically defined as those born between 1965 and 1979, comprise a little more than half of the market for newly constructed homes, said James Chung, president of Reach Advisors, a Boston-based marketing strategy and research firm.
"Generation X is in the heart of their entry-level home-buying years and are just now entering their peak trade-up years," Chung said.
As for Generation Y, also know as the echo boomers who were born after 1980, it's premature to draw conclusions, Gadi Kaufmann, chief executive of Robert Charles Lesser and Co., a real estate advisory firm, said during a ULI panel discussion on what young consumers want.
  More results at FactBites »



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