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Encyclopedia > General surgery
A surgeon operating
A surgeon operating

General surgery, despite its name, is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal organs, e.g. intestines including esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland (depending on the availability of head and neck surgery specialists) and hernias. Image File history File links Image of a surgeon operating on a patient. ... Image File history File links Image of a surgeon operating on a patient. ... The abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... The esophagus or oesophagus (see American and British English spelling differences), sometimes known as the gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Large intestine. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that can accomodate up to 60 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. ... Look up hernia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...



With the prevalent trend for increasing sub-specialisation in today's medical practice, General Surgery has somewhat lost some of its former glory and scope. Nonetheless, it continues to be a competitive, rewarding and highly demanding specialty in its own right. Until recently, all surgeons had to have gained fellowship in the College of General Surgeons (or such equivalent) in order to progress into further sub-specialty training. However, recently, the College of Surgeons has been divided into separate sub-branches, whereby Fellowship in General Surgery is not necessarily required, but may well be desired - depending on the country and centre of practice, as well as the individual sub-specialty.

Certain sub-specialties are still part of the General Surgical training program. That is, General Surgeons may subspecialise into one or more of the following disciplines:

Breast surgery

In Australia, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom, general surgeons are responsible for breast care, including the surgical treatment of breast cancer. In some other countries, breast care falls under Obstetrics and gynaecology. This article is about the medical specialty. ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Obstetrics and Gynaecology (often abbreviated to OB/GYN or O&G) are the two surgical specialties dealing with the female reproductive organs, and as such are often combined to form a single medical speciality and postgraduate training program. ...

Trauma surgery

In the United States, the overall responsibility for trauma care falls under the auspices of general surgery, some general surgeons obtaining advanced training and specialty certification in this field alone. A General Surgeon must be able to deal with any surgical emergency. Often they are the first port of call to a critically ill patient, and must perform a variety of procedure to stabilise a patient, such as craniotomy, cricothyroidectomy and chest draining procedures. It has been suggested that Traumatology be merged into this article or section. ... A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which part of the skull (part of the cranium) is removed in order to access the brain. ...

Colorectal surgery

Involves evaluation and treatment of complaints from the lower intestinal tract - the large bowel, rectum and anus. A large part of this care involves management of Colorectal cancer, as well as more trivial ailments such as Hemorrhoids. Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Hemorrhoids (also haemorrhoids or piles) are varicosities or swelling and inflammation of veins in the rectum and anus. ...

13:35, 18 March 2008 (UTC) (talk)===Upper gastro-intestinal surgery=== Surgical management of conditions involving the esophagus, stomach, liver, spleen, gall bladder. Cholecystectomy, the surgical removal of the gall bladder, is one of the most common surgical procedures done world-wide.Upper gastro intestinal surgery may be done as emergencies like perforated duodenal ulcers, or acutely inflammed gall baldders or as elective operations such as cancer of stomach. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy as seen through laparoscope X-Ray during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Cholecystectomy (, plural: cholecystectomies,) is the surgical removal of the gallbladder. ...

Though this type of surgery was popular by open surgery, nowadays it is replaced mostly by key hole or laparoscopic surgery . Using the key hole approach, the incisions are much smaller( 1 cm or less in the place of 15 cm long incisions), the scars are less painful , there is less stay in the hospital with early return to normal activity. Key hole surgery especially in the upper gastro intestinal tract causes less of chest complications as patients breathe better after surgery with minimal pain.

Endocrine surgery

Specialising in surgical removal of endocrine glands - most commonly the thyroid, the parathyroid glands and adrenal glands. Endocrine surgery is a surgical procedure that is performed to achieve a hormonal or anti-hormonal effect in the body. ... Categories: Anatomy stubs | Endocrine system ... In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ...

Transplant surgery

A transplant surgeon must be ready at any time, when called to harvest organs from a suitable donor. Transplantation of organs must be done as quickly and as meticulously as possible to optimise the chances of a successful transplant.

Vascular surgery

Historically, Vascular surgery was part of the General Surgical program, although recently it has formed its own college. Nonetheless, vascular trainees must complete are certain number of General Surgical terms. Vascular surgery is a subspecialty of general surgery in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries and veins, are managed, largely via surgical intervention, and was originally founded by Dr. Clyde Otis Hagood Jr. ... Vascular surgery is a subspecialty of general surgery in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries and veins, are managed, largely via surgical intervention, and was originally founded by Dr. Clyde Otis Hagood Jr. ...

In addition to the above, a General Surgeon may deal with a plethora of less emergent procedures- depending on the training of the Surgeon. Procedures such as treatment of varicose veins, circumcision, vasectomies and skin cancer removal are often done by General Surgeons. This is especially the case in rural areas, where sub-specialist level care is not always available. Vein gymnastics in the barefoot park Dornstetten, Germany. ... This article is about male circumcision. ... Vasectomy is a surgical procedure in which the vasa deferentia of a male mammal are cut for the purpose of sterilization. ... Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin which can have many causes. ...


In the last few years minimally invasive surgery has become more prevalent. Considerable enthusiasm has built around robotic surgery (also known as robotic-assisted surgery), despite a lack of data suggesting it has significant benefits that justify its cost.[1] A minimally invasive medical procedure is defined as one that is carried out by entering the body through the skin or through a body cavity or anatomical opening, but with the smallest damage possible to these structures. ... Robotic surgery is the use of robots in performing surgery. ...


In Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States general surgery is a five-year residency and follows completion of medical school, either (MD, MBBS, MBChB, etc) or (DO) degree. Following high school, it takes approximately thirteen years to make a fully licensed general surgeon (four years undergraduate training, four years medical school and five years residency). In the United States, board certification by the American Board of Surgery is also required upon completion of training for a general surgeon to have operating privileges at most hospitals. Residency is a stage of postgraduate medical training certification in a primary care or referral specialty. ... Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution — or part of such an institution — that teaches medicine. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... In most countries, only persons licensed by specified government-approved professional associations are allowed to practice medicine. ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ...


In many countries general surgery is a prerequisite for subspecialization in:

Vascular surgery is a subspecialty of general surgery in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries and veins, are managed, largely via surgical intervention, and was originally founded by Dr. Clyde Otis Hagood Jr. ... In medicine, the field of (cardio)thoracic surgery is involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting the heart (cardiovascular disease) and lungs (lung disease). ... Cardiac surgery is surgery on the heart, typically to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (e. ... For the album by The Huntingtons, see Plastic Surgery (album). ...


  1. ^ Lunca S, Bouras G, Stanescu AC (2005). "Gastrointestinal robot-assisted surgery. A current perspective". Romanian journal of gastroenterology 14 (4): 385-91. PMID 16400356. 

See also

“Surgeon” redirects here. ... The term abdominal surgery broadly covers surgical procedures that involve opening the abdomen. ... This article is about the medical specialty. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Traumatology (from Greek Trauma meaning injury or wound) is the study of wounds and injuries caused by accidents or violence to a person, and the surgical treatment and repair of the damage. ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
General Surgery System - General Surgery - Mediflex Surgical Products (0 words)
The Bookler Universal General Surgery System was designed to provide multi-directional surgical site exposure in a wide variety of abdominal procedures.
Easy to assemble, it features both a solid and a segmented ring, two types of horizontal bars, tilting and non-tilting ratchets and a wide variety of general surgery blades, both rigid and malleable.
Other components such as the blade extender, twist ratchet or different blades can be added to satisfy the needs of specific surgeons or procedures.
American College of Surgeons: So, You Want to Be a Surgeon: The Surgical Specialties: General Surgery (694 words)
"General Surgery" is a discipline of surgery having a central core of knowledge embracing anatomy, physiology, metabolism, immunology, nutrition, pathology, wound healing, shock and resuscitation, intensive care, and neoplasia, which are common to all surgical specialties.
General surgery is on the "cutting edge" as it continues to reinvent itself to the benefit of the surgical patient.
General surgery continues to be a field high in public and professional demand, insuring that future general surgeons will have promising and fullfilling careers.
  More results at FactBites »



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