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Encyclopedia > General practitioner

A general practitioner (GP), family physician or family practitioner (FP) is a medical doctor who provides primary care. A GP/FP treats acute and chronic illnesses, provides preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes. The synomyms family practitioner or family physician have become widespread in Canada and the USA (see below). The term general practitioner is common in the United Kingdom and some other Commonwealth countries, where the word physician is largely reserved for certain other types of medical specialists, notably in internal medicine. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ... Primary care may be provided in community health centres. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... For other uses, see Doctor. ... A medical specialist is someone who specializes in a particular field of medicine. ... Doctors of internal medicine (internists) are medical specialists who focus on adult medicine and have had special study and training focusing on the prevention and treatment of adult diseases. ...


Traditionally, GPs may care for hospitalized patients; where they have hospital privileges, they may perform minor surgery and/or obstetrics. Many GPs do some minor procedures, such as removal of skin lesions, in their offices (their rooms in UK & Commonwealth usage). In the past, GPs frequently carried out more major surgery, such as tonsillectomies, hernia repairs, and appendectomies. In the more rural parts of many OECD countries, this style of medical practice continues. However, throughout much of the world in the last few decades, there has been an increase in the number and type of medical specialists, matched by a steady decrease in family physicians. These changes may have many causes, including due to the long working hours, the relative isolation of solo general practice, and the lower pay compared to that of most specialists. “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, to stand by) is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (the period shortly after birth). ... Throat after tonsillectomy A tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which the tonsils are removed. ... Look up hernia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An appendicectomy (or appendectomy) is the surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... A medical specialist is someone who specializes in a particular field of medicine. ...

Contents

The Americas

Brazil

General practice in Brazil is called clínica geral or clínica médica. Any physician is legally allowed to practice without any training after graduation in the medical school, but recent efforts by the government, the Brazilian Medical Association and the specialized Sociedade Brasileira de Clínica Médica are trying to demand also a specialist title for its practice, just like for others such as cardiology, endocrinology, etc. The majority of Brazilian GPs are located in the public health sector and is constituted mostly by young, recently graduated physicians. The reason is that GP is not terribly profitable and about 40% of Brazilian doctors prefer to do specialized practice, instead. To do this, they are required to do medical residence of variable duration and submit to a board of medical examiners in order to get the title of specialist. Each medical society is in charge of organizing the examinations (which usually are carried out once a year) and granting the titles to those physicians who passed the requirements. The title is recognized by the Federal Council of Medicine (the Federal professional regulatory body), the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health. Associação Médica Brasileira (Brazilian Medical Association, in Portuguese language) is the national class association of physicians in Brazil. ...


Family medicine, on the other hand, has evolved only recently in Brazil as a separate specialization of general practice. It is a concept which was adapted from several community health models in Europe, such as in Italy, but particularly the one which was created successfully in Cuba, and which was felt to be the most adequate to Brazilian reality. Around 10 years ago, the government recognized that primary health care in Brazil was poorly organized and fraught with many problems, including a lack of attractiveness to young physicians, so a different approach, the Family Health Program (Programa de Saúde da Família or PSF) was tried, initially with some failures, but later with increasing strength and coverage. By spending a great deal of money in order to move the program forward, the Ministry of Health expanded and reinforced the public health care system, called Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde or SUS) by decentralizing its management to the states and municipalities, by demanding in the Federal Constitution that a minimum percentage of the municipal budget should be spent in free health care to the population, and by setting up a new, multidisciplinary, family health-based system, the PSF. It is essentially based on teams composed by one to four physicians (usually a GP, a gynecologist/obstetrician and a pediatrician), one to two dentists, several nurses and a number of so called Community Health Agents (Agentes Comunitários de Saúde or ACS), who are trained lay persons who visit and have close contact with the families covered in a specific geographical location by the PSF team, in order to carry out preventative, educational and epidemiological work. Specific intensive training programs and recruiting efforts were set up in the country in order to form the PSF teams, which currently involve about 3,000 municipalities, with more than 45,000 teams already in operation; so that it can be considered one of the largest family health programs in the world. Community Health Community health is a discipline that concerns itself with the study and betterment of the health characteristics of a given community. ... Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health System) is the Brazilian governmental system aimed at providing health care. ...


Family physicians per se are still a rare specialty in Brazil, as the profession is generally shunning it (although economical incentive is no longer a valid reason, since physicians who work in the PSF units are generally well paid in comparison to primary health care physicians in the public sector). A few years ago a Brazilian Society of Family and Community Medicine was founded and has lobbied to have its own specialty title and board of examiners, but it has so far remained relatively small.


Canada

In Canada, there are no newly qualifying general practitioners: all medical students go on to a specialty, and family medicine accounts for almost 40% of the residency positions for graduating students. Following four years in medical school, a resident will spend 2-3 years in an accredited family medicine program. At the end of this, residents are eligible to be examined for Certification in the College of Family Physicians of Canada *[1]. Many hospitals and health regions now require this certification. To maintain their certificate, doctors must document ongoing learning and upgrade activities to accumulate "MainPro" credits. Some doctors add an extra year of training in emergency medicine and can thus be additionally certified as CCFP(EM). Extra training in anesthesia, surgery and obstetrics may also be recognized but this is not standardized across the country.


There is very little private family medicine practice in Canada. Most FPs are renumerated via their Provincial government health plans, via a variety of payment mechanisms, including fee-for-service, salaried positions, and alternate payment plans. There is increasing interest in the latter as a means to promote best practices within a managed economic environment. As standard office practice has become less financially viable in recent years, many FPs now pursue areas of special interest. In rural areas, the majority of FPs still provide a broad, well-rounded scope of practice. Manpower inequities in rural areas are now being addressed with some innovative training and inducement mechanisms. An imbalance between physician manpower and a growing patient load has resulted in orphan patients who find it difficult to access primary care, but this is not unique to Canada. Definition Within any system for health care, there is often a problem with supply of health care providers and/or access to them. ...


United States

In the United States, a general practitioner has completed the one-year internship required to obtain a medical license, after having received at least an undergraduate Baccalaureate degree and a four-year M.D. Doctor of Medicine or a D.O. Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree. A physician who specializes in family medicine (also known as a family physician), however, has completed a three-year family medicine residency in addition to the undergraduate and doctoral studies, and is eligible for the board certification now required by most hospitals and health plans. Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ... The current version of the article or section is written like a magazine article instead of the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia. ... Board certified can refer to: American Board of Medical Specialties certification Nursing board certification Category: ...


Most family physicians practice in solo or small-group private practices or as hospital employees in practices of similar sizes owned by hospitals. Still, many choose to teach medicine at medical schools or family medicine residency programs, though usually for much less pay. Others chose to practice as consultants to various medical institutions, including insurance companies.


Starting in the 1970s and 1980s, many board-certified family physicians in the United States began to consider the terms "General Practitioner" and "GP" as somewhat demeaning and derogatory, discounting their additional years of training. It was not until 1969 that Family Medicine (formerly known as Family Practice) was recognized as a distinct specialty in the U.S.[1]


A family physician is board-certified in family medicine. Training is focused on treating an individual throughout all of his or her life stages. Family physicians will see anyone with any problem, but are experts in common problems. Many family physicians deliver babies as well as taking care of patients of all ages. Family physicians complete undergraduate school, medical school, and three more years of specialized medical residency training in Family Medicine. Board-certified family physicians take a written examination every six, seven, nine, or ten years to remain board certified, depending on what track they choose regarding the maintenance of their certification. Three hundred hours of continuing medical education within the prior six years is also required to be eligible to sit for the exam. Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution or part of such an institution that teaches medicine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with residency (medicine). ...


Between 2003 and 2009 the board certification process is being changed in family medicine and all other American Specialty Boards to a continuous series of yearly competency tests on differing areas within the given specialty. The American Board of Family Medicine, as well as other specialty boards, are requiring additional participation in continuous learning and self-assessment to enhance clinical knowledge, expertise, and skills. The Board has created a program called the "Maintenance of Certification Program for Family Physicians" (MC-FP) which will require family physicians to continuously demonstrate proficiency in four areas of clinical practice: professionalism, self assessment/lifelong learning, cognitive expertise, and performance in practice. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) is a non-profit, independent physician organization in the U.S. that certifies physicians who practice in family medicine and its sub-specialties. ...


Certificates of Added Qualifications (CAQs) in adolescent medicine, geriatric medicine, or sports medicine are available for those board certified family physicians who meet additional training and testing requirements. Additionally, fellowships are available for family physicians in adolescent medicine, geriatrics, sports medicine, rural medicine, faculty development, obstetrics, research, and preventative medicine. “Adolescent” redirects here. ... Geriatrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on health promotion and the prevention and treatment of disease and disability in later life. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A fellowship is the period of medical training that a physician may undertake after completing a residency. ...


The family medicine (FM) paradigm is bolstered by primary care physicians trained in internal medicine (IM); although these physicians are trained in internal medicine only, adult patients provide the majority of the patient base of many family medicine practices. In the United States, there is a rising contingent of physicians dually trained in internal medicine and pediatrics ("peds", pronounced [pids]) (which can be completed in four years, instead of the three years each for IM and pediatrics). A significant number of family medicine practices (especially in suburban and urban areas) do not provide obstetric services anymore (due to litigation issues and provider preference), and as such, this blurs the line between the FM and IM/Peds difference. One suggested difference is that the IM/Peds-trained physicians are more geared towards subspecialty training or hospital-based practice. Even so, there are many groups with FM-trained and IM/Peds-trained physicians working in seamless harmony. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


There is currently a shortage of family physicians (and also other primary care providers) due to several factors, notably the lesser prestige associated with the young specialty, the lesser pay, and the increasingly frustrating practice environment in the U.S. Physicians are increasingly forced to do more administrative work, shoulder higher malpractice premiums due to highly profitable insurance monopolies that charge excessive premiums, thus forcing doctors to spend less and less time with patient care due to the current payor model stressing patient volume vs. quality of care. Things are starting to change as more insurance carriers consolidate. They are not stressing performance but more and more volume, thus increasing insurance company profit margins. Physicians are starting to shun insurance carriers to lessen the paperwork in order to focus more on patient care as they are originally trained to do. The average starting salary in the United States for family physicians is $100,000 to 120,000 a year.


Asia and Oceania

Australia

General Practice in Australia has undergone many changes in training requirements over the past decade. The basic medical degree in Australia is the MBBS (Bachelors of Medicine and Surgery), which has traditionally been attained after completion of a six-year course. Over the last few years, four-year postgraduate courses have become more common. After graduating, a one or two-year internship (dependent on state) is required for registration before specialist training begins. For general practice training, the doctor applies to enter the three-year "Australian General Practice Training Program", a combination of coursework and apprenticeship type training leading to the awarding of the FRACGP (Fellowship of the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners), if successful. Since 1996 this qualification or its equivalent has been required in order for the GP to access Medicare rebates as a general practitioner. Medicare is Australia's universal health insurance system, and without access to it, a practitioner cannot effectively work in private practice in Australia. Most GPs work under a fee-for-service arrangement although increasingly a portion of income is derived from Government payments for participation in chronic disease management programs. There is a shortage of GPs in rural areas and increasingly outer metropolitan areas of large cities, which has led to the utilisation of overseas trained doctors (OTDs). Medicinæ Baccalaureus & Baccalaureus Chirurgiæ (MB BChir or MB ChB or MB, BS or variations thereof) are the two degrees awarded after a course in medicine and surgery at a university in the United Kingdom and other places following the British tradition, such as Australian, Hong Kong, Singapore, New Zealand, Jamaican... The Royal Australian College Of General Practitioners is the professional body for General Practitioners in Australia. ... Medicare is Australias publicly-funded universal health care system, operated by the government authority Medicare Australia. ... Universal health care is a situation in which all residents of a geographic or political region have access to most types of health care. ...


India

India has the highest number of medical schools in the world, with approximately 262. In India to become a GP or a Family Physician, one has to enroll in a Medical Council Of India (MCI) recognised medical college and complete the Bachelors of Medicine and Surgery (M.B.,B.S) course, which is of four and a half years duration to be awarded the degree of M.B.,B.S and provisionally registered with the Medical Council of India. After one further year of compulsory rotatory internship, the Medical Council of India (or any of the State Medical Councils) confer permanent registration which licences the holder to practise as a GP. As an attached note...A person qualifies to attend courses at the age of 15 without any previous university education. In India, the term medical college refers to a special educational institution that provides medical education. ... Medicinæ Baccalaureus & Baccalaureus Chirurgiæ (MB BChir or MB ChB or MB, BS or variations thereof) are the two degrees awarded after a course in medicine and surgery at a university in the United Kingdom and other places following the British tradition, such as Australian, Hong Kong, Singapore, New Zealand, Jamaican...


Higher medical education

An M.B., B.S Doctor can appear for pre-post-graduate examinations (Pre-PG) at national, state or institute levels and gain entry to a MD (Doctor of Medicine), MS (Master of Surgery) or a Diploma course in a number of specialisations including Internal Medicine (or General Medicine).


One can also opt to join the National Board of Examinations (NBE)'s fellowship for Family Medicine at any of the NBE designated and recognised Health care center or hospital and appear for qualifying exams for fellowship to the National Board on successful completion of which, one is awarded the "Diplomate of National Board" degree and title.


Other than allopathic doctors, graduates of homeopathy, ayurveda, and unani courses from recognised medical colleges and institutions and duly registered with the respective state or national boards of these medical systems can also practice as family practitioners. Allopathic medicine is the name given by Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathy, to the methods of his medical foes. ... Homeopathy starring at the horrors of Allopathy by Alexander Beydeman, 1857 Homeopathy (also spelled homœopathy or homoeopathy), from the Greek words όμοιος, hómoios (similar) and πάθος, páthos (suffering, disease),[1] is a highly controversial type of alternative medicine that aims to treat like with like. ... Shirodhara, one of the techniques of Ayurveda Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Unaani (in Arabic, Hindustani, Persian, Pashtu, Urdu etc) means Greek. ...


Pakistan

In Pakistan, 5 years of MBBS is followed by by one year of internship in different specialties. Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC) then confers permanent registration, after which the candidate may choose to practice as a GP or opt for specialty training. Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC) is based in Islamabad, Pakistan. ...


The first Family Medicine Training programme was approved by the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Pakistan (CPSP) in 1992 and initiated in 1993 by the Family Medicine Division of the Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Pakistan. In 1997, the Royal College of General Practitioners, UK, unconditionally approved the Programme for the MRCGP Examination and additionally declared it as amongst the top 10 programmes in UK.[2] The Aga Khan University (AKU) is an elite coeducational university in Pakistan. ...


Family Medicine Residency training programme of Ziauddin University is approved for Fellowship in Family Medicine.[3]


The following centres are providing training for Diploma of College of Physicians and Surgeons, Pakistan (DCPSP)[4]:

  1. Ayub Medical College/Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad
  2. Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi
  3. Khyber Medical College/Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar
  4. PGMI / Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar
  5. PGMI / Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar

Europe

France

In France, the médecin généraliste (commonly called docteur) is responsible for the long term care in a population. This implies prevention, education, care of the diseases and traumas that do not require a specialist, and orientation towards a specialist when necessary. They also follow the severe diseases day-to-day (between the acute crises that require the intervention of a specialist). This article is about the medical term. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ...


They have a role in the survey of epidemics, a legal role (constatation of traumas that can bring compensation, certificates for the practice of a sport, death certificate, certificate for hospitalisation without consent in case of mental incapacity), and a role in the emergency care (they can be called by the samu, the French EMS). They often go to a patient's home when the patient cannot come to the consulting room (especially in case of children or old people), and have to contribute to a night and week-end duty (although this was contested in a strike in 2002). An epidemic is generally a widespread disease that affects many individuals in a population. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Emergency medical service (known by the acronym of EMS in the USA and Canada) is a branch of medicine that is performed in the field, pre-hospital, (i. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


The studies consist of six years in the university (common to all medical specialties), and two years and a half as a junior practitioner (interne) :

  • the first year (PCEM1, premier cycle d'études médicales, première année, often abbreviated to P1 by students) is common with the dentists (and, in some universities, with students of other paramedical professions like midwifery); the rank at the final competitive examination determines in which branch the student can go on;
  • the following two years, called propédeutique, are dedicated to the fundamental sciences: anatomy, human physiology, biochemistry, bacteriology, statistics...
  • the three following years are called externat and are dedicated to the study of clinical medicine; they end with a classifying examination, the rank determines in which specialty (general medicine is one of them) the student can make his internat;
  • the internat is two years and a half of initial professional experience under the responsibility of a senior; the interne can prescribe, he can make replace physicians, and usually works in a hospital.

This ends with a doctorate, a research work which usually consist of a statistical study of cases to propose a care strategy of a specific affection (in an epidemiological, diagnostic, or therapeutic point of view). // Midwifery is the term traditionally used to describe the art of assisting a woman through childbirth. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Microbiology (in Greek micron = small and biologia = studying life) is the study of microorganisms, including unicellular (single-celled) eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fungi, and viruses. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Medicine is the branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining human health or restoring it through the treatment of disease and injury. ...


Netherlands

General practice in The Netherlands is considered fairly advanced. The huisarts (literally: "home doctor") administers all first-line care, and makes required referrals. Many have a specialist interest, e.g. in palliative care. Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Palliative care (from Latin palliare, to cloak) is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of disease symptoms, rather than providing a cure. ...


Training consists of three years of specialisation after completion of internships.


Spain

In Spain the médico de familia/médico general commonly called médico de cabecera, works in multidisciplinary teams (pediatrics, nurses, social workers and others) on primary care centers. They are in most cases salary-based healthcare workers.


After the graduation in medicine (with a duration of 6 years), the medical doctors pass a national written exam called MIR (Internal Resident Doctor). The speciality devoted to primary care is "Family and Community Medicine Specialist". To obtain it, the postgraduate doctors must complete a 4-years training period working in primary care centers (2 years) and hospitals (2 years) as residents. Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution or part of such an institution that teaches medicine. ... Residency is a stage of postgraduate medical training certification in a primary care or referral specialty. ... A medical specialist is someone who specializes in a particular field of medicine. ... Primary care may be provided in community health centres. ...


Some of the specialist in family practice in Spain are forced to work in other countries (mainly UK, Portugal and France) due to lack of stable work offers in the public health system.


United Kingdom

NHS Medical Career Grades
Old System New System (Modernising Medical Careers)
Year 1: Pre-registration House Officer (PRHO) - one year Foundation House Officer - 2 years
Year 2: Senior House Officer (SHO)
a minimum of two years, although often more
Year 3: Specialty Registrar (StR)
in a hospital speciality:
six years
Specialty Registrar (StR)
in general practice:
three years
Year 4: Specialist Registrar
four to six years
GP Registrar- one year
Year 5: General Practitioner
total time in training: 4 years
Years 6-8: General Practitioner
total time in training:
5 years
Year 9: Consultant
total time in training:
minimum 7-9 years
Consultant
total time in training:
8 years
Optional Training may be extended by pursuing
medical research (usually two-three years),
usually with clinical duties as well
Training may be extended by obtaining
an Academic Clinical Fellowship for research.


In the United Kingdom, doctors wishing to become GPs take at least 4 years training after medical school, which is usually an undergraduate course of five to six years (or a graduate course of four to six years) leading to the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MB ChB/BS). “NHS” redirects here. ... Modernising Medical Careers (MMC) is a new programme for postgraduate medical training being introduced in the UK from 2005 onwards. ... Pre-registration house officer (PRHO) is the title given to the medical graduates who have passed their final year exams in the Medical School. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Foundation Year 2. ... A senior house officer is a doctor undergoing specialist training in the United Kingdom. ... The four UK Health Departments have agreed a new career framework for doctors, to be implemented in August 2007. ... The four UK Health Departments have agreed a new career framework for doctors, to be implemented in August 2007. ... A specialist registrar is a doctor in the United Kingdom who is receiving advanced training in a specialist field of medicine in order to eventually become a consultant. ... A general practitioner (GP), family physician or family practitioner (FP) is a physician/medical doctor who provides primary care. ... A general practitioner (GP), family physician or family practitioner (FP) is a physician/medical doctor who provides primary care. ... A general practitioner (GP), family physician or family practitioner (FP) is a physician/medical doctor who provides primary care. ... In the United Kingdom, a consultant is the name of a senior doctor who has completed all of his or her specialist training and entered the General Medical Councils specialist register in their chosen speciality. ... In the United Kingdom, a consultant is the name of a senior doctor who has completed all of his or her specialist training and entered the General Medical Councils specialist register in their chosen speciality. ... In the United Kingdom, medical school generally refers to a department within a university which is involved in the education of future medical practitioners. ... Medicinæ Baccalaureus & Baccalaureus Chirurgiæ (MB BChir or MB ChB or MB, BS or variations thereof) are the two degrees awarded after a course in medicine and surgery at a university in the United Kingdom and other places following the British tradition, such as Australian, Hong Kong, Singapore, New Zealand, Jamaican...


Up until 2005, those wishing to become a GP had to do a minimum of the following postgraduate training:

  • one year as a pre-registration house officer (PRHO) (formerly called a houseman), in which the trainee would usually spend 6 months on a general surgical ward and 6 months on a general medical ward in a hospital;
  • two years as a senior house officer (SHO) - often on a General Practice Vocational Training Scheme (GP-VTS) in which the trainee would normally complete four 6-month jobs in hospital specialties such as obstetrics & gynaecology, paediatrics, geriatric medicine, accident & emergency or psychiatry;
  • one year as a general practice registrar.

This process has changed under the programme Modernising Medical Careers. Doctors graduating from 2005 onwards will have to do a minimum of 5 years postgraduate training: Pre-registration house officer (PRHO) is the title given to the medical graduates who have passed their final year exams in the Medical School. ... A senior house officer is a doctor undergoing specialist training in the United Kingdom. ... Modernising Medical Careers (MMC) is a new programme for postgraduate medical training being introduced in the UK from 2005 onwards. ...

  • two years of Foundation Training, in which the trainee will do a rotation around either six 4-month jobs or eight 3-month jobs - these include at least 3-months in general medicine and 3-months in general surgery, but will also include jobs in other areas;
  • two years as on a General Practice Vocational Training Scheme (GP-VTS) in which the trainee would normally complete four 6-month jobs in hospital specialties such as obstetrics & gynaecology, paediatrics, geriatric medicine, accident & emergency or psychiatry;
  • one year as a general practice registrar.

At the end of the one year registrar post, the doctor must pass an examination in order to be allowed to practice independently as a GP. This summative assessment consists of a video of two hours of consultations with patients, an audit cycle completed during their registrar year, a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ), and a standardised assessment of competencies by their trainer. Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, to stand by) is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (the period shortly after birth). ... The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ... Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants and children. ... Geriatrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on health promotion and the prevention and treatment of disease and disability in later life. ... The emergency department (ED), sometimes termed the emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW), accident & emergency (A&E) department or casualty department is a hospital or primary care department that provides initial treatment to patients with a broad spectrum of illnesses and injuries, some of which may be life-threatening and... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ...


Membership of the Royal College of General Practitioners is optional and can be awarded by examination, or by systematic assessment of an existing practitioner. After passing the exam or assessment, they are awarded the specialist qualification of MRCGP – Member of the Royal College of General Practitioners. General practitioners are not required to hold the MRCGP, but it is considered desirable. In addition, many hold qualifications such as the DCH (Diploma in Child Health of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health) and/or the DRCOG (Diploma of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists) and/or the DGH (Diploma in Geriatric Medicine of the Royal College of Physicians. Some General Practitioners also hold the MRCP (Member of the Royal College of Physicians) or other specialist qualifications, particularly if they had a career in another specialty before coming into General Practice. The Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) was founded in 1952. ... History of the College The United Kingdoms first national group of paediatricians was established in 1928 as the British Paediatric Association or BPA. Royal College status was granted to the BPA in August 1996. ... The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists is a medical institution in England which is responsible for training and regulating medical practitioners who specialise in obstetrics and gynaecology. ... College building by Denys Lasdun The Royal College of Physicians of London is the oldest medical institution in England was founded in 1518 and is one of the most active of all medical professional organisations. ... College building by Denys Lasdun The Royal College of Physicians of London is the oldest medical institution in England was founded in 1518 and is one of the most active of all medical professional organisations. ...


There are many arrangements under which general practitioners can work in the UK. While the main career aim is becoming a principal or partner in a GP surgery, many become salaried or non-principal GPs, work in hospitals in GP-led acute care units, or perform locum work. Whichever of these roles they fill the vast majority of GPs receive most of their income from the National Health Service (NHS). Principals and partners in GP surgeries are self-employed, but they have contractual arrangements with the NHS which give them considerable predictability of income. “NHS” redirects here. ...


The MB ChB medical degree is generally considered equivalent to the North American MD medical degree. Doctors educated in the United States, Canada, Ireland, and Great Britain have more ability to move between the countries than other national systems.


Visits to GP surgeries are free in the United Kingdom, but most adults of working age who are not on benefits have to pay a standard charge for prescription only medicine. A prescription drug (or POM Prescription Only Medicine, in UK) is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ...

GPs in the United Kingdom may operate in community health centres.

Recent reforms to the NHS have included changing the GP contract. General practitioners are now not required to work unsociable hours, and get paid to some extent according to their performance, e.g. numbers of patients treated, what treatments were administered, and the health of their catchment area, through the Quality and Outcomes Framework. They are encouraged to prescribe medicines by their generic names. The IT system used for assessing their income based on these criteria is called QMAS. A GP can expect to earn about £70,000 a year without doing any overtime, although this figure is extremely variable. A recent report[5] notes that a GP can potentially earn £250k per year. These potential earnings have been the subject of much criticism in the press for being excessive [6]. However, an average full time GP is more likely to earn a little less than £100,000 before tax. Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 487 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 487 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly-funded healthcare system of the United Kingdom. ... Despite many different contracting arrangements that have been and are being introduced for general medical service in the UK, General Practitioners (GPs) are, in principle, independent contractors with the government. ... Pay for performance is an emerging movement in health insurance (initially in Britain and United States). ... The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) is a system for payment of GPs in the UK National Health Service. ... QMAS is an IT system supporting the quality and outcomes framework for paying GPs in Great Britains NHS. It determines remuneration according to a range of criteria, including the number of patients that have had consultations, how they were treated, and the overall level of health in that surgery...


GP Practices have been criticised by their lack of accountability, in particular with complaints procedures, as recent report described "an NHS complaints system failing to detect issues of professional misconduct or criminal activity".[7] However complaint procedures have been tightened up and there is now a growing threat that malicious complaints and unrealistic expectations from patients are making General Practitioners stress levels soar. Practices are independent contractors and thus are able to exercise discretion in how they conduct themselves, the Primary Care Trust is not able to handle complaints before the Practice has, and patients do run a risk of being removed from the practitioner's list[8]. Many services in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom are provided by NHS Trusts. ...


See also

The World Organization of National Colleges, Academies (Wonca) and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physicians or in short World Organization of Family Doctors is an international organization of national colleges, academies or organizations concerned with the academic aspects of general family practice. ... The American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) is a non-profit, independent physician organization in the U.S. that certifies physicians who practice in family medicine and its sub-specialties. ... The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) was founded in 1947 to promote the science and art of family medicine. ...

References

  1. ^ Pisacano, Nicholas J.. History of the Specialty. American Board of Family Medicine. Retrieved on 2007-08-08.

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The General Practitioner Legend Text (728 words)
Since money and goods were exchanged for services, practitioners became somewhat competitive and often allowed patients to dictate their own treatment in order to keep them satisfied.
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Most general practitioners had one as part of their equipment, and used it to osculate the chest.
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