FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
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Encyclopedia > General of the Army (United States)
US Army collar insignia

General of the Army is historically the second most senior rank in the United States Army, equivalent to the rank of Field Marshal in other militaries. Its equivalent ranks in the other U.S. Armed Forces are Fleet Admiral and General of the Air Force. The rank became represented by its 5-star insignia during the Second World War when four generals of the United States Army were promoted to the rank General of the Army to match the ranks of their European counterparts. General of the Armies of the United States is the highest possible rank in the United States military hierarchy, equal to a Generalissimo. ... General of the Army is a military rank used in some countries of the world to denote a senior military leader, usually a General in command of a nations Army. ... Image File history File links I, Wguynes, am the artist of this graphic. ... Image File history File links I, Wguynes, am the artist of this graphic. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... This article is about the use of the term rank. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... A Fleet Admiral in the United States Navy is an Admiral considered the equivalent of the United States Armys General of the Army. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...

Contents

Origins of the rank

In an Act of the United States Congress on March 3, 1799, Congress provided "that a Commander of the United States shall be appointed and commissioned by the style of General of the Armies of the United States and the present office and title of Lieutenant General shall thereafter be abolished." Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ... General of the Armies of the United States is the highest possible rank in the United States military hierarchy, equal to a Generalissimo. ...


The proposed senior general officer rank was not bestowed, however (when George Washington died, he was listed as a lieutenant general on the rolls of the United States Army). Thus, a policy was established (whose exact reasons are lost) that the most senior general officer rank to be held in the Regular Army of the United States would be that of major general. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... The Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army or any Countrys army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ...


First version

General of the Army shoulder strap insignia, 1866-1872 (Grant and Sherman).
General of the Army shoulder strap insignia, 1872-1888 (Sherman and Sheridan).

On July 25, 1866, the U.S. Congress established the rank of "General of the Army of the United States" for Ulysses S. Grant. When appointed general of the Army, Grant wore the rank insignia of four stars and coat buttons arranged in three groups of four. Image File history File links Us_army_general_insignia_1866. ... Image File history File links Us_army_general_insignia_1872. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ...


After Grant retired to private life, he was succeeded as General of the Army by William T. Sherman, effective March 4, 1869. In 1872, Sherman ordered the insignia changed to two stars with the arms of the United States in between. Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


By an Act of June 1, 1888, the grade of lieutenant general was discontinued and merged in that of General of the Army, which was then conferred upon Philip H. Sheridan. (The cover of Sheridan's autobiography was decorated with four stars within a rectangle evocative of the four-star shoulder strap worn by Grant.) The rank of general of the Army ceased to exist upon the death of Sheridan on August 5, 1888 and the highest rank of the United States Army was again the two star major general rank. is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Philip Sheridan Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888), a military man and one of the great generals in the American Civil War. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ...


Unlike the 1944 rank with a similar title, General of the Army in the 1866-1888 period was equivalent to a modern-day four-star general. The unique title reflected the fact that only one officer could hold the rank at any time. Lieutenant General, General, General of the Army, General of the Air Force, and General of the Armies of the United States are high ranks in the United States military. ...


Second version

The second version of General of the Army, colloquially known as a "Five Star General" was created by Pub.L. 78-482 passed on 14 December 1944, [1] first as a temporary rank, then made permanent 23 March 1946 by an act of the 79th Congress. [2] It was created to give the most senior American commanders parity of rank with their British counterparts holding the rank of field marshal. The acts also created a comparable rank of Fleet Admiral for the Navy. This second General of the Army rank is not considered comparable to the 19th-century version. Image File history File links I, Wguynes, am the artist of this graphic. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Fleet Admiral Collar Device Fleet Admiral Shoulder Board Fleet Admiral Sleeve Insignia A Fleet Admiral in the United States Navy is an admiral considered to be the equivalent of the United States Armys General of the Army. ...


The insignia for General of the Army, as created in 1944, consisted of five stars in a pentagonal pattern, with points touching. The five officers who have held the 1944 version of General of the Army were:

      •   George C. Marshall 16 December 1944
      •   Douglas MacArthur 18 December 1944
      •   Dwight D. Eisenhower     20 December 1944
      •   Henry H. Arnold 21 December 1944
      •   Omar Bradley 20 September 1950

The timing of the first four appointments was to correspond to the appointment of the U.S. Navy's five-star Fleet Admirals to establish both a clear order of seniority and a near-equivalence between the services. George C. Marshall George Catlett Marshall (December 31, 1880–October 16, 1959), an American military leader and statesman, was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... General of the Air Force Henry Harley Hap Arnold GCB (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an aviation pioneer and Chief of the United States Army Air Corps (from 1938), Commanding General of the U.S. Army Air Forces (from 1941 until 1945) and the first and only General... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fleet Admiral Collar Device Fleet Admiral Shoulder Board Fleet Admiral Sleeve Insignia A Fleet Admiral in the United States Navy is an admiral considered to be the equivalent of the United States Armys General of the Army. ...


A historical rumor suggests that the title 'General of the Army' was used instead of the 'Field Marshal' so that George Marshall would not be known as "Marshal Marshall". Most military sources agree that it is more likely that the rank was named after its 19th century counterpart and was so named because the rank of Field Marshal was considered by the U.S. military to be a European rank. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Following the establishment of the United States Air Force in 1947, the equivalent rank of General of the Air Force was established. The only person to hold the rank of General of the Air Force was Henry H. Arnold, who was promoted to five-star rank in 1944 when the Army Air Force (AAF) was a component of the U.S. Army. “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... General of the Air Force Henry Harley Hap Arnold GCB (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an aviation pioneer and Chief of the United States Army Air Corps (from 1938), Commanding General of the U.S. Army Air Forces (from 1941 until 1945) and the first and only General... USAAF recruitment poster. ...


Modern usage

There have been no officers appointed to the rank of General of the Army since Omar Bradley and, in the 21st century U.S. military, further appointments are highly unlikely unless the United States were to become involved in a major war on the scale of World War II. Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ... 20XX redirects here. ...


In the 1990s, the Defense Department gave some indication that the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff would possibly one day be a position worthy of the rank General of the Army, Fleet Admiral, or General of the Air Force as appropriate. This would be problematic in that with the appointment of United States Marine Corps Generals as Chairman, there is no current five-star USMC rank. Congressional sources indicated that there were no plans to promote any modern-day general officers to the rank of General of the Army. The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is by law the highest ranking military officer of the United States military, and the principal military advisor to the President of the United States. ... General of the Army is a military rank used in some countries of the world to denote a senior military leader, usually a General in command of a nations Army. ...


The rank of General of the Army is still maintained as a rank of the U.S. military, and could again be bestowed pending approval of the United States Congress. The rank would carry a special pay grade just as the current ranks of officers do. Currently U.S. military policy is that General of the Army, General of the Air Force, and Fleet Admiral are ranks only to be used in time of war when the commanding officer must be equal to or of higher rank than those commanding armies from another nation.


Dwight Eisenhower resigned his Army commmission on May 31, 1952 to run for president. After serving two terms, his successor, John F. Kennedy, signed Pub.L. 87-3 on March 23, 1961 which returned Eisenhower to Active Duty of Regular Army in grade of General of the Army dated back to December 1944. This rank is today commemorated on the signs denoting Interstate Highways as part of the Eisenhower Interstate System, which display five silver stars on a light blue background. [3] [4] is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Interstate Highways in the lower 48 states. ... The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System, is a network of freeways in the United States. ...


General of the Armies

Main article: General of the Armies

An even higher rank, General of the Armies of the United States, has only been conferred twice in the history of the United States armed forces. This title was created when General John J. Pershing accepted the commission on 8 September 1919, was retired with that rank on 13 September 1924. He held the rank until his death on 15 July 1948. General of the Armies of the United States is the highest possible rank in the United States military hierarchy, equal to a Generalissimo. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Joint Resolution of Congress, Pub.L. 94-479, dated 11 October 1976, provided for the posthumous appointment of George Washington to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States. Department of the Army Order 31-3, issued on March 13, 1978, with an effective promotion date of July 4, 1976, "such grade to have rank and precedence over all other grades of the Army, past or present." is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A posthumous recognition is a ceremonial award given after the recipient has passed away. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/quick_links/military/ranks.html
  4. ^ http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/Quick_links/Eisenhower_FAQ/Eisenhower_resigns_as_General_of_the_Army.html

External links

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
General of the Army (United States) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1169 words)
In an Act of the United States Congress on March 3, 1799, Congress provided "that a Commander of the United States shall be appointed and commissioned by the style of General of the Armies of the United States and the present office and title of Lieutenant General shall thereafter be abolished."
The rank of General of the Army ceased to exist upon the death of Sheridan on 5 August 1888 and the highest rank of the United States Army was again the two star Major General rank.
The second version of General of the Army, also known as a "Five Star General" was created by Public Law 482 of the 78th Congress, passed on 14 December 1944, first as a temporary rank, then made permanent 23 March 1946 by an act of the 79th Congress.
General of the Armies - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1010 words)
In the United States Army military hierarchy, General of the Armies is traditionally considered a rank superior to a five-star general, also known as "General of the Army" (note the difference between the names of the two ranks).
On 11 October 1976, by Act of Congress, Washington was posthumously appointed to the rank of General of the Armies.
In the United States Navy the equivalent of General of the Armies was the rank Admiral of the Navy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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