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Encyclopedia > General Order No. 11 (1862)

General Order No. 11 is the title of General Ulysses S. Grant's infamous order of December 17, 1862, during the American Civil War, that all Jews in his district (areas of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Kentucky) be expelled. Ulysses S. Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The American Civil War (1861–1865) was fought in North America within the United States of America, between twenty-four mostly northern states of the Union and the Confederate States of America, a coalition of eleven southern states that declared their independence and claimed the right of secession from the... State nickname: Volunteer State Other U.S. States Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Governor Phil Bredesen (D) Senators Bill Frist (R) Lamar Alexander (R) Official language(s) English Area 109,247 km² (36th)  - Land 106,846 km²  - Water 2,400 km² (2. ... State nickname: Magnolia State Official languages English Capital Jackson Largest city Jackson Governor Haley Barbour (R) Senators Thad Cochran (R) Trent Lott (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 32nd 125,546 km² 3 Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 31st 2,697,243 23. ... State nickname: Bluegrass State Official languages English Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Governor Ernie Fletcher (R) Senators Mitch McConnell (R) Jim Bunning (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 37th 104,749 km² 1. ...

Contents


Previous orders

On April 10, 1862, Grant issued an order to all the conductors on the road, that no Jews are to be permitted to travel on the road southward. April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


On December 8, an aide, Colonel John V. DuBoise, ordered all cotton speculators, Jews, and all vagabonds with no honest means of support, to leave the district.


Reasons for the order

The order was issued as part of a campaign led unwillingly by Grant, who would much have preferred devoting his energies toward the capture of Vicksburg, against a black market in Southern cotton. Eventually he became convinced that it was being run, "Mostly by Jews and other unprincipled traders." In fact, only a handful were Jews. Illinois Memorial in Vicksburg National Military Park. ... The black market is the sector of economic activity involving illegal economic dealings, typically the buying and selling of merchandise illegally. ... Picking cotton in Georgia Cotton is a sexy fiber that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant, a shrub native to the tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old World and the New World. ...


Text of Grant's order

HDQRS. 13TH A. C., DEPT. OF THE TENN.,
Holly Springs, December 17, 1862.


The Jews, as a class violating every regulation of trade established by the Treasury Department and also department orders, are hereby expelled from the department within twenty-four hours from the receipt of this order. Post commanders will see that all of this class of people be furnished passes and required to leave, and any one returning after such notification will be arrested and held in confinement until an opportunity occurs of sending them out as prisoners, unless furnished with permit from headquarters. No passes will be given these people to visit headquarters for the purpose of making personal application for trade permits. The United States Department of the Treasury is a Cabinet department, a treasury, of the United States government established by an Act of U.S. Congress in 1789 to manage the revenue of the United States government. ...


By order of Maj. Gen. U.S. Grant:
JNO. A. RAWLINS,
Assistant Adjutant-General.


Reaction

A group of Paducah, Kentucky Jewish merchants, led by Cesar Kaskel, dispatched a telegram to President Abraham Lincoln, condemning the order as an “enormous outrage on all laws and humanity, …the grossest violation of the Constitution and our rights as good citizens under it.” The telegram also noted it would "place us… as outlaws before the whole world. We respectfully ask your immediate attention to this enormous outrage on all law and humanity…" Throughout the Union, Jewish groups protested and sent telegrams to Washington, D.C. Paducah is a city located in McCracken County, Kentucky at the confluence of the Tennessee River and the Ohio River. ... State nickname: Bluegrass State Official languages English Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Governor Ernie Fletcher (R) Senators Mitch McConnell (R) Jim Bunning (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 37th 104,749 km² 1. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Washington, D.C. is the capital city of the United States of America. ...


Kaskel also led a delegation to Washington, D.C., arriving there on January 3, 1863. In Washington, he conferred with Jewish Republican Adolphus Solomons and a Cincinnati congressman, John A. Gurley. After meeting with Gurley, he went directly to the White House. Lincoln received the delegation and studied Kaskel's copies of General Order No. 11 and the specific order expelling Kaskel from Paducah. The President told Henry W. Halleck to have Grant revoke General Order No. 11, which he did in the following message: January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Cincinnati is a city in southwestern Ohio, United States that lies on the Ohio River and is the county seat of Hamilton CountyGR6. ... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ...

A paper purporting to be General Orders, No. 11, issued by you December 17, has been presented here. By its terms, it expells (sic) all Jews from your department. If such an order has been issued, it will be immediately revoked.

Grant revoked the order three days later.


On January 6, a delegation led by Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise of Cincinnati, called on Lincoln to express its gratitude that the order had been rescinded. Lincoln expressed surprise that Grant had issued such a command and stated his conviction that “to condemn a class is, to say the least, to wrong the good with the bad.” He drew no distinction between Jew and Gentile, the president said, and would allow no American to be wronged because of his religious affiliation. January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISAAC MAYER WISE (March 29, 1819, Steingrub (now Lomnička), Bohemia - March 26, 1900, Cincinnati), American Reform rabbi, editor, and author. ...


When he ran for President in 1868, Grant was able to carry the Jewish vote and named several Jews to high office. Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


See also

40 acres and a mule is the colloquial term for compensation that was to be awarded to freed American slaves after the Civil War—40 acres (16 ha) of land to farm, and a mule with which to drag a plow so the land could be cultivated. ...

External links

  • General Grant's Infamy
  • Judaic Treasures of the Library of Congress: Order No. 11

 
 

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