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Encyclopedia > General Motors Corporation
General Motors
Type Public (NYSE: GM)
Founded 1908
Location Detroit, Michigan; manufacturing facilities in 30 U.S. states and 32 countries
Key people Rick Wagoner, Chairman & CEO Robert A. Lutz Vice Chairman
Industry Automotive
Products Automobiles
Engines
Revenue $192.604 Billion USD (2005)
Net Income -$10.567 Billion USD (2005)
Employees 324,000 (2004)
Website www.gm.com

General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. GM logo This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... New York Stock Exchange (June 2003) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) , also nicknamed the Big Board, is by far the largest stock exchange in the world (by dollar volume) and second largest by number of listings. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nickname: Motor City, Motown, Hockey Town Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Official website: www. ... Rick Wagoner G. Richard Wagoner, Jr. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... Robert A. Lutz (b. ... Car redirects here. ... Karl Benzs Velo model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race An automobile is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ... An engine is something that produces some effect from a given input. ... Revenue is a US business term for the amount of money that a company can receive from its activities, mostly from sales of products and/or services to customers. ... Image File history File links Green_Arrow_Up. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Net income is equal to the income that a firm has after subtracting costs and expenses from the total revenue. ... Image File history File links Red_Arrow_Down. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This page as shown in the aol 9. ... New York Stock Exchange (June 2003) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) , also nicknamed the Big Board, is by far the largest stock exchange in the world (by dollar volume) and second largest by number of listings. ... Automakers are companies that produce automobiles. ... Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, and China by General Motors Corporation. ... Cadillac is a brand of luxury automobile, part of the General Motors corporation, produced and mostly sold in the United States and Canada; outside of North America, they have been less successful. ... Chevrolet, or Chevy for short, is a brand of automobile, now a division of General Motors. ... GMC Logo GMC, formerly known as GMC Truck, is a United States based brand name of premium trucks, vans, and SUVs. ... This article is about the Australian car manufacturer. ... Hummer is a marque of vehicles sold by General Motors. ... Opel, originally and more correctly known as Adam Opel AG is an automobile maker in Germany. ... This article concerns the automobile; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac. ... General Motors launched its Saturn automobile manufacturing company in 1990, largely in response to the success of Japanese small-car imports in the United States. ... Saab Automobile AB is a subsidiary of General Motors. ... Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ...


Chevrolet and GMC divisions produce trucks, as well as passenger vehicles. Other brands include AC Delco and Allison Transmission. GM also has a 3% stake in Suzuki in Japan and a joint venture with AvtoVAZ in Russia. In December 2003, it acquired Delta in South Africa, in which it had taken a 45% stake in 1997, and which is now a fully-owned subsidiary, General Motors South Africa. General Motors is also a majority shareholder (50.9%) in GM Daewoo. The driver of this DAF tractor with an auto-transport semi-trailer prepares to offload Skoda Octavia cars in Cardiff, Wales For other meanings, see Truck (disambiguation). ... Delco Electronics Corporation was the electronics design and manufacturing subsidiary of General Motors. ... Allison Transmission is an automobile factory in Indianapolis, Indiana. ... Suzuki Motor Corporation (スズキ株式会社) TYO: 7269 is a Japanese manufacturing company producing a range of small automobiles (especially Keicars), a full range of motorcycles, outboard motors, and a variety of other small combustion-powered engine products. ... VAZ-21122 VAZ-21093 VAZ-21073 VAZ-2103 AvtoVAZ (АВТОВАЗ) is a Russian automobile manufacturer, also known as VAZ, Volzhsky Automobilny Zavod (ВАЗ, Во́лжский автомоби́льный заво́д ), and better known to the world as Lada was set up in the late 1960s in collaboration with Fiat. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Delta Motor Corporation was a South African car manufacturer, which was created through a management buy-out after General Motors (GM) divested from South Africa in 1986. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... GM Daewoo Motors logo GM Daewoo Auto & Technology (GM Daewoo or GMDAT) was first established as National Motor in 1937 in Bupyeong-gu, Incheon, South Korea. ...


GM's headquarters are in the Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan. The company is the world's largest vehicle manufacturer and employs over 340,000 people. In 2001, GM sold 8.5 million vehicles through all its branches; in 2002, GM sold 15% of all cars and trucks in the world. They also owned Electronic Data Systems from 1984 to 1996 and, prior to selling it to News Corporation, DirecTV. GM owned Frigidaire from 1918 to 1979. United States Coast Guard Cutter Hollyhock passes the Renaissance Center. ... Nickname: Motor City, Motown, Hockey Town Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Official website: www. ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, by means of tools and a processing medium, and including all intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of component parts (semi-manufactures). It is a large branch of industry and of secondary production. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ... Electronic Data Systems (EDS) NYSE: EDS (LSE: EDC) is a global IT consulting company that defined the outsourcing business when it was established in 1962 by Ross Perot. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... News Corporation (abbreviated to News Corp) (NYSE: NWS) is one of the worlds largest media conglomerates. ... DirecTV is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service that transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States of America. ... Frigidaire is a major US appliance company owned by Electrolux. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ...

Contents


History

General Motors Headquarters, Renaissance Center, Detroit, Michigan.
General Motors Headquarters, Renaissance Center, Detroit, Michigan.

General Motors (GM) was founded in 1908 in Flint, Michigan as a holding company for Buick, then controlled by William C. Durant, and acquired Oldsmobile later that year. The next year, Durant brought in Cadillac, Elmore, and Oakland. In 1909, General Motors acquired the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, Michigan, the predecessor of GMC Truck. A Rapid became the first truck to conquer Pikes Peak in 1909. Download high resolution version (2100x1510, 499 KB) From http://cgvi. ... Download high resolution version (2100x1510, 499 KB) From http://cgvi. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... William Crapo Durant (December 8, 1861-March 18, 1947) was a leading pioneer of the United States automobile industry, creating the system of multi-brand holding companies with different lines of cars. ... The final Oldsmobile Logo, an update of the Rocket theme used in various forms since 1948, debuted in the mid-1990s until the final Olds rolled off the line in 2004. ... Cadillac is a brand of luxury automobile, part of the General Motors corporation, produced and mostly sold in the United States and Canada; outside of North America, they have been less successful. ... Elmore Manufacturing Company was a manufacturer of Brass Era automobiles in Clyde, Ohio. ... An ad for the 1926 Oakland The Oakland was a brand of automobile manufactured between 1907-1909 by the Oakland Motor Car Company of Pontiac, Michigan and between 1909 and 1931 by the Oakland Motors Division of General Motors Corporation. ... Pikes Peak (formerly Pikes Peak, see below) is a mountain in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, 10 miles (16 km) west of Colorado Springs, Colorado, in El Paso County. ...


GM surpassed Ford Motor Company in the 1920s thanks to the brilliant leadership of Alfred Sloan. "The manufacture of correct assessments, not physical products, is what most gratified Alfred Sloan," says Farber (2002). While Ford kept inventing new ways to cut manufacturing costs, Sloan was inventing new ways of managing a complex worldwide organization, while paying special attention to consumer demands. Car buyers no longer wanted the cheapest and most basic model—they wanted style, power and prestige, which GM offered them. Thanks to consumer financing, easy monthly payments allowed far more people to buy GM cars—while Ford was moralistically opposed to credit. During the 1920s and 1930s, General Motors bought out the bus company Yellow Coach, helped create Greyhound bus lines, replaced intercity train transport with buses, and established subsidiary companies to buy out streetcar companies and replace the rail-based services with buses. GM formed United Cities Motor Transit in 1932 (see General Motors streetcar conspiracy for additional details). The Ford Motor Company (usually called Ford; sometimes called FoMoCo), (NYSE: F) is a multinational corporation that manufactures automobiles. ... Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr. ... The 1920s was a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... TheBus, established by Mayor Frank Fasi, is Honolulus only public transit system. ... Yellow Coach was founded in 1923 as a subsidiary of the Yellow Cab Company by John D. Hertz and was an early player in bus manufacturing in the United States. ... Greyhound Lines is the largest intercity common carrier of passengers by bus in North America, serving 2200 destinations in the United States. ... This article refers to the mass transit vehicle running on rails. ... The General Motors streetcar conspiracy refers to a contention that General Motors (GM), acting in conjunction with several other companies and through the National City Lines (NCL) holding company, illegally acquired many streetcar systems in various cities around the United States, dismantled and replaced them with buses for the express...


General Motors bought the internal combustion engined railcar builder Electro-Motive Corporation and its engine supplier Winton Engine in 1930, renaming both as the General Motors Electro-Motive Division. Over the next twenty years, diesel-powered locomotives and trains — the majority built by GM — largely replaced other forms of traction on American railroads. (During World War II, these engines were also important in American submarines and destroyer escorts.) Electro-Motive was sold in early 2005. A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Not to be confused with railroad car. ... General Motors Electro-Motive Division (normally shortened to GM EMD or just EMD) is the worlds largest builder of railroad locomotives. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... A Destroyer Escort (DE) is a small, fast warship designed to be used to escort convoys of merchant marine ships. ...


At one point GM was the largest corporation ever in the United States, in terms of its revenues as a percent of GDP. In 1953 Charles Erwin Wilson, then GM president, was named by Eisenhower as Secretary of Defense. When he was asked during the hearings before the Senate Armed Services Committee if as secretary of defense he could make a decision adverse to the interests of General Motors, Wilson answered affirmatively but added that he could not conceive of such a situation "because for years I thought what was good for the country was good for General Motors and vice versa". Later this statement was often garbled when quoted, suggesting that Wilson had said simply, "What's good for General Motors is good for the country." At the time, GM was the one of the largest employers in the world – only Soviet state industries employed more people. 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... Charles Erwin Wilson (July 18, 1890 - September 26, 1961), American businessman and politician, was United States Secretary of Defense from 1953 to 1957 under President Eisenhower. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969, popularly known as Ike) was an American soldier and politician. ... Seal of the United States Department of Defense The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate, and is a member of the Cabinet. ... The Committee on Armed Services is a committee of the United States Senate empowered with legislative oversight of the nations military, including the Department of Defense, military research and development, nuclear energy (as pertaining to national security), benefits for members of the military, the Selective Service System and other...


On December 31, 1955, General Motors became the first American corporation to make over one billion dollars in a year. December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The word billion and its equivalents in other languages refer to one of two different numbers, depending on whether the writer is using the long or short scale. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


After GM's massive lay-offs hit Flint, Michigan a strike began at the General Motors parts factory in Flint on June 5, 1998, which quickly spread to five other assembly plants and lasted seven weeks. Nickname: The Vehicle City, Buick City Motto: Official website: http://www. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


GM, to date, has been the world's leading auto manufacturer for 74 years consecutively. On December 21, 2005 Toyota Motor Corp. announced that it would produce 9.06 million vehicles for 2006. Analysts estimate that GM will only produce around 8.825 million cars for 2006, giving up the title of the world's largest auto maker. However, CEO Rick Wagoner is confident that GM will remain #1. Regardless, GM's status as both an automotive and corporate juggernaut is in jeopardy. Its financial difficulties have dragged stock value down (see below); as of March 23, 2006, GM's market capitalization is roughly $12.5 billion. December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Toyota redirects here. ... Market capitalization, often abbreviated to market cap, is a business term that refers to the aggregate value of a firms outstanding common shares. ...


General Motors Hughes Electronics

Hughes Electronics was formed in 1985 when Hughes Aircraft was sold by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to General Motors for $5 billion. General Motors merged Hughes Aircraft with its Delco Electronics unit to form GM Hughes Electronics (GMHE). The group then consisted of: Hughes Electronics Corporation was formed in 1985 when Hughes Aircraft was sold by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to General Motors for $5 billion. ... This article is about the year. ... Hughes logo adopted after his death Hughes developed the AIM-120 AMRAAM, one of the worlds most advanced air-to-air missiles Hughes Aircraft Company was a major defense/aerospace company founded by Howard Hughes. ... The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) is a United States non-profit medical research institute based in Chevy Chase, Maryland and originally founded by the aviator and engineer Howard Hughes in 1953. ... Delco Electronics Corporation was the electronics design and manufacturing subsidiary of General Motors. ...

  • Hughes Aircraft
  • Delco Electronics
  • Hughes Space and Communications
  • Hughes Network Systems
  • Hughes Training

In August 1992 GM Hughes Electronics purchased General Dynamics' Missile Systems business. In 1994 Hughes Electronics introduced DirecTV, the world's first high-powered direct broadcast satellite service. In 1995 Hughes Electronic's Hughes Space and Communications division became the largest supplier of commercial satellites. Also in 1995 the group purchased Magnavox Electronic Systems from the Carlyle Group. In 1996 Hughes Electronics and PanAmSat agree to merge their fixed satellite services into a new publicly held company, also called PanAmSat with GM Hughes Electronics as majority shareholder. This is a list of aviation-related events from 1992: Events The European Commission approves three new regulations to liberalize air travel within the European Union. ... General Dynamics NYSE: GD is a defense conglomerate formed by mergers and divestitures, and as of 2005 it is the sixth largest defense contractor in the world [2]. The company has changed markedly in the post-Cold War era of defense consolidation. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1994: Events April April 14 - USAF F-15 Eagles shoot down two US Army Iraq, mis-identifying them as Iraqi Mil Mi-25s April 16 - a Royal Navy Sea Harrier is shot down over Serbia by a SA-7 Grail. ... DirecTV is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service that transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States of America. ... Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception, also refered to as direct-to-home signals. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1995: Events A Concorde sets a new speed record for a round-the-world flight. ... Hughes logo adopted after his death Hughes developed the AIM-120 AMRAAM, one of the worlds most advanced air-to-air missiles Hughes Aircraft Company was a major defense/aerospace company founded by Howard Hughes. ... Magnavox (Latin for loud voice) was an electronics company founded by Edwin Pridham and Peter Jensen. ... The Carlyle Group is a Washington, D.C. based global private equity investment firm with more than $30 billion of equity capital in 2005. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1996: Events February the T-6 Texan II is selected as the new primary trainer for the United States armed forces. ... Founded in 1984 by Rene Anselmo, PanAmSat Corporation (NYSE: PA) is a satellite service provider headquartered in Wilton, Connecticut. ...


In 1997 GM transferred Delco Electronics to its Delphi Automotive Systems business. Late in the year the defense operations of Hughes Electronics (Hughes Aircraft and missile business) were merged with Raytheon. This is a list of aviation-related events from 1997: Events March 17–May 28 Linda Finch, pilot, aviation historian, and San Antonio, Texas businesswoman, flying a restored and specially equipped 62-year-old Lockheed Electra 10E, recreates the 1937 Amelia Earhart flight to circumnavigate the globe solo. ... Delphi logo from 2005 Delphi (NASDAQ: DPHIQ) is an automotive parts company headquartered in Troy, Michigan. ... Raytheon Company NYSE: RTN is a major United States military contractor based in Waltham, Massachusetts. ...


Hughes Space and Communications remained independent until 2000, when it was purchased by Boeing and became Boeing Satellite Systems. This is a list of aviation-related events from 2000: Events July July 10, EADS is formed by the merger of Aérospatiale-Matra, Dornier, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA), and Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA). ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA)(TYO: 7661 ) is the worlds largest aircraft manufacturer, headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, with its largest production facilities in Everett, Washington, about 30 miles north of Seattle, Washington. ... Boeing Satellite Systems is a major business unit of Boeing Integrated Defense Systems. ...


In 2000, the remaining parts of Hughes Electronics: DirecTV, DirecTV Latin America, PanAmSat and Hughes Network Systems, were purchased by NewsCorp and renamed The DirecTV Group. NewsCorp sold PanAmSat to Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. (KKR) in August 2004. News Corporation (NYSE: NWS) is a media conglomerate that operates world-wide. ... Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co (commonly referred to as KKR) is a New York City-based private equity firm that focuses primarily on late stage leveraged buyouts. ...


Corporate structure and issues

Current members of the board of directors of General Motors are: Percy Barnevik, Erskine Bowles, John Bryan, Armando Codina, George Fisher, Karen Katen, Kent Kresa, Ellen Kullman, Philip Laskawy, Jerome York, Eckhard Pfeiffer, and Rick Wagoner (chairman). York was elected to the board on February 6, 2006 to represent Kirk Kerkorian, as E. Stanley O'Neal stepped down. It has been suggested that Board of Trustees be merged into this article or section. ... Percy Barnevik, (born 1941) Swedish industry leader. ... Erskine Bowles Erskine Boyce Bowles (born 8 August 1945) is an American businessman and political figure from the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Armando Codina, a Cuban-American self-made millionaire, was among the 25 Florida electors for President Bush in the 2000 Presidential Election, and the 27 electors chosen in the 2004 Presidential Election. ... Rick Wagoner G. Richard Wagoner, Jr. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kirk Kerkorian (b. ... E. Stanley ONeal is the present CEO and Chairman of the Board of Merrill Lynch & Co. ...


Rick Wagoner is also the chief executive officer of the company (since June 1, 2000), succeeding John F. Smith, Jr. A chief executive officer (CEO) or chief executive is the highest-ranking corporate officer or executive officer of a corporation, company, or agency. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... This article is about the year 2000. ...


Environmental and social policies

At the same time one should note that even small reductions in emissions which General Motors is achieving for conventional engines plays a role in making some progress on those health goals.


General Motors was named one of the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers in 2004 by Working Mothers magazine. 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Due to its highly compensated workforce GM has the highest health care and labor costs in the industry, and some analysts have criticized the company for this.


Subsidies

In March 2005, the Government of Canada "gave C$200 million to General Motors for its Ontario plants, and last fall it awarded C$100 million to Ford Motor Co. to expand their Canadian auto production, provide jobs and contribute to the economy," according to Jim Harris. With additional subsidies promised to non-North American auto companies like Toyota, Premier Dalton McGuinty said the money the province and Ottawa are pledging for the project is well-spent. His government has committed C$400 million, including the latest Toyota package of C$125 million, to the province's automobile sector, which helped finance $5 billion worth of industry projects. 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... System of government Canada is a constitutional monarchy as a Commonwealth Realm (see Monarchy in Canada) with a federal system of parliamentary government, and strong democratic traditions. ... Canadian One Dollar Coin (Loonie) The dollar (currency code CAD) has been the currency of Canada since 1858. ... 2002 Ford Fiesta in the UK. The Ford Motor Company (sometimes nicknamed Fords or FoMoCo, (NYSE: F) is an automobile maker founded by Henry Ford in Detroit, Michigan, and incorporated on June 16, 1903. ... Jim Harris. ... Canadian One Dollar Coin (Loonie) The dollar (currency code CAD) has been the currency of Canada since 1858. ... Canadian One Dollar Coin (Loonie) The dollar (currency code CAD) has been the currency of Canada since 1858. ...


Marketing problems

GM corporate management has since 1955 allowed the gradual blurring of the distinctions between its own divisions. These divisions were once each targeted to specific market segments and, despite some shared components, each vehicle distinguished itself from comparable GM stablemates with unique styling and (to some extent) custom technology. The shared components and common corporate management created substantial economies of scale while the distinctions between the divisions created an orderly upgrade path, with an entry-level buyer starting out with a practical and economical Chevrolet and, (assuming progressive prosperity of the buyer), moving through offerings of the several divisions until the purchase of a Cadillac. The divisions were not competing with each other so much but rather they were passing along the same customer, who would thus always be buying a GM product, with the profits flowing to this single corporation. ... Competition is the act of striving against another force for the purpose of achieving dominance or attaining a reward or goal, or out of a biological imperative such as survival. ...


Before 1955:

  • GMC Truck - produced strictly utilitarian commercial vehicles over a wide range of capacities
  • Chevrolet - an entry-level brand offering high utility at low price, with some light trucks and panel vans
  • Pontiac - a brand that sold solid, extremely quiet vehicles (these used a side valve straight eight), attractive to a modest and reserved lower middle class
  • Oldsmobile - a leading technical innovator with the first production automatic transmission, this eventually became GM's first "performance" division, introducing the industry's first short-stroke, high-compression overhead-valve V8 (the "Oldsmobile Rocket") in 1949
  • Buick - a more expensive and luxurious brand for the upper middle class (often called the "doctor's car") with four models - the small body/engine Special and Super and the larger Century and Roadmaster, each emphasizing a soft ride, upscale interior, and in the late 1940's an available "shiftless" automatic transmission and hydraulic power windows
  • Cadillac - the self styled "standard of luxury", with large production competition only from rival Packard

The postwar industry became enamored with the concept of "planned obsolescence", implemented by both technical and styling innovations, with a three year product cycle typical within the industry. In this cycle, a new basic body shell is introduced and then modified for the next two years by minor styling changes. GM, Ford, and Chrysler competed vigorously in this new environment. GMC Logo GMC, formerly known as GMC Truck, is a United States based brand name of premium trucks, vans, and SUVs. ... Chevrolet, or Chevy for short, is a brand of automobile, now a division of General Motors. ... This article concerns the automobile; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac. ... The final Oldsmobile Logo, an update of the Rocket theme used in various forms since 1948, debuted in the mid-1990s until the final Olds rolled off the line in 2004. ... An automatic transmission is an automobile gearbox that can change gear ratios automatically as the car or truck moves, thus freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually. ... Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, and China by General Motors Corporation. ... Cadillac is a brand of luxury automobile, part of the General Motors corporation, produced and mostly sold in the United States and Canada; outside of North America, they have been less successful. ... Packard red hexagon symbol made its debut in 1905, with the color red added in 1913 Packard was a United States based brand of luxury automobile built by the Packard Motors Company of Detroit,Michigan, and later by the Studebaker-Packard Corporation of South Bend, Indiana. ... The Ford Motor Company (usually called Ford; sometimes called FoMoCo), (NYSE: F) is a multinational corporation that manufactures automobiles. ... The Chrysler Corporation was a United States-based automobile manufacturer that existed independently from 1925–1998. ...


By 1957, with a "horsepower race" active in the U.S. industry, Pontiac became somewhat performance-minded, rivaled by some specific Buick models (the Century for example), completing the evolution in the early and mid 1960's with the Bonneville and the GTO, with Oldsmobiles mostly later becoming soft, comfortable, and practical vehicles. High performance vehicles were available from all of the divisions, peaking in 1970 and ending with the imposition of anti-smog technologies that severely impacted performance, drivability, and efficiency across the industry in the early 1970's. Victorian London was notorious for its thick smogs, or pea-soupers, a fact that is often recreated to add an air of mystery to a period costume drama. ...


By the late 1960s, most of GM's vehicles were built upon a few common platforms and in the 1970s, began to use nearly identical body panel stampings, differing only in internal and external trim items. This was seen especially in the compact passenger vehicles offered by the divisions.


Beginning in the 1980's, GM frequently "rebadged" one division's successful vehicle into several models across the divisions, all positioned close to one another in the market place. Thus, a new GM model's main competition might be another model spawned off the same platform. This led to so-called market "cannibalization", where GM's respective divisions spent time stealing sales from one another, while other more co-ordinated efforts (notably from the Japanese manufacturers) were allowed to increase their market penetration. For instance, the company's GMT360 mid-sized light truck platform has, since its inception in 2002, spawned the basic Chevrolet Trailblazer, an extended version of the Trailblazer, the Oldsmobile Bravada, the GMC Envoy, the Envoy XL (an extended Envoy with a reconfigurable tailgate) and later, the Isuzu Ascender, Buick Rainier, and Saab 9-7X. Though each model had a more or less unique mission, without custom engine choices or radically different suspension settings and trim choices, the cars can hardly be told apart. Cannibalism is the act or practice of eating members of the same species, e. ... The Chevrolet TrailBlazer is a mid-size SUV from the Chevrolet division of General Motors. ... The Bravada is a luxury SUV from the Oldsmobile marque of General Motors. ... The GMC Envoy is an SUV from the GMC marque of General Motors. ... The Isuzu Ascender is a mid-size SUV from General Motors. ... The Buick Rainier is a midsized SUV from General Motors. ... Interior of the 2006 Saab 9-7X showing the Saab-style dashboard, cupholder, and ignition key location The Saab 9-7X is a Saab-branded midsize SUV based on General Motors GM GMT platform, which also includes the Chevrolet TrailBlazer (and for this the 9-7X has been given the...


Critics have suggested that this progressive blurring of well-defined brands has been a large contributor the late 20th and early 21st century market failures of GM.


During the 1980's and later GM divisions had market issues concerning quality - not that the vehicles produced were especially bad but rather that they did not compare well to foreign competition in matters of fit and finish, durability of sheet metal, paint (which was not at all durable for several years after a formulation change), and plastic components.


In 2004, GM redirected resources from the development of new sedans to an accelerated refurbishment of their light trucks and SUVs for introduction as 2007 models in early 2006. Shortly after this decision, fuel prices increased by over 50% and this in turn affected both the trade-in value of used vehicles and the perceived desirability of new offerings in these market segments. The current marketing plan is currently to extensively tout these revised vehicles as offering the best fuel economies in their class (of vehicle), although such advantages are expected to be minor until the introduction of new hybrid light trucks in 2007, with projected 25% mileage improvements. In contrast, Ford, GM's primary domestic competitor, has emphasized building more and better passenger cars with attractive styling, features, and quality, with profitability flowing from lower production costs through reduction of excess plant capacity and firm consumer demand, which enables avoidance of marketing incentives (such as low or zero interest, cash back, or free or low cost added accessory, appearance, and other packages). When the new models were released in early 2006, they were well received, with strong sales. A following increase in fuel prices in the Spring of 2006 continues to trouble both GM and Ford owing to product mixes inapporpriate for such an environment. This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... An automotive package is a set of automobile features that are included in a bundle that is installed at the factory. ...


Beginning in the summer of 2005, and continuing for months afterward, GM promoted sales through an employee discount to all buyers. Marketed as the lowest possible price, GM cleared an inventory buildup of 2005 models to make way for its 2006 lineup. While the promotion was a temporary shot in the arm for sales, it did not help the company's bottom line.


Financial woes

As is the case with the two other U. S. automobile manufacturers, international exchange rates tend to favor Japanese and Korean competitors, although the extent of this advantage is often overstated by the companies to excuse poor performance. The expected future entry of China into the U. S. automotive market is likely to be advantaged by unrealistic currency exchange ratios that have become a structural problem owing to the Chinese government's extensive purchase of U. S. government debt in the form of bonds. European manufactures are somewhat disadvantaged by over-regulation. Irrespective of these various manufacturing conditions, various foreign manufacturers have demonstrated an ability to compete in the U.S. market with vehicles assembled in various U.S. states and using a substantial portion of domestic content. Such plants are advantaged over GM and Ford through the employment of a younger, nonunion, and more generally healthy workforce.


General Motors has extensive "legacy" costs in pensions and health care costs from retirees and their families. Most of these obligations were taken at a time when GM had a much larger share of the domestic and worldwide market and could afford to be more generous. GM has also committed itself (through union agreements) to pay ongoing wages to non-working employees displaced by automation (the so-called Jobs Bank). These costs, combined with marketing and quality problems, have severely impacted GM's ability to carry these obligations. As of March 2006, GM management is increasingly engaged in a high wire act to restore the company to financial health.


In April 2005, General Motors posted a US$1.1-billion loss, for the first quarter of that year. Its debt was also downgraded to junk bond status. GM announced plans to cut 25,000 jobs in the United States, and included plans to shut down one of the two Oshawa Car Assembly plants in Oshawa, Ontario by 2008. High yield debt (non-investment grade or junk bond) is a business term referring to a corporate debt instrument, usually a bond, that has a higher yield (compared to investment grade debt) because of a high perceived credit risk (default risk). ... Is a major car manufacturing facility in the city of Oshawa Ontario Canada building various automobiles for General Motors Canada. ... Oshawa (2004 population 150,000, metropolitan population 296,298) is a city on Lake Ontario located 56 kilometres east of downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


By November 2005, within the first nine months of the year, GM had posted a near $4 billion loss. On November 21, 2005, GM had announced a revised plan of increased cuts. These cuts went from 25,000 to 30,000 employees, or 9% of its labor force. GM also increased the number of plant closings. Originally, the company planned eight plant closings; the new plan calls for the closing of twelve facilities. November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In December, 2005, Standard and Poor's further downgraded GM bonds to "B", with the observation that it is "now dubious" whether the new line of SUVs and trucks would return GM's North American auto business to profitability[1]. The Standard and Poors Corporation (S&P), a subsidiary of McGraw-Hill, is a company that performs financial research and analysis on stocks and debt instruments. ...


In February 2006, GM decided to slash its annual dividend to $1.00 per share. GM had resisted the move for some time. However, the reduction will save GM about $565 million in cash each year.


In March 2006, GM divested 92.36 million shares (reducing their stake from 20% to 3%) of Japanese manufacturer Suzuki, in order to raise $2.3 billion. GM originally invested in Suzuki in the early 1980s. March also saw GM restating its prior-period earnings due to restructuring costs and the Delphi bankruptcy. Earnings from 2005 were reduced by $2 billion, pushing the loss for that year to $10.6 billion. On March 22, GM agreed to buyout more than 125,000 GM/Delphi hourly workers for up to $140,000. If enough workers sign up for buyouts or early retirement, GM's operating costs would drop significantly[2]. On March 23, a private equity consortium including KKR, Goldman Sachs Capital, and Five Mile Capital purchased $8.8 billion, or 78% of GMAC, GM's commercial mortgage arm. The new entity, in which GMAC will own a 21% stake, will be known as Capmark Financial Group[3]. Suzuki Motor Corporation (スズキ株式会社) TYO: 7269 is a Japanese manufacturing company producing a range of small automobiles (especially Keicars), a full range of motorcycles, outboard motors, and a variety of other small combustion-powered engine products. ... 22 March is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in Leap years). ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co (commonly referred to as KKR) is a New York City based private equity firm that focuses primarily on late stage leveraged buyouts. ... General Motors Acceptance Corporation (GMAC) is the financial services arm of General Motors, the worlds largest automobile manufacturer (by revenue). ...


On April 3, 2006, GM announced that it would sell 51% of GMAC as a whole to a consortium led by Cerberus Capital Management, raising $14 billion over 3 years. Investors also include Citigroup's private equity arm and Aozora Bank of Japan. The group will pay GM $7.4 billion in cash at closing. GM will retain approximately $20 billion in automobile financing worth an estimated $4 billion over three years.[4] General Motors Acceptance Corporation (GMAC) is the financial services arm of General Motors, the worlds largest automobile manufacturer (by revenue). ... Cerberus Capital Management L.P. is named after the three-headed dog, that in Greek mythology guarded the gates of Hades. ... Citigroup, Inc. ...


GM sold its 8% stake in Isuzu on April 11, 2006, to raise an additional $300 million.[5] Isuzu Motors Ltd. ...


Delphi's Woes

In May 2006, a federal judge will consider Delphi's request to cancel its union contracts. The United Auto Workers and other unions have threatened to strike if that happens. In an effort to avoid a costly strike, GM has offered to pay for buyouts to up to 13,000 Delphi workers and allow 5,000 Delphi workers to flow back to GM. Delphi logo from 2005 Delphi is an automotive parts company headquartered in Troy, Michigan. ... The United Auto Workers (UAW), officially the United Automobile, Aerospace & Agricultural Implement Workers of America International Union, is one of the largest labor unions in North America, with more than 700,000 members in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico organized into approximately 950 union locals. ...


Delphi has about 33,100 U.S. hourly workers, including 23,300 represented by the UAW and 8,500 by the International Union of Electrical Workers-Communications Workers of America. The United Auto Workers (UAW), officially the United Automobile, Aerospace & Agricultural Implement Workers of America International Union, is one of the largest labor unions in North America, with more than 700,000 members in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico organized into approximately 950 union locals. ...


April 2006

Bo Andersson, GM's vice president of global purchasing and supply, confirmed GM is stockpiling parts in case Delphi workers strike. Delphi logo from 2005 Delphi is an automotive parts company headquartered in Troy, Michigan. ...


GM stopped buying spark plugs from Delphi and transferred its business to Denso, Beru, NGK and Honeywell, which will make it easier for Delphi to close a spark plug facility in Flint, Michigan. DENSO Corporation (株式会社デンソー) TYO: 6902 is a global automotive components manufacturer headquartered in the city of Kariya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. ... BERU Group is a listed public company since October 1997. ... NGK Spark Plug Co. ... Honeywell NYSE: HON is a major American multinational corporation that produces electronic control systems and automation equipment. ... Nickname: The Vehicle City, Buick City Motto: Official website: http://www. ...


GM stopped buying Air-induction from Delphi and transferred its business to Siemens Siemens has the following uses: Siemens is a German family name carried by generations of the telecommunications industrialists, including Werner von Siemens, Sir William Siemens, Wilhelm von Siemens and Peter von Siemens Siemens AG is a German electrical and telecommunications company, founded as a telegraph equipment manufacturer by Werner von...


Lawyers for GM said in court that the claim could exceed $4 billion if all eligible workers opt into the attrition program.


Plant locations

The plants scheduled to be closed include (source: General Motors Corporation):

Assembly plants Location Closing Products # Employees
Scarborough Assembly van plant Ontario 1993 vans 2,700
Moraine Assembly (3rd shift) Ohio 2006 Mid-size SUVs 4,165
Oklahoma City Assembly Oklahoma Early 2006 Mid-size trucks and SUVs 2,734
Lansing Craft Centre Michigan Mid-2006 Chevrolet SSR roadster 398
Oshawa Car Assembly No. 1 (3rd shift) Ontario Mid-2006 Mid-size sedans 3,600
Spring Hill Manufacturing Line 1 Tennessee Late 2006 Saturn Ion sedan and coupe 5,776
Oshawa Car Assembly No. 2 Ontario 2008 Mid-size sedans 2,700
Doraville Assembly Georgia 2008 Crossovers and minivans 3,076
Production facilities Location Closing Products # Employees
Lansing Metal Center Michigan 2006 Metal fabricating 1,398
Portland Distribution Center Oregon 2006 Parts distribution 95
Saint Louis Distribution Center Missouri 2006 Parts distribution 182
Pittsburgh Metal Pennsylvania 2007 Metal fabricating 613
Ypsilanti Processing Center Michigan 2007 Parts processing 278
St. Catharines Engine Ontario 2008 Engine/Transmission parts 1,699
Flint North 3800 Michigan 2008 Engines 2,677

For the first time ever, in 2004 the total number of cars produced by all makers in Ontario exceeded those produced in Michigan. GM officials cited profitability of their Oshawa, Ontario, plant in refusing to distribute the job losses. Moraine Assembly is a General Motors automobile factory in Moraine, Ohio. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... Oklahoma City Assembly is a General Motors automobile factory in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... The driver of this DAF tractor with an auto-transport semi-trailer prepares to offload Skoda Octavia cars in Cardiff, Wales For other meanings, see Truck (disambiguation). ... The Lansing Craft Centre is a specialized General Motors automobile factory in Lansing, Michigan. ... 2004 Chevrolet SSR The Chevrolet SSR is a convertible pickup truck produced from 2003 through 2006. ... Is a major car manufacturing facility in the city of Oshawa Ontario Canada building various automobiles for General Motors Canada. ... A mid-size car, frequently referred to as an intermediate, is an automobile with a size between that of a compact and a full-size or standard-size car. ... The Saturn ION is a compact car sold by General Motors Saturn brand. ... Is a major car manufacturing facility in the city of Oshawa Ontario Canada building various automobiles for General Motors Canada. ... Doraville Assembly is a General Motors automobile factory in Doraville, Georgia. ... A crossover SUV or XUV is an automobile with a sport utility vehicle appearance but is built upon a more economical and fuel-efficient car-based platform. ... A modern minivan - 2004 Chrysler Town & Country Typical early minivan (a Dodge Caravan) A minivan, people carrier, multi utility vehicle (MUV),or multi purpose vehicle (MPV) is a type of vehicle which has a body that resembles a van, but which has rear side doors, rear side windows, and interior... Flint North is a General Motors automobile engine factory in Flint, Michigan. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Welcome! Hello, Ontario, and welcome to Wikipedia! Thank you for your contributions. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Largest city Lansing Detroit Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 10th 102,384 sq mi  265,172 km² 239 miles  385 km 491 miles  790 km 41. ... Oshawa (2004 population 150,000, metropolitan population 296,298) is a city on Lake Ontario located 56 kilometres east of downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


Alternative vehicles

General Motors has long worked on alternative-technology vehicles, but has repeatedly failed to deliver them in a profitable way. The company was the first to use turbochargers and was an early proponent of V6 engines in the 1960s, but quickly lost interest as the muscle car race took hold. They demonstrated [1] gas turbine vehicles powered by kerosene, an area of interest throughout the industry in the late 1950's, but despite extensive thermal recycling (developed by Chrysler) the fuel consumption was too high and starting torque too low for everyday use. They were also an early licensee of Wankel engine technology, even developing the Chevrolet Monza around the powerplant, but abandoned the alternative engine configuration in view of the 1973 oil crisis. In the 1970s and 1980s, GM pushed Diesel engines and cylinder deactivation technologies to disastrous results due to poor durability in the Oldsmobile diesels (this was a modified gasoline engine) and drivability issues in the Cadillac 4-6-8 variable cylinder engines. Air foil bearing-supported turbocharger cutaway made by Mohawk Innovative Technology Inc. ... The Ford Essex V6 engine A V6 is an internal combustion piston engine with six cylinders in a V configuration. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Muscle car is a term for high-performance automobiles, principally referring to American models produced from 1964 to 1971. ... This machine has a single-stage radial compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... Russian kerosene lamp Kerosene or paraffin oil (British English, not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin) is a colorless flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... Wankel Engine in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany The Wankel rotary engine is a type of internal combustion engine, invented by German engineer Felix Wankel, which uses a rotor instead of reciprocating pistons. ... The Chevrolet Monza was available as a rear wheel drive hatchback, coupe and wagon, sold from 1975 through 1980. ... At the height of the crisis in the United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... MacGyver is one of the symbols of the 1980s in America The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... Diesel or Diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. ... Variable displacement is an automobile engine technology that allows the engine displacement to change for improved fuel economy. ...


In 1996, GM introduced the EV1, the first modern mass-produced electric car. Despite the positive publicity generated by this vehicle, the company never spread the technology beyond California and Arizona, and pulled the plug on the program in 2003. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The EV1 was the first battery electric vehicle produced by General Motors in the United States. ... An electric vehicle is a vehicle that is propelled by electric motors. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Sacramento Los Angeles Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 158,302 sq mi  410,000 km² 250 miles  400 km 770 miles  1,240 km 4. ... Official language(s) None Capital Largest city Phoenix Phoenix Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 6th 113,998 sq mi  295,254 km² 310 miles  500 km 400 miles  645 km 0. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


GM was also an early innovator in hybrid vehicle development, building Diesel-electric trains since the 1930s and buses since the 1990s (but without stored energy recovery), but did not introduce a true hybrid passenger car until 2004. Their earlier hybrid pickup truck was such a mild application of the technology that many criticized it for being not a hybrid at all. In 2005, the new Opel Astra Diesel Hybrid appears. The 2006 Saturn VUE Green Line will be the first hybrid passenger vehicle from GM, but it too is a mild design. GM has hinted at new hybrid technologies to be employed that will be optimized for higher speeds such as are encountered in freeway driving. As a great bulk of GM's fleet fuel consumption is by high fuel consuming light trucks and SUVs, a modest improvement in their mileage applied across this large fleet (say twelve to fifteen percent) would in fact conserve a significant amount of refined fuel. It has been suggested that Gas-electric hybrid engine be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... TheBus, established by Mayor Frank Fasi, is Honolulus only public transit system. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Chevrolet Silverado and its GMC counterpart, the GMC Sierra, are the latest line of full-size pickup trucks from General Motors. ... It has been suggested that Gas-electric hybrid engine be merged into this article or section. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Saturn VUE is a mid-size crossover SUV from General Motors Saturn marque. ... High-capacity freeway interchange in Los Angeles, California. ... A sport utility vehicle (SUV) or off-roader is a vehicle that combines the load-hauling and passenger-carrying capacity of a large station wagon or minivan with features designed for off-road driving. ...


Rather than effectively deliver hybrid and electric vehicles at the present time, GM has extensively touted its research and prototype development of hydrogen powered vehicles, to be produced at some unspecified future time and using a support infrastructure yet to be built. Since production and use of hydrogen from fossil fuels is at present about 1/6 as efficient as direct use of the fuel (e.g, compressed natural gas), this is a future dependent upon the availability of extremely low cost electricity - as might be produced at some indefinite future time by speculative power sources such as nuclear fusion or free solar power. A hydrogen vehicle is an automobile which uses hydrogen as its primary source of power for locomotion. ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ...


GM in China

General Motors is the top-selling foreign auto maker in China, with 11.2% of the total market there. The Buick brand is especially strong, led by the Buick Excelle subcompact. Cadillac initiated sales in China in 2004, starting with imports. GM pushed the Chevrolet brand there in 2005 as well, transferring the formerly-Buick Sail to that marque. The company manufactures most of its China-market vehicles locally, through its Shanghai GM joint venture. The SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile joint-venture is also successful selling trucks and vans under the Wuling marque. Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, and China by General Motors Corporation. ... The Cheverolet Nubira is a near-midsize compact sedan made by Korean GM Daewoo. ... Cadillac is a brand of luxury automobile, part of the General Motors corporation, produced and mostly sold in the United States and Canada; outside of North America, they have been less successful. ... Chevrolet, or Chevy for short, is a brand of automobile, now a division of General Motors. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shanghai General Motors Company Limited (Shanghai GM) is a subsidiary of General Motors, and manufactures and sells automobiles in mainland China. ... SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile is a joint-venture between General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation of China. ...


Further reading

  • Barabba, Vincent P. Surviving Transformation: Lessons from GM's Surprising Turnaround (2004)
  • Berger; Michael L. The Automobile in American History and Culture: A Reference Guide Greenwood Press 2001, highly detailed annotated bibliography
  • Beasley, Norman. Knudsen: A Biography McGraw-Hill, 1947.
  • Bonsall, Thomas E. Cadillac: The American Standard. Stony Run Press, 1993.
  • Bonsall, Thomas E. Pontiac: The Complete History, 1926-1986. 2nd ed. Bookman Dan, 1986.
  • Boyd, Thomas A. Professional Amateur: The Biography of Charles Franklin Kettering. E.P. Dutton, 1957.
  • Boyd, Thomas A., ed. Prophet of Progress: The Speeches of Charles F. Kettering E.P. Dutton, 1961
  • Busenkell, Richard L. Pontiac since 1945. New York: Norton, 1989.
  • Calder, Lendol. Financing the American Dream: A Cultural History of Consumer Credit Princeton UP (2001)
  • Chandler, Alfred D., Jr., ed. Giant Enterprise: Ford, General Motors, and the Automobile Industry Harcourt, Brace, & World, 1964.
  • Chandler, Alfred D., Jr. Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of Industrial Enterprise MIT Press, 1962.
  • Cray, Ed. Chrome Colossus: General Motors and Its Times. McGraw-Hill, 1980.
  • Farber, David. Sloan Rules: Alfred P. Sloan and the Triumph of General Motors U of Chicago Press 2002
  • Gustin, Lawrence R. Billy Durant: Creator of General Motors William B. Eerdmans, 1973.
  • Halberstam, David. The Reckoning (1986) detailed reporting on the crises of 1973-mid 1980s
  • Kaplinsky, Raphael, and Kurt Hoffman. Driving Force: The Global Restructuring of Technology, Labor, and Investment in the Automobile and Components Industry Westview Press, 1988.
  • Keller, Maryann. Rude Awakening: The Rise, Fall, and Struggle for Recovery of General Motors William Morrow, 1989.
  • Kuhn, Arthur J. GM Passes Ford, 1918-1938: Designing the General Motors Performance-Control System Pennsylvania State University Press, 1986.
  • Leslie, Stuart W. Boss Kettering: Wizard of General Motors Columbia University Press, 1983.
  • Lichtenstein, Nelson. e Most Dangerous Man in Detroit: Walter Reuther and the Fate of American Labor Basic Books, 1995.
  • Maxton, Graeme P. and John Wormald, Time for a Model Change: Re-engineering the Global Automotive Industry (2004)
  • Maynard, Micheline. The End of Detroit: How the Big Three Lost Their Grip on the American Car Market (2003)
  • Norton, Seth W. "Information processing in the theory of the firm: the rise of General Motors" International Journal of the Economics of Business Volume 11, #2 July 2004 pp 123-140, links GM's spectacular growth in 1920s to Sloan's synchronization of GM's sales to dealers with dealers' sales to final consumers.
  • Rae, John B. The American Automobile: A Brief History. University of Chicago Press, 1965.
  • Rae, John B. American Automobile Manufacturers: The First Forty Years Chilton, 1959.
  • Sears, Stephen W. The American Heritage History of the Automobile in America American Heritage, 1977.
  • Seltzer, Lawrence H. A Financial History of the American Automobile Industry. Houghton Mifflin, 1928.
  • Sloan, Alfred P., Jr. My Years with General Motors Doubleday, 1963. perhaps the single best book on GM
  • Sloan, Alfred P., Jr., with Boyden Sparks. Adventures of a White-Collar Man 1941
  • Weisberger, Bernard A. The Dream Maker: William C. Durant, Founder of General Motors McGraw-Hill, 1979
  • Wright, J. Patrick. On a Clear Day You Can See General Motors: John Z. De Lorean's Look inside the Automotive Giant Avon Books, 1980.

See also

Cover of Time Magazine (December 27, 1926) Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr. ... Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, and China by General Motors Corporation. ... Cadillac is a brand of luxury automobile, part of the General Motors corporation, produced and mostly sold in the United States and Canada; outside of North America, they have been less successful. ... Chevrolet, or Chevy for short, is a brand of automobile, now a division of General Motors. ... This article is about the DuPont company. ... Fisher Body is an automobile coachbuilder now part of General Motors. ... General Motors Acceptance Corporation (GMAC) is the financial services arm of General Motors, the worlds largest automobile manufacturer (by revenue). ... General Motors of Canada Limited is the manufacturer and dealership of General Motors in Canada. ... The General Motors streetcar conspiracy refers to a contention that General Motors (GM), acting in conjunction with several other companies and through the National City Lines (NCL) holding company, illegally acquired many streetcar systems in various cities around the United States, dismantled and replaced them with buses for the express... GMC Logo GMC, formerly known as GMC Truck, is a United States based brand name of premium trucks, vans, and SUVs. ... Hummer is a marque of vehicles sold by General Motors. ... The final Oldsmobile Logo, an update of the Rocket theme used in various forms since 1948, debuted in the mid-1990s until the final Olds rolled off the line in 2004. ... This article concerns the automobile; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac. ... Roger & Me is a 1989 American documentary film directed and reported by independent filmmaker/journalist Michael Moore. ... General Motors has embraced the sharing of automobile platforms globally, although the company currently uses the term architecture rather than platform. ... This page chronicles the many automobile engines that General Motors has used in its various marques. ... General Motors uses the following factories to produce automobiles. ... General Motors uses the following VIN formats and codes. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... A tribrid vehicle is a third generation in alternative propulsion vehicles, that is, a bivalent hybrid vehicle with turbine (second generation), that also obtains energy from the ambient environment (solar panel, windmill or sail). ...

External links

References

  1. ^ (13 December). "article". Wall Street Journal, US edition: A3.
  2. ^ GM, Delphi Offer Buyouts, Early Retirement. URL accessed on March 23, 2006.
  3. ^ article. Detroit Free Press. URL accessed on March 23, 2006.
  4. ^ GM to sell 51% of GMAC for $14 billion. Automotive News. URL accessed on April 3, 2006.
  5. ^ GM sells Isuzu shares for $300 million. Detroit News. URL accessed on April 12, 2006.


December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Along with The Detroit News, the Detroit Free Press is one of the two major metro Detroit newspapers. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Along with The Detroit Free Press, The Detroit News (owned by Gannett) is one of the two major Metro Detroit newspapers. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Automotive brands of General Motors
Buick | Cadillac | Chevrolet | GMC | Holden | Hummer | Opel | Pontiac | Saab | Saturn | Vauxhall
Affiliates: GM Daewoo (50.9%) | Suzuki (3%)

  Results from FactBites:
 
General Motors Corporation - Wikicars (3497 words)
General Motors (GM) was founded in 1908 in Flint, Michigan, as a holding company for Buick, then controlled by William C. Durant, and acquired Oldsmobile later that year.
General Motors bought the internal combustion engined railcar builder Electro-Motive Corporation and its engine supplier Winton Engine in 1930, renaming both as the General Motors Electro-Motive Division.
The shared components and common corporate management created substantial economies of scale, while the distinctions between the divisions created an orderly upgrade path, with an entry-level buyer starting out with a practical and economical Chevrolet and, (assuming progressive prosperity of the buyer), moving through offerings of the several divisions until the purchase of a Cadillac.
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