FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > General Motors
General Motors Corporation
Type Public company (NYSE: GM)
Founded 1908
Founder William C. Durant
Headquarters Flag of the United States Detroit, Michigan
Area served Worldwide
Key people G. Richard Wagoner Jr. (Chairman) & (CEO)
Frederick A. Henderson (President & (COO)
Robert A. Lutz (Vice-Chairman)
Industry Automotive
Products Automobiles
Engines
Services Financial services
Revenue US$ 181.122 Billion (2007)[1][2][3][4][1]
Operating income US$ -4.390 Billion (2007)
Net income US$ -38.732 Billion (2007)[5]]
Total assets US$ 148.883 Billion (2007)
Total equity US$ -37.094 Billion (2007)
Employees 284,000 (2008)[6]
Divisions GM Europe
Subsidiaries Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GM Daewoo, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saab, Saturn and Vauxhall.
Website GM.com

General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation founded in 1908, and is headquartered in the United States. GM is the world's largest automaker and has been the global industry sales leader in each of the last 77 calendar years. General Motors, today employs about 266,000 people around the world. It manufactures its cars and trucks in 35 different countries and sells them under the brands of Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GM Daewoo, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saab, Saturn and Vauxhall.[7] As of 2007, General Motors is the fifth largest company in the world (behind Wal-Mart, Exxon Mobil, Royal Dutch Shell, and BP, ranked by revenue on the Fortune Global 500 list.)[8] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... For the computer game by Peter Molyneux, see The Entrepreneur. ... William Crapo Durant (December 8, 1861-March 18, 1947) was a leading pioneer of the United States automobile industry, creating the system of multi-brand holding companies with different lines of cars. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Detroit redirects here. ... The World in Plate Carrée Projection In English, world is rooted in a compound of the obsolete words were, man, and eld, age; thus, its oldest meaning is Age of Man. ... George Richard Rick Wagoner, Jr. ... A Chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... Frederick Fritz Henderson (born November 29, 1958 in Detroit, Michigan) is currently the chief financial officer and vice chairman of General Motors Corporation. ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... COO may stand for: Chief Operating Officer (business) Cell of origin (physiology) Cell of origin (telecommunications) Conduct of Operations Consideration of Others Cost of Ownership Country of origin Counascune Octere Carboxylate anion A common pronunciation of the word cool in African American Vernacular English or ebonics A shortened version of... Robert Bob A. Lutz (born February 12, 1932, in Zurich, Switzerland) is the General Motors Vice Chairman of Product Development and Chairman of GM North America. ... A Chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... Industrial robots welding a car body in the white section of a production line. ... Car redirects here. ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... This article is about a term used in economics. ... Financial services is a term used to refer to the services provided by the finance industry. ... For the tax agency in Ireland of the same name, see Revenue Commissioners. ... USD redirects here. ... Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT), also known as operating income and operating profit, is a term used to describe a companys earnings. ... USD redirects here. ... Net income is equal to the income that a firm has after subtracting costs and expenses from the total revenue. ... USD redirects here. ... In business and accounting an asset is anything owned, whether in possession or by right to take possession, by a person or a group acting together, e. ... USD redirects here. ... At the start of a business, owners put some funding into the business to finance assets. ... USD redirects here. ... This article is about work. ... A division of a business entity is a portion of that business that operates under a different name. ... General Motors Europe is responsible for the operation of GM businesses in Europe. ... A subsidiary, in business, is an entity that is controlled by another entity. ... Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, China and in Spain by General Motors Corporation. ... For other uses, see Cadillac (disambiguation). ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (also known as Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... This article is about the auto company GM Daewoo. ... GMC, formerly known as GMC Truck, is a brand name used on trucks, vans, and SUVs marketed in North America and the Middle East by General Motors. ... Holdens rule This article is about the Australian car manufacturer. ... Hummer is a brand of off-road vehicles sold by General Motors, also known as GM. The H1 version is based on the military High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV, or Humvee). ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ... This article is about Pontiac automobiles; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for other uses see the Pontiac (disambiguation). ... Saab Automobile AB is automobile manufacturing company in Sweden, and is currently a wholly-owned subsidiary of the General Motors Corporation. ... For the cars collectively known as Saturns, see Saturn S-Series. ... Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... multinational corporation (or transnational corporation) (MNC/TNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... Industrial robots welding a car body in the white section of a production line. ... According to the Gregorian calendar, the calendar year begins on January 1 and ends on December 31. ... Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, China and in Spain by General Motors Corporation. ... For other uses, see Cadillac (disambiguation). ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (also known as Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... This article is about the auto company GM Daewoo. ... GMC, formerly known as GMC Truck, is a brand name used on trucks, vans, and SUVs marketed in North America and the Middle East by General Motors. ... Holdens rule This article is about the Australian car manufacturer. ... Hummer is a brand of off-road vehicles sold by General Motors, also known as GM. The H1 version is based on the military High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV, or Humvee). ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ... This article is about Pontiac automobiles; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for other uses see the Pontiac (disambiguation). ... Saab Automobile AB is automobile manufacturing company in Sweden, and is currently a wholly-owned subsidiary of the General Motors Corporation. ... For the cars collectively known as Saturns, see Saturn S-Series. ... Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... Royal Dutch Shell plc is a multinational oil company of British and Dutch origins. ... This article is about the energy corporation. ... The Fortune Global 500 is a ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue. ...

Contents

Company overview

General Motors was formed 1908, in Flint, Michigan and currently employs approximately 284,000 people around the world. GM's global headquarters is the Renaissance Center located in Detroit, Michigan, USA, They currently manufacture their cars and trucks in 35 different countries. Its European headquarters are based in Zurich, Switzerland, and its Holden headquarters are located in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. In 2007, 9.37 million GM cars and trucks were produced globally under the following 12 brands: Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GM Daewoo, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saab, Saturn and Vauxhall. GM is also the majority shareholder in GM Daewoo Auto & Technology Co. of South Korea and has had many collaborations with the world's various automakers. This includes product, powertrain and purchasing collaborations with Suzuki Motor Corp. and Isuzu Motors Ltd. of Japan, advanced technology collaborations with Toyota Corporation and BMW AG of Germany and vehicle manufacturing ventures with several of the world's automakers including Toyota, Suzuki, Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp. of China, AvtoVAZ of Russia, Renault SA of France, and most recently, UzAvtosanoa of Uzbekistan. GM also had collaborations with Fiat S.p.A (see GM/Fiat Premium platform) and Ford Motor Company. To this day, GM retains various stakes in many different automakers. Nickname: Location of Flint within Genesee County, Michigan. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... The Renaissance Center, nicknamed the RenCen, is a group of seven interconnected skyscrapers in Detroit, Michigan, and the tallest building in Michigan since 1977. ... Detroit redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article describes a type of political entity. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... General view showing Grossmünster church. ... Holdens rule This article is about the Australian car manufacturer. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... VIC redirects here. ... CARS is a four-letter acronym that can stand for: Cable television relay service station Canadian Aviation Regulations Childhood Autism Rating Scale‎ Customer Access and Retrieval System Citizens Against Road Slaughter Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, a cooperative effort of the University of Chicago and... Trucks can refer to several things: The plural of: Truck, the motorized vehicle Truck, other uses of the singular As a name: Trucks was a rock band Trucks is a short story by Stephen King Trucks is a movie based on the Stephen King short story Trucks! is a television... Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, China and in Spain by General Motors Corporation. ... For other uses, see Cadillac (disambiguation). ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (also known as Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... This article is about the auto company GM Daewoo. ... GMC, formerly known as GMC Truck, is a brand name used on trucks, vans, and SUVs marketed in North America and the Middle East by General Motors. ... Holdens rule This article is about the Australian car manufacturer. ... Hummer is a brand of off-road vehicles sold by General Motors, also known as GM. The H1 version is based on the military High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV, or Humvee). ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ... This article is about Pontiac automobiles; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for other uses see the Pontiac (disambiguation). ... Saab Automobile AB is automobile manufacturing company in Sweden, and is currently a wholly-owned subsidiary of the General Motors Corporation. ... For the cars collectively known as Saturns, see Saturn S-Series. ... Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ... This article is about the auto company GM Daewoo. ... For other uses, see Suzuki (disambiguation). ... This article is about a truck manufacturer. ... Toyota Motor Corporation ) is a multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and currently is the worlds largest automaker. ... For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... VAZ-21122 VAZ-21093 VAZ-21073 VAZ-2103 AvtoVAZ (RTS:AVAZ)(Russian: ) is a Russian automobile manufacturer, also known as VAZ, Volzhsky Automobilny Zavod (ВАЗ, Во́лжский автомоби́льный заво́д ), and better known to the world as Lada was set up in the late 1960s in collaboration with Fiat. ... Renault S.A. is a French vehicle manufacturer producing cars, vans, buses, tractors, and trucks. ... For other uses, see Fiat (disambiguation). ... The Premium platform is General Motors and Fiats high-end automobile platform. ... “Ford” redirects here. ...


GM parts and accessories are sold under GM Performance Parts, GM Goodwrench and ACDelco brands through GM Service and Parts Operations which supplies GM dealerships and distributors worldwide. GM engines and transmissions are marketed through GM Powertrain. GM's largest national market is the United States, followed by China, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Germany. GM owns nearly-half (49%) of the finance company GMAC Financial Services, which offers automotive, residential and commercial financing and insurance. GM's OnStar subsidiary is a vehicle safety, security and information service provider. GM Performance Division is a division within General Motors (GM) that is responsible for developing performance vehicles for the various brands of GM. Its creations include the Super Sport (SS) vehicles from Chevrolet, the V-series from Cadillac, and the Red Line series from Saturn. ... GM Goodwrench is an auto repair service for General Motors. ... Delco Electronics Corporation was the automotive electronics design and manufacturing subsidiary of General Motors. ... GM Powertrain is a company created by GM to develop engines and transmission for the GM group. ... General Motors Acceptance Corporation (or GMAC) was the financial services arm of General Motors, the worlds largest automobile manufacturer (by revenue). ... OnStar Corporation is a wholly-owned subsidiary of General Motors which provides subscription-based communications, monitoring and tracking services throughout the United States and Canada. ...


There have only been a limited number of models bearing the General Motors brand. The GM EV1 was an electric vehicle introduced in the 1990s but was later discontinued. The GM Sequel was a hydrogen fuel cell concept vehicle introduced in 2005, however the name was later changed to Chevrolet Sequel. Along with various concept vehicles, the Holden Statesman (1971 - 1985) was originally marketed as the General Motors statesman. General Motors' GMC division stands for General Motors Company as well. The EV1 was the first electric car produced by General Motors in the United States. ... 2005 GM Sequel Concept The Sequel is a hydrogen fuel cell-powered concept car and sport utility vehicle from General Motors. ... The Chevrolet Sequel is a hybrid crossover SUV concept vehicle developed by GM and introduced at the 2005 North American International Auto Show. ... The Holden Statesman is a full-size luxury car produced by the Australian General Motors division Holden since 1971. ... The initialism GMC can mean either: GMC, a division of General Motors formerly named GMC Truck Game Maker Community, a game making utility forum. ...


History

General Motors (GM) was founded on September 16, 1908 in Flint, Michigan, as a holding company for Buick, then controlled by William C. Durant, and acquired Oldsmobile later that year. The next year, Durant brought in Cadillac, Elmore, Oakland (later known as Pontiac) and several others. In 1909, General Motors acquired the Reliance Motor Truck Company of Owosso, Michigan, and the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, Michigan, the predecessors of GMC Truck. Durant lost control of GM in 1910 to a bankers' trust, because of the large amount of debt taken on in its acquisitions coupled with a collapse in new vehicle sales. A few years later, Durant would start the Chevrolet Motor car company and through this he secretly purchased a controlling interest in GM. Durant took back control of the company after one of the most dramatic proxy wars in American business history. Shortly after, he again lost control for good after the new vehicle market collapsed. Alfred Sloan was picked to take charge of the corporation and led it to its post war global dominance. This unprecedented growth of GM would last through the late 70's and into the early 80's. The Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan, is General Motors world headquarters. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Location of Flint within Genesee County, Michigan. ... For the band, see Big Brother and the Holding Company. ... Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, China and in Spain by General Motors Corporation. ... William Crapo Durant (December 8, 1861-March 18, 1947) was a leading pioneer of the United States automobile industry, creating the system of multi-brand holding companies with different lines of cars. ... Oldsmobile is a brand of automobile produced for most of its existence by General Motors. ... For other uses, see Cadillac (disambiguation). ... Elmore Manufacturing Company was a manufacturer of Brass Era automobiles in Clyde, Ohio. ... An ad for the 1926 Oakland The Oakland was a brand of automobile manufactured between 1907-1909 by the Oakland Motor Car Company of Pontiac, Michigan and between 1909 and 1931 by the Oakland Motors Division of General Motors Corporation. ... Owosso is a city in Shiawassee County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Pontiac is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan named after the Ottawa Chief Pontiac. ... GMC, formerly known as GMC Truck, is a brand name used on trucks, vans, and SUVs marketed in North America and the Middle East by General Motors. ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (also known as Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ... Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr. ...


The General Motors Aftermarket Business in the US manages four brands; Goodwrench, ACDelco, GM Performance Parts and GM Accessories. GM Aftersales operates globally.


Corporate governance

The Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan, is General Motors' world headquarters
The Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan, is General Motors' world headquarters

Current members of the board of Directors of General Motors are: Percy Barnevik, Erskine Bowles, John Bryan, Armando Codina, Erroll Davis, George Fisher, Mark Guildenstern, Karen Katen, Kent Kresa, Ellen Kullman, Philip Laskawy, Kathryn V. Marinello, Eckhard Pfeiffer, and Rick Wagoner who also serves as chairman of the board. Image File history File linksMetadata GM_headquarters_in_Detroit. ... Image File history File linksMetadata GM_headquarters_in_Detroit. ... The Renaissance Center, nicknamed the RenCen, is a group of seven interconnected skyscrapers in Detroit, Michigan, and the tallest building in Michigan since 1977. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ... Percy Barnevik (born 1941) is a Swedish business executive, probably best known as the former CEO of ASEA (1980-1987) and Asea Brown Boveri (1988-1996) in Zurich. ... Erskine Boyce Bowles is an American businessman and political figure from the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Armando Codina, a Cuban-American self-made millionaire, was among the 25 Florida electors for President Bush in the 2000 Presidential Election, and the 27 electors chosen in the 2004 Presidential Election. ... Eckhard Pfeiffer (born August 20, 1941 in Lauban, Germany—now Lubań, Poland) is a business executive of German ancestry, and a former CEO of Compaq from 1991-1998. ... George Richard Rick Wagoner, Jr. ...


Corporate structure

General Motors is structured into the following groups:

  • GMAP - Asia-Pacific
  • GME - Europe
  • GM LAAM - Latin America, Africa and the Middle East
  • GMNA - North America
  • GMAC Finance and insurance services
  • SPO Service, Parts and Operations
  • Other Operations

General Motors Europe is responsible for the operation of GM businesses in Europe. ...

Online

The domain gm.com attracted at least 7 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a Compete.com survey.


Human resources

UAW-GM Center for Human Resources in Detroit.
UAW-GM Center for Human Resources in Detroit.

General Motors was named one of the "100 Best Companies for Working Mothers" in 2004 by Working Mothers magazine. GM has also given millions of dollars in computers to colleges of Engineering through its PACE Awards program.[9] Together with the United Auto Workers, GM created a joint venture dedicated to the quality of life needs of employees in 1985. The UAW-GM Center for human resources in Detroit is dedicated to providing GM salaried employees and GM UAW members programs and services related to medical care, diversity issues, education, training and tuition assistance, as well as programs related to work and family concerns, in addition to the traditional union-employer health and safety partnership.[10] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... The United Auto Workers (UAW), headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, officially the United Automobile, Aerospace & Agricultural Implement Workers of America International Union, is one of the largest labor unions in North America, The UAW has approximately 540,000 active members and over 500,000 retired members in the United States, Canada... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Tuition means instruction, teaching or a fee charged for educational instruction especially at a formal institution of learning. ... Occupational safety and health is the discipline concerned with preserving and protecting human and facility resources in the workplace. ...


Marketing in the United States

At one time, each of GM's automotive divisions in the United States were targeted to specific market segments and despite some shared components, each distinguished itself from its stablemates with unique styling and technology. The shared components and common corporate management created substantial economies of scale, while the distinctions between the divisions created an orderly upgrade path, with an entry-level buyer starting out with a practical and economical Chevrolet and moving through offerings of the different divisions until the purchase of a Buick or Cadillac. ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (also known as Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, China and in Spain by General Motors Corporation. ... For other uses, see Cadillac (disambiguation). ...


The postwar automobile industry became enamoured with the concept of "planned obsolescence", implemented by both technical and styling innovations with a typical 3-year product cycle. In this cycle, a new basic body shell is introduced and then modified for the next two years with minor styling changes. GM, Ford, and Chrysler competed vigorously in this new restyling environment. Planned obsolescence (also built-in obsolescence[1] in the United Kingdom) is the process of a product becoming obsolete and/or non-functional after a certain period or amount of use in a way that is planned or designed by the manufacturer. ... “Ford” redirects here. ... The Chrysler Corporation was a United States-based automobile manufacturer that existed independently from 1925–1998. ...


Distinguishing the brands

By 1958, the divisional distinctions within GM began to blur with the availability of high-performance engines in Chevrolets and Pontiacs. The introduction of higher trim models such as the Chevrolet Impala and Pontiac Bonneville priced in line with some Oldsmobile and Buick offerings was also confusing to consumers. By the time Pontiac, Oldsmobile and Buick introduced similarly styled and priced compact models in 1961, the old "step-up" structure between the divisions was nearly over. Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (also known as Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... This article is about Pontiac automobiles; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for other uses see the Pontiac (disambiguation). ... 1958 Chevrolet Impala Convertible 1958 Chevrolet Impala Convertible The Chevrolet Impala is an automobile built for the Chevrolet division by General Motors. ... The Pontiac Bonneville is an automobile built by the Pontiac division of General Motors from 1958 to 2005. ... Oldsmobile is a brand of automobile produced for most of its existence by General Motors. ... Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, China and in Spain by General Motors Corporation. ... This article is about Pontiac automobiles; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for other uses see the Pontiac (disambiguation). ... Oldsmobile is a brand of automobile produced for most of its existence by General Motors. ... Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, China and in Spain by General Motors Corporation. ...


Compacts arrive

The decade of the 1960s saw the creation of compact and intermediate classes. The Chevrolet Corvair was a 6-cylinder answer to the Volkswagen Beetle, the Chevy II was created to match Ford's conventional Falcon and the Chevrolet Camaro/Pontiac Firebird was GMs counter measure to the Ford Mustang. Among intermediates, the Oldsmobile Cutlass nameplate became so popular during the 1970s that Oldsmobile applied the Cutlass name to most of its products in the 1980s. By the mid 1960s, most of GM's vehicles were built on a few common platforms and in the 1970s GM began to use nearly identical body panel stampings, differing only in internal and external trim items. Corvair convertible The Chevrolet Corvair was an automobile produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors from 1960 to 1969. ... This article is about the original Volkswagen Beetle. ... This article is about the North American version of the Falcon. ... The Chevrolet Camaro is a pony car made in North America by the Chevrolet Motor Division of General Motors. ... The Pontiac Firebird was a pony car built by the Pontiac division of General Motors between 1967 and 2002. ... This article is about the automobile named after a horse, for other uses see mustang. ... The Oldsmobile Cutlass was an automobile made by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors. ... Oldsmobile is a brand of automobile produced for most of its existence by General Motors. ...


The 1971 Chevrolet Vega was GM's launch into the new subcompact class. Problems associated with its innovative aluminum engines would damage GMs reputation more than perhaps any other vehicle in its history. During the late 1970s, GM would initiate a wave of downsizing starting with the Chevrolet Caprice which was reborn into what was the size of the Chevrolet Chevelle, the Malibu would be the size of the Nova, and the Nova was replaced by the troubled front-wheel drive Chevrolet Citation. The then-innovative Chevrolet Vega was a subcompact car sold from 1971 through 1977. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... Downsizing is a euphemism referring to layoffs initiated by a company in order to cut labor costs by reducing the size of the company. ... The Chevrolet Caprice (later called Caprice Classic) was a series name of automobile produced by Chevrolet, a division of General Motors, in the United States from the 1965 through 1996 model years. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Chevrolet Citation was a compact car sold by the Chevrolet brand of American automaker General Motors from 1980 through 1985. ...


Rebadging era

By the 1980s, GM frequently "rebadged" one division's successful vehicle into several models across the divisions, all positioned close to one another in the market place. Thus a new GM model's main competition might be another model spawned off the same platform. This led to market "cannibalization" with the divisions spending time stealing sales from one another. Even today, the company's GMT360 mid-sized light truck platform has spawned the basic Chevrolet TrailBlazer, Oldsmobile Bravada, GMC Envoy, Isuzu Ascender, Buick Rainier, and Saab 9-7X. Though each model had a more or less distinct mission, the trucks can hardly be discerned from one another. Cannibalism is the act or practice of eating members of the same species, e. ... The Chevrolet TrailBlazer is a mid-size SUV from the Chevrolet division of General Motors. ... The Bravada was a mid-size luxury SUV from the Oldsmobile marque of General Motors. ... The GMC Envoy is an SUV from the GMC marque of General Motors. ... 5-passenger Ascender The Isuzu Ascender is a mid-size SUV from General Motors. ... The Buick Rainier is a mid-size SUV from General Motors. ... Interior of the 2006 Saab 9-7X showing the Saab-style dashboard, cupholder, and ignition key location The Saab 9-7X is a Saab-branded midsize SUV based on General Motors GM GMT platform, which also includes the Chevrolet TrailBlazer (and for this the 9-7X has been given the...


GM in the new century

In the late 1990s, the U.S. economy was on the rise and GM and Ford gained market share producing enormous profits primarily from the sale of light trucks and sport-utility vehicles. From 2000 to 2001, the Federal Reserve in a move to quell the stock market, made twelve successive interest rate increases. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, a severe stock market decline caused a pension and benefit fund underfunding crisis. GM began its Keep America Rolling campaign, which boosted sales, and other auto makers were forced to follow suit. The U.S. automakers saw sales increase to leverage costs as gross margins deteriorated. Although retiree health care costs remain a significant issue, General Motors' investment strategy has generated a $17.1 billion surplus in 2007 in its $101 billion U.S. pension fund portfolio, a $35 billion reversal from its $17.8 billion of underfunding.[11] Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


In 2004, GM redirected resources from the development of new sedans to an accelerated refurbishment of their light trucks and SUVs for introduction as 2007 models in early 2006. Shortly after this decision, fuel prices increased by over 50% and this in turn affected both the trade-in value of used vehicles and the perceived desirability of new offerings in these market segments. The current marketing plan is to extensively tout these revised vehicles as offering the best fuel economy in their class (of vehicle). GM claims its hybrid trucks will have gas-mileage improvements of 25%. A fourth-generation (2006-) Ford Explorer, the best-selling mid-size SUV in the United States. ...


In the summer of 2005, GM announced that its corporate chrome emblem "Mark of Excellence" will begin appearing on all recently introduced and all-new 2006 model vehicles produced and sold in North America. The move is seen as an attempt by GM to link its name and vehicle brands more closely. The Mark of Excellence is the nickname for the logo of General Motors. ...


In 2005, GM promoted sales through an employee discount to all buyers. Marketed as the lowest possible price, GM cleared an inventory buildup of 2005 models to make way for its 2006 lineup. While the promotion was a temporary shot in the arm for sales, it did not help the company's bottom line. GM has since changed its marketing strategy to a no haggle sticker policy in which all vehicle prices are lowered, but incentives are reduced, if not eliminated.


GM in China

General Motors is the best selling auto maker in China.[12] The Buick brand is especially strong, led by the Buick Excelle subcompact. Cadillac initiated sales in China in 2004, starting with imports from the United States. GM pushed the marketing of the Chevrolet brand in China in 2005 as well, moving the former Buick Sail to that marque. The company manufactures most of its China-market vehicles locally, through its Shanghai GM joint venture. Shanghai GM, a joint venture between the Chinese company SAIC and General Motors, was created on March 25, 1997. The Shanghai GM plant was opened December 15, 1998 when the first Chinese-built Buick came off the assembly line. The SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile joint-venture is also successful selling trucks and vans under the Wuling marque (34% belongs to GM). Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, China and in Spain by General Motors Corporation. ... The Cheverolet Nubira is a near-midsize compact sedan made by Korean GM Daewoo. ... For other uses, see Cadillac (disambiguation). ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (also known as Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... The Buick Sail is a China-market subcompact car sold by General Motors. ... Shanghai General Motors Company Limited (Shanghai GM) is a subsidiary of General Motors, and manufactures and sells automobiles in mainland China. ... SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile is a joint-venture between General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation of China. ... SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile is a joint-venture between General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation of China. ...


GM plans to create a research facility in Shanghai for $250m to develop hybrid cars and alternative energy vehicles.[13] Honda Insight, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle 2004 Toyota Prius, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle A hybrid vehicle uses multiple energy sources or propulsion systems to provide motive power. ...


Environmental Record

In the summer of 1999, the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) removed 23,000 cubic yards (18,000 m³) of contaminated sediments and soil from the General Motors Superfund site in Massena, New York for disposal at a licensed facility in Utah. The amount contained 13,000 cubic yards (9,900 m³) of contaminated sediments dredged from the St.Lawrence River. The sediments had been stored on the site since 1995. There was also 10,000 cubic yards (7,600 m³) of contaminated sludge from the active wastewater treatment plant on the General Motors property.[14] General Motors was ranked 20th in the 2002 toxic 100. The company released 12,771,830 pounds of gases in the year 2002.[15] In September of 2006, the state of California filed suit against General Motors, Chrysler, Nissan, Toyota, Honda, and Ford. The companies were accused of producing cars that emitted over 289 million metric tons of carbon per year in the United States, accounting for nearly 20% of carbon emissions in the United States and 30% of carbon emissions in California.[16] EPA redirects here. ... André Masséna (May 6, 1758 - April 4, 1817), Duke of Rivoli, Prince of Essling, was a French soldier in the armies of Napoleon and a Marshal of France. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of water or other liquid. ... SLUDGE (Scripting Language for Unhindered Development of a Gaming Environment) is a shareware adventure game engine developed by Hungry Software. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... This article is about the U.S state. ... For other uses, including the Chrysler Brand, see Chrysler (disambiguation). ... Nissan Motor Co. ... Toyota Motor Corporation ) is a multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and currently is the worlds largest automaker. ... This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ... Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... The word emission generally means sending something out. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S state. ...


Subsidies

In March 2005, the Government of Canada provided C$200 million in incentives to General Motors for its Ontario plants to expand production and provide jobs, according to Jim Harris. Similar incentives were promised to non-North American auto companies like Toyota, Premier Dalton McGuinty said the money the province and Ottawa are pledging for the project is well-spent. The Government of Canada is the federal government of Canada. ... C$ redirects here. ... Jim Harris 2006 election campaign photo. ...


Labor relations

2007 United Auto Workers strike

Main article: 2007 General Motors strike

On September 24, 2007 General Motors workers represented by the United Auto Workers union went on the first nationwide strike against GM since 1970. The ripple effect of the strike reached into Canada the following day as two car assembly plants and a transmission facility were forced to close. However, overnight a tentative agreement was reached and UAW officials declared the end of the strike in a news conference at 4 a.m. on September 26. By the following day, all GM workers in both countries were back to work. The United Auto Workers (UAW), headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, officially the United Automobile, Aerospace & Agricultural Implement Workers of America International Union, is one of the largest labor unions in North America, The UAW has approximately 540,000 active members and over 500,000 retired members in the United States, Canada... On September 24, 2007 at approximately 11:00 a. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The United Auto Workers (UAW), headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, officially the United Automobile, Aerospace & Agricultural Implement Workers of America International Union, is one of the largest labor unions in North America, The UAW has approximately 540,000 active members and over 500,000 retired members in the United States, Canada... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Outcome of strike

A new labor contract was ratified by UAW members exactly one week after the tentative agreement was reached, passing by a majority 62% vote. In the contract are several product and employment guarantees stretching well into the next decade. One of GM's key future products, the Chevy Volt, was promised to the GM Poletown/Detroit-Hamtramck plant in 2010. Also included is a VEBA (Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association) which will transfer retiree health care obligations to the UAW by 2010. This eliminates more than 50 billion dollars from GM's healthcare tab. It will be funded by 30 billion in cash and 1.4 billion in GM stock paid to the UAW over the next 4 years of the contract. It also eliminates 70% of the labor cost gap with GM's Japanese rivals.


Impact of Other Strikes

A strike at American Axle and Manufacturing Holdings Inc. will result in lost production of an additional 230,000 vehicles in the second quarter, with an estimated $1.8 billion impact on earnings before tax. With a total strike cost of $2.81 billion. [17]


2008 Canadian Auto Workers strike

The Canadian Auto Workers (CAW; formally the National Automobile, Aerospace, Transportation and General Workers Union of Canada) is one of Canadas largest and highest profile trade unions. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Auto racing

General Motors has an extensive history in numerous forms of racing. Vehicles of most, if not all, of GM's brands have been represented in competition, with perhaps Chevrolet being the most prominent. In particular, the Chevrolet Corvette has long been popular and successful in international road racing. GM also is a supplier of racing components, such as engines, transmissions, and electronics. Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (also known as Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... The Chevrolet Corvette is a sports car that has been manufactured by Chevrolet since 1953. ...


GM's Oldsmobile Aurora engine platform was successful in the Indy Racing League (IRL) throughout the 1990s, winning many races in the small V-8 class. An unmodified Aurora V-8 in the Aerotech, captured 47 world records, including the record for speed endurance in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America. Recently, the Cadillac V-Series has entered motorsports racing. GM has also used many cars in the American racing series NASCAR. Currently the Chevrolet Impala is the only entry in the series but in the past the Pontiac Grand Prix, Buick Regal, Oldsmobile Cutlass, Chevrolet Lumina, Chevrolet Malibu, and the Chevrolet Monte Carlo were also used. The Oldsmobile Aurora was a performance/luxury sedan made by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors and launched in 1995. ... The Indy Racing League, better known as IRL, is the sanctioning body of a predominantly American based open-wheel racing series. ... The Liberty V8 aircraft engine clearly shows the configuration, although modern automotive versions use a 90 degree block angle. ... The Cadillac V-Series is the name of high performance vehicles tuned by the General Motors Performance Division for the Cadillac division of General Motors. ... Jeff Burton (99), Elliott Sadler (38), Ricky Rudd (21), Dale Jarrett (88), Sterling Marlin (40), Jimmie Johnson (48), and Casey Mears (41) practice for the 2004 Daytona 500 The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ... 1958 Chevrolet Impala Convertible 1958 Chevrolet Impala Convertible The Chevrolet Impala is an automobile built for the Chevrolet division by General Motors. ... The Pontiac Grand Prix is an automobile produced by the Pontiac division of General Motors. ... The Buick Regal is a mid-size car produced by General Motors Buick division from 1973 through 2004, during which Buick also used the Century name on mid-size models; the two frequently shared bodies and powertrains. ... The Oldsmobile Cutlass was an automobile made by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors. ... See Chevrolet Lumina (Australia) for the Australian built vehicle of the same name. ... The Chevrolet Malibu (named after Malibu, California) is a mid-size car produced in the United States by General Motors. ... The Chevrolet Monte Carlo is an American muscle car. ...


In touring cars (mainly in Europe) Vauxhall is a key player and former champion in the British Touring Car Championship (BTCC) series and competes with a Vauxhall Vectra in Super 2000 spec. Opel used to participate in the DTM series. Chevrolet competes with a Lacetti in the FIA World Touring Car Championship (WTCC). Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ... The British Touring Car Championship is a touring car racing series held each year in the United Kingdom and Ireland. ... 1992 Opel Vectra 2. ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ... DTM may be an abbreviaton of: Degtyarev DTM Soviet machine gun, a version of the DP-28 Demographic transition model or DTM, a theory within the field of overpopulation Deny The Myth Deterministic Turing machine Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters (since 2000), formerly Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft (until 1996), German Touring Car Championship... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (also known as Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... The Chevrolet Lacetti is a compact car made by the South Korean automaker GM Daewoo. ... The Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile, commonly referred to as the FIA, is a non-profit association established in 1904 to represent the interest of motoring organisations and motor car users. ... The World Touring Car Championship (WTCC) is an international Touring Car championship organized by the FIA. The first WTCC, which was open to Group A Touring Cars, was held in 1987 concurrent to the long-running European Touring Car Championship (ETCC). ...


In Australia, there is the prestigious V8 Supercar Championship which is battled out by the two main rivals of Holden& Ford. The current Holden Racing Team cars are based on the Holden Commodore and run a 5.0-litre V8-cylinder engine producing 650+BHP (approx 480 kW Power) @ 7500 rpm). These cars have a top speed of 300+km/h (185 mph) and run 0-100 km/h in less than 4 seconds. The Holden Racing Team is Australia's most successful team in Australian Touring Car History. In 2007 the Drivers championship was won by the very closely linked HSV Dealer Team. V8 Supercars is a touring car racing category. ... Holdens rule This article is about the Australian car manufacturer. ... “Ford” redirects here. ... Holdens rule This article is about the Australian car manufacturer. ... The Holden Commodore is an automobile produced by the Holden division of General Motors (GM) in Australia. ... V8 Supercars in action V8 Supercar is the main motor racing series in Australia. ...


Development of Electronics for GM Auto Racing

In 1986, the GM Motorsports group asked Delco Electronics Corporation, a subsidiary of GM Hughes Electronics (headquarters - Kokomo, IN) if an electronic engine management system could be developed for the Chevy Indy V8 engines used in the CART open wheel racers. Delco Electronics had been supplying all GM automobiles sold in the USA with Engine Control Modules (ECMs) since 1981 when the USA Clean Air Act required 3-way catalytic converters and controlled air-fuel ratios. The production ECMs were becoming more complex, and were becoming powertrain controllers controlling the transmission, spark timing, Idle speed, as well as air-fuel intake mixtures. Delco Electronics Corporation was the automotive electronics design and manufacturing subsidiary of General Motors. ... Hughes can refer to any of the following: // People Arthur Hughes (artist) (1831-1915), an American painter Arthur Hughes (actor) (1894-1982), an American actor and radio personality Charles Evans Hughes (1862-1948), United States Secretary of State and Chief Justice of the United States Dave Hughes (born 1970), an... Kokomo is a city located in Howard County, Indiana. ... A cart is a vehicle or device, using two wheels and normally one horse, designed for transport. ... Smog over Shanghai. ... In an automobiles exhaust system, a catalytic converter provides an environment for a chemical reaction where unburned hydrocarbons completely combust. ... Air-fuel ratio (AFR) is the mass ratio of air to fuel present during combustion. ...


Delco Electronics used a small group of electronic designers and technicians at their facility in Goleta, CA (near Santa Barbara, CA) to do special assignable projects that were advanced or more state of the art. This facility was called Delco Systems Operations (formerly known as GM Defense Research Labs), a part of Delco Electronics Corporation at the time. Delco Systems Operations is the place where the Apollo Program's Lunar Rover Mobility Sub-system[18] was developed and built, also the Apollo Program's guidance computers (Apollo PGNCS) and the Boeing 747 guidance computers (Delco Carousel IV) were developed and manufactured there. All Delco Electronics Motorsports products developed before 1994 were designed by this group. From 1994 to present, this activity is at Delco Electronics/Delphi in Kokomo, IN. Goleta is a city located in southern Santa Barbara County, California. ... Alternative meaning: Santa Barbara (soap opera) Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County, California, United States. ... The Apollo program was a human spaceflight program undertaken by NASA during the years 1961 – 1975 with the goal of conducting manned moon landing missions. ... The Apollo Primary Guidance, Navigation and Control System (PGNCS) (pronounced pings) was a self-contained inertial guidance system that allowed Apollo spacecraft to carry out their missions when communications with Earth were interrupted, either as expected, when the spacecraft were behind the moon, or in case of a communications failure. ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ...


The first generation of engine management controller for CART racing used a modified production ECM, but performed poorly in the race car due to the harsh EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) environment. This version was never used in racing, but the experience gained enabled the engineers to design a more successful Generation 2 controller for use in the 1988 CART IndyCar World series. A cart is a vehicle or device, using two wheels and normally one horse, designed for transport. ... Electromagnetic interference (or EMI, also called radio frequency interference or RFI) is a (usually undesirable) disturbance caused in a radio receiver or other electrical circuit by electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source. ...

Practice at Phoenix 1988. Mario Illien introduces the Gen II to Mario Andretti
Practice at Phoenix 1988. Mario Illien introduces the Gen II to Mario Andretti

Generation 2 controllers were used experimentally by Newman/Haas Racing in 1988 and the first win was in the Cleveland GP with Mario Andretti driving. Newman/Haas/Lanigan Racing is an auto racing team in the Champ Car World Series. ... The Grand Prix of Cleveland is an event of the Champ Car World Series, held annually at Burke Lakefront Airport in Cleveland, Ohio. ... Mario Gabriele Andretti (born February 28, 1940 in Montona dIstria, Italy, now Motovun, Croatia) is an Italian American racing driver, and one of the most successful Americans in the history of auto racing. ...


In 1989 Newman/Haas Racing, Team Penske, Galles Racing, and Patrick Racing teams used Delco Electronics Gen-2 controllers with the Ilmor Chevy Indy V8 engine. "By the start of the 1989 season, racing pundits recognized that Chevrolet, with its Ilmor Engineering engines and Delco Electronics equipment, had assembled perhaps the most potent racing power in the history of the sport. As the season got under way in April, the pattern of winning began. Racing's elite drivers -- Al Unser Junior and Senior, Emerson Fittipaldi, Rick Mears, Danny Sullivan, and Mario an Michael Andretti -- were driving the best equipment in the world. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Patrick Racing was an auto racing in both Champ Car and, most recently, in the Indy Racing League. ... Ilmor, originally founded by Mario Illien and Paul Morgan in 1991, is an English independent high-performance autosport engineering company. ... Rick Ravon Mears (born December 3, 1951 in Wichita, Kansas) is an American race car driver. ...


The results began to show early on. By October, Chevy engines with DE equipment had won 13 of the 15 IndyCar races.

DSO Motorsports Management Group & Friends Watching the 1989 Indy 500 at Butler's Pizza in Goleta, CA
DSO Motorsports Management Group & Friends Watching the 1989 Indy 500 at Butler's Pizza in Goleta, CA

When Emerson Fittipaldi crossed the finish line to win the 1989 Indianapolis 500, racing fans witnessed history being made. Fans thrilled to the neck-and-neck finish between Fittipaldi and Al Unser Jr. who went spinning on lap 198 after brushing tires with Emmo, and the 43-year-old Barazilian had his first Indianapolis 500 win. Fittipaldi's victory -- in a Chevrolet Indy V8 engine controlled by a Delco Electronics electronic engine control module (ECM) -- was the first time in the 500's storied history that the engine of the winning vehicle was controlled by an electronic engine management system"[19] Emerson Fittipaldi (born December 12, 1946, São Paulo, Brazil) is a highly successful open-wheel racing series driver, winning world championships in both Formula One and CART, and the Indianapolis 500 twice. ... Results of the 1989 Indianapolis 500 held at Indianapolis on May 30, 1989. ... Al Unser, Jr. ...

Gen-2 Conroller that was in the 1989 Indy 500 Winning Car

For the 1990 season, all teams using the Ilmor Chey Indy V8 were provided a redesigned Gen-3 system and it won 15 poles, 16 wins including the 1990 Indianapolis 500, with 17 races in the IndyCar World Series. To prove the system, the components were used with GM engines in the Trans-Am Racing series during 1989. Results of the 1990 Indianapolis 500 held at Indianapolis on May 30, 1990. ... This page chronicles the many automobile engines that General Motors has used in its various marques. ... Trans Am may refer to: Trans-Am, the Trans-American Sedan Championship Pontiac Trans Am, an automobile Trans Am, a U.S. synth pop rock band This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


In the 1991 IndyCar World Series, Gen-3 had a perfect score: 17 poles, 17 wins, 17 races including the 1991 Indianapolis 500. At the 1991 Indianapolis 500, Delco Electronics introduced telemetry to the electronic system using the advanced spread spectrum radio technology[20] . It was so popular that all IndyCar teams eventually used it, and many still use it. ABC TV used the data from the systems to display real time data with ABC's in-car video cameras. Results of the 1991 Indianapolis 500 held at Indianapolis on Sunday, May 26, 1991. ... Telemetry is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator. ... Spread-spectrum telecommunications is a technique in which a signal is transmitted in a bandwidth considerably greater than the frequency content of the original information. ... The ABC or Australian Broadcasting Corporation is the national, Australia. ...


In 1990 and 1991, the Chevy engine with the Delco Electronics Gen-3 controller won 33 straight IndyCar races. Chevy's dominance proved electronics had found their place in IndyCar racing.


In the 1992 IndyCar World Series, race cars with Gen-3 captured 7 poles, 11 wins including the 1992 Indianapolis 500, in 16 races. Results of the 1992 Indianapolis 500 held at Indianapolis on Sunday, May 24, 1992. ...


For the 1993 IndyCar World Series, Delco Electronics had been developing a smaller more powerful controller using 32-bit computers and a high-level software language called Modula-GM. This system was called Gen-4 and won much praise for its improved functions and features. The telemetry system developed for the 1992 season was used, and a new Distributorless Ignition module component was added to the overall engine management system. 10 wins including the 1993 Indianapolis 500 in 16 CART races. In the mid-1970s, after designing the Pascal programming language, Niklaus Wirth began experimenting with program concurrency and modularization, which led to the design of the Modula programming language. ... Results of the 1993 Indianapolis 500 held at Indianapolis on Sunday, May 30, 1993. ...

Left to Right Gen-4, Gen-3, Gen-2, & Gen-1 Delco Electronics Motorsport Engine Control Modules
Left to Right Gen-4, Gen-3, Gen-2, & Gen-1 Delco Electronics Motorsport Engine Control Modules

In 1994, a totally new Ilmor engine was introduced to IndyCar teams and the engine controller was Delco Electronics Gen-4: 12 wins including the 1994 Indianapolis 500, 16 races. Results of the 1994 Indianapolis 500 held at Indianapolis on Sunday, May 29, 1994. ...


In 1995, Gen-4 won 6 races out of 17.


In 1996, the Indy Racing League split from CART and used the naturally aspirated Oldsmobile Aurora engine which used the Delco Electronics Gen-4 system until the engine was retired from the IRL IndyCar Series a few years ago. 1997 was the last year the Gen-4 ran in the CART IndyCar World Series. The Oldsmobile Aurora was a performance/luxury sedan made by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors and launched in 1995. ... The IndyCar Series is the premier series of the Indy Racing League. ...


Per a February 27, 2003 Delphi Press Release[21], Delphi's current involvement in open wheel racing is as follows:


"Delphi is the official electronics provider to the IRL and has been involved in open-wheel racing since 1988. Today, a majority of the vehicles in the IRL are equipped with several of Delphi's racing products including:

  • Delphi Earpiece Sensor System - measures dynamic forces to a driver's head during an accident. It uses small sensors integrated into the left and right radio earpieces worn by the driver. The six accelerometers -- one for each of the three axes on each side -- measure acceleration in the X, Y and Z axes during an accident. The combined data from the earpiece sensor system and onboard accident data recorder provide accident researchers valuable data for a clearer picture of what happens during a crash.
  • Accident Data Recorder (ADR2) - senses and records key vehicle parameters at 1,000 samples per second just prior to, during, and after an accident-triggering event.
  • Track Condition Radio - helps alert drivers with critical information by transmitting messages from race control to the racecar. A dash-mounted display communicates messages including safety warnings, track condition and pits opened/closed.
  • Radio Telemetry Module - transmits engine and chassis data from a speeding racecar to race team engineers located in the pits. The telemetry module helps enhance driver safety and race team strategy by making real-time data available.
  • Multec(R) Bottom Feed Methanol Electronic Fuel Injector - provides a high flow rate and a low profile package that are ideal for port fuel racing applications. The injector is able to operate at high temperatures and provide a high level of spray atomization.
  • Connectors, Cables and Terminals - connectors are coupling devices that provide an electrical and mechanical connection/disconnection in a system. Cables are insulated electrical conductors. Terminals are devices attached to the end of a wire to facilitate electrical connections. All of these Delphi components enable a vehicle's electrical/electronic system to function under the tough conditions in racing.

Delphi also has begun offering services to the racing industry, including Hydraulic Sled Testing from its state-of-the-art testing laboratory in Vandalia, Ohio. Delphi provides comprehensive safety testing using a hydraulic test sled to simulate a crash. Services include on-board data acquisition, on- and off-board digital video monitoring and the use of Delphi safety products such as the earpiece sensor system and accident data recorder."


Awards for this program:


Louis Schwitzer Awards for Engineering Excellence (since 1967):


1994: Mario Illien, Mercedes 209 CID Engine with Delco Electronics Gen-4 controller (Also won in 1986 for Ilmor-Chevrolet Engine that used Gen-2, 3, & 4 controllers 1988 to 1996)


1996: Dave Schnelker, Ning wu, I-Fu Shih of Delco Electronics & Ed Rothrock of Bell Sports (Design of Racing EyeCue) Bell Sports Inc. ...


1997: Ed Keating and Roger Allen of GM Motorsports (Oldsmobile Aurora Engine with Delco Electronics Gen-4 controller)


2005: Delphi engineers Erskine Carter, Glen Gray, Andy Inman, Tim Kronenberg and Bruce Natvig (Delphi Earpiece Sensor System)


2007: Delphi engineers Erskine Carter, Glen Gray, Andy Inman, Tim Kronenberg and Bruce Natvig (Delphi Accident Data Recorder 3 - ADR 3))


Alternative fuels and hybrids

General Motors is both active in environmental causes and, as a major industrial force, implicated in ecologically harmful activity. The company has long worked on alternative-technology vehicles, and has recently led the industry with clean burning Flexfuel vehicles that can run on either E-85 (ethanol) or gasoline. The company was the first to use turbochargers and was an early proponent of V6 engines in the 1960s, but quickly lost interest as the muscle car race took hold. They demonstrated [22] gas turbine vehicles powered by kerosene, an area of interest throughout the industry, but abandoned the alternative engine configuration in view of the 1973 oil crisis. In the 1970s and 1980s, GM pushed the benefits of diesel engines and cylinder deactivation technologies with disastrous results due to poor durability in the Oldsmobile diesels and drivability issues in the Cadillac 4-6-8 variable cylinder engines. In 1987 GM, in conjunction with Aerovironment built the Sunraycer which won the inaugural World Solar Challenge and was a showcase of advanced technology. Much of the technology from Sunraycer found its way into the Impact prototype electric vehicle (also built by Aerovironment) and was the predecessor to the EV1. Petrol redirects here. ... Turbo redirects here. ... The Ford Essex V6 engine V6 and V-6 redirect here. ... The Pontiac GTO is a classic example of the muscle car. ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ... The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship oil to nations... This article is about the fuel. ... Variable displacement is an automobile engine technology that allows the engine displacement to change for improved fuel economy. ... Oldsmobile is a brand of automobile produced for most of its existence by General Motors. ... For other uses, see Cadillac (disambiguation). ... AeroVironment is a California technology company that is primarily involved in energy systems, electric vehicle systems, and unmanned aerial vehicles. ... The Sunraycer was a solar powered race car designed to compete in the worlds first race featuring solar-powered cars. ... The Nuna 3 of the hattrick winning Dutch Nuna team The World Solar Challenge is a solar powered-car race over 3021 km through central Australia from Darwin to Adelaide. ... The Sunraycer was a solar powered race car designed to compete in the worlds first race featuring solar-powered cars. ... AeroVironment is a California technology company that is primarily involved in energy systems, electric vehicle systems, and unmanned aerial vehicles. ... EV1 redirects here. ...


GM supported a compromise version of the CAFE standard increase from 27 mpg to 35 mpg, the first such increase in over 20 years.[23] The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations in the United States, first enacted by Congress in 1975, exist to regulate and improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks (trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles) sold in the US. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales weighted...


Hybrid initiative

Main articles: Plug-in hybrid and Chevrolet Volt

In May 2004, GM delivered the world's first full sized hybrid pickups, and introduced a hybrid passenger car. In 2005, the Opel Astra diesel Hybrid concept vehicle was introduced. The 2006 Saturn Vue Green Line was the first hybrid passenger vehicle from GM and is also a mild design. GM has hinted at new hybrid technologies to be employed that will be optimized for higher speeds in freeway driving. Future hybrid vehicles should include the 2007 GMC Yukon, the Saturn Aura, and an updated Saturn Vue based an Opel design like the Saturn Aura. Hybrids Plus plug-in hybrid Toyota Prius conversion with PHEV-30 (30 mile or 48 km all-electric range) battery packs A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an electric power source. ... The Chevrolet Volt is a plug-in hybrid concept car created by General Motors. ... See also Vauxhall Astra, Holden Astra, and Saturn Astra for the usage of the nameplate by other General Motors subsidiaries. ... This article is about the fuel. ... For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ... A concept car is a car prototype made to showcase a new vehicles styling, technology, and overall design before production. ... The Saturn VUE is a compact crossover SUV from General Motors Saturn marque, and is Saturns top-selling model in the United States. ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... The Chevrolet Tahoe (and similar GMC Yukon) is a full-size SUV from General Motors. ... The Saturn Aura is a mid-size car produced under the Saturn brand of American automaker General Motors. ... The Saturn VUE is a compact crossover SUV from General Motors Saturn marque, and is Saturns top-selling model in the United States. ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ...


GM has recently introduced the concept cars Chevrolet Volt and Opel Flextreme, which are electric vehicles with back-up generators, powered by gasoline, E85, or fuel cells. According to GM, a production Chevrolet Volt will be available by late 2010 as a 2011 model. The Chevrolet Volt is a plug-in hybrid concept car created by General Motors. ... The Opel Flextreme is a diesel plug-in hybrid concept car created by General Motors. ...


GM currently offers two types of hybrid systems. The first type, used in the Silverado Hybrid, Saturn Vue, Saturn Aura, and Chevrolet Malibu, is what GM calls a "Mild Hybrid" or "BAS" system. The second hybrid drive system,co-developed with DaimlerChrysler and BMW, is called a "Two-Mode Hybrid." The two-mode is used by the Chevrolet Tahoe/GMC Yukon and will later be used on the Saturn Vue, and possibly other vehicles. DaimlerChrysler AG (ISIN: DE0007100000) is a German car corporation and the worlds eighth largest car manufacturer. ... For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... Advanced Hybrid System 2 is a set of hybrid car technologies jointly developed by General Motors and DaimlerChrysler. ...


GM’s current hybrid models:

The GM Magic Bus is a hybrid powered bus.[24] The Saturn VUE is a compact crossover SUV from General Motors Saturn marque, and is Saturns top-selling model in the United States. ... The Saturn Aura is a mid-size car produced under the Saturn brand of American automaker General Motors. ... The Chevrolet Tahoe (and similar GMC Yukon) is a full-size SUV from General Motors. ... The Chevrolet Malibu (named after Malibu, California) is a mid-size car produced in the United States by General Motors. ... The Chevrolet Tahoe (and similar GMC Yukon) is a full-size SUV from General Motors. ...


GM sold 843 hybrids of all types during the first quarter of 2008, according to the industry newspaper Automotive News. Compared that with Ford, which sold 5,225 hybrids during that time. The hands-down hybrid leader, Toyota, sold 278,000 in the U.S. alone last year and 430,000 worldwide. CSM Worldwide, expects GM to seriously increase its hybrid output, turning the automaker into a serious contender within the next few years. He expects it to produce 40,000 to 50,000 hybrids this year, more than doubling last year's production. [25]


Hydrogen initiative

GM has prided its research and prototype development of hydrogen powered vehicles, to be produced in early 2010, using a support infrastructure still in a prototype state. The economic feasibility of the technically challenging hydrogen car, and the low-cost production of hydrogen to fuel it, has also been discussed by other automobile manufacturers such as Ford and Chrysler. In June 2007, Larry Burns, vice president of research and development, said he's not yet willing to say exactly when hydrogen vehicles will be mass produced, but he said it should happen before 2020, the year many experts have predicted. He said "I sure would be disappointed if we weren't there" before 2020.[26] Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from General Motors Filler neck for hydrogen of a BMW, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany Tank for liquid hydrogen of Linde, Museum Autovision, Altlußheim, Germany A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its on-board fuel for motive power. ... Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ... For other uses, including the Chrysler Brand, see Chrysler (disambiguation). ...


Flexfuel and Biofuels

GM produces many Flexfuel vehicles that can operate on ethanol gasoline, or E85. GM is the leader in E85 FlexFuel vehicles, with over 3 million FlexFuel vehicles on the road in the U.S. E85 is a mostly renewable fuel made from corn and grain products.[27] Flexfuel is a technology that allows a vehicle to use two or more kinds of fuel. ... Bio-energy redirects here. ...


By the end of 2008, GM will offer 25 ethanol-enabled FlexFuel cars and trucks around the world, and produce more than one million new FlexFuel vehicles.[28] GM's goal is to have half of their annual vehicle production be E85 or biodiesel capable by 2012.


Electric vehicles

The process of obtaining the EV1, GM's first electric vehicle, was difficult. The vehicle could not be purchased outright. Instead, General Motors offered a closed-end lease for three years, with no renewal or residual purchase options. The EV1 was only available from specialist Saturn dealerships, and only in California and Arizona.[29] Before reviewing leasing options, a potential lessee would be taken through a 'pre-qualification' process in order to learn how the EV1 was different from other vehicles. Next came a waiting list with no scheduled delivery date.[30] EV1 redirects here. ...


In June 2006 the documentary Who Killed the Electric Car? was released, criticizing among others, GM for being responsible for the demise of the EV1. Who Killed the Electric Car? is a 2006 documentary film that explores the birth, limited commercialization, and subsequent death of the battery electric vehicle in the United States, specifically the General Motors EV1 of the 1990s. ...


Several weeks before the debut of the movie, the Smithsonian Institution announced that its EV1 display was being permanently removed and the EV1 car put into storage. GM is a major financial contributor to the museum, but both parties denied that this fact contributed to the removal of the display.[31] The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ...


General Motors has responded to complaints about the scrapping of the EV1 program and they dispute the existence of any conspiracy surrounding its demise. An entry was posted on the GM blog FastLane[32] in 2006 in which GM defended its decision by saying that it was unable to guarantee the vehicles could continue to be maintained in a safe operating state.[33]


GM alleges that during the four years available to the public, only 800 EV1's were released. Over $1 billion was spent on the EV1 program, with a great portion used for consumer incentives and marketing. With a waiting list of 5,000 applicants, only 50 individuals actually were willing to accept a lease on the EV1. Suppliers ceased production of replacement parts due to the low demand for the EV1. This made repairs and continued safety of the vehicles difficult. The EV1 was designed as a developmental vehicle and was never intended for serial production.


The limitations of storage technology and the expense of production would have made the cars impractical for the vast majority of consumers; a production EV1 would have met limited demand and would have been priced out of reach of most. Had sufficient demand existed to justify mass production and had costs and technologies been able to support mass production, GM would have been more receptive to the idea.


GM responded to allegations made in the film through a blog post by Dave Barthmuss, who said "Sadly, despite the substantial investment of money and the enthusiastic fervor of a relatively small number of EV1 drivers — including the filmmaker — the EV1 proved far from a viable commercial success."[34] Barthmuss notes investments in electric vehicle technology since the EV1: Two-Mode Hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicle programs. The filmmakers suggested that GM did not immediately channel its technological progress with the EV1 into these projects, and instead let the technology languish while focusing on more immediately profitable enterprises such as SUVs. Contrary to this suggestion, as Barthmuss points out, GM is bullish on hydrogen: Advanced Hybrid System 2 is a set of hybrid car technologies jointly developed by General Motors and DaimlerChrysler. ...


According to GM, not all of the EV1's were destroyed. Many were donated to research institutions and facilities, along with museums. Some are still owned by General Motors themselves, and are kept at their technical design center in Warren, Michigan, and can occasionally be seen on the road within a close area of the tech center.[33] Coordinates: , Country State County Macomb Incorporated 1957 Government  - Type Council-Strong Mayor  - Mayor Mark A. Steenbergh Area  - City  34. ...


After Toyota ceased production of the RAV-4EV in 2001, no other major automaker on the road offered a fully electric vehicle designed for everyday use on public transportation routes for some time;[citation needed][33] however Think Nordic, at one time under the ownership of Ford, have produced a range of electric vehicles in limited numbers. In 2007, Tesla Motors began taking orders for the fully electric Tesla Roadster, which was designed for less than 1/10th of the cost of the EV1. Production on the Roadster began in March, 2008, and GM executives have expicitly stated that the emergence of the Tesla Roadster was a primary reason why GM accelerated the Chevy Volt project; the spiritual successor to the EV1. Think Nordic is a battery electric vehicle company located in Aurskog, Norway, manufacturing cars under the Think brand. ... Tesla Motors, Inc. ...


Political and charitable contributions

In the 2006 election cycle General Motors contributed $788,600, with 34% of that amount going to the Democrats and 66% to the Republicans.[35] Since 1996, General Motors has been the exclusive source of funding for Safe Kids USA's "Safe Kids Buckle Up" program, a national initiative to ensure child automobile safety through education and inspection.[36]


Corporate restructuring

After gaining market share in the late 1990s and making enormous profits General Motors stock soared to over $80 a share. However, in 2000, twelve successive interest rate hikes by the Federal Reserve led to a severe stock market decline following the September 11, 2001 attacks, caused a pension and benefit funds crisis at General Motors and many other American companies. General Motor's rising retiree health care costs and Other Post Employment Benefit (OPEB) fund deficit prompted the company to enact a broad restructuring plan. Although GM had already taken action to fully fund its pension plan, its OPEB fund became an issue for its corporate bond ratings. GM had expressed its disagreement with the bond ratings; moveover, GM's benefit funds were performing at higher than expected rates of return. Then, following a $10.6 billion loss in 2005, GM acted quickly to implement its restructuring plan. For the first quarter of 2006 GM earned $400 million, signaling a turnaround had already begun even though many aspects of the restructuring plan had not yet taken effect. Although retire health care costs remain a significant issue, General Motors' investment strategy has generated a $17.1 billion surplus in 2007 in its $101 billion U.S. pension fund portfolio, a $35 billion reversal from its $17.8 billion of underfunding.[11] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


In February 2005, GM successfully bought itself out of a put option with Fiat for $2 billion USD (€1.55 billion). In 2000, GM had sold a 6% stake to Fiat in return for a 20% share in the Italian automaker. As part of the deal, GM granted Fiat a put option which, if exercised between January 2004 and July 2009, could have forced GM to buy Fiat. GM had agreed to the put option at the time, perhaps to keep it from being acquired by another automaker such as Daimler AG competing with GM's Opel and Vauxhall marques. The relationship suffered, and Fiat had failed to improve. In 2003, Fiat recapitalized, reducing GM's stake to 10%. For other uses, see Fiat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fiat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fiat (disambiguation). ... A put option (sometimes simply called a put) is a financial contract between two parties, the buyer and the writer of the option. ... For other uses, see Fiat (disambiguation). ... DaimlerChrysler AG (ISIN: DE0007100000) is a German car corporation and the worlds fifth largest car manufacturer. ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ... Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ... For other uses, see Fiat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fiat (disambiguation). ...


In February 2006, GM slashed its annual dividend from 2.00 to $1.00 per share. The reduction saved $565 million a year.


In March 2006, GM divested 92.36 million shares (reducing their stake from 20% to 3%) of Japanese manufacturer Suzuki, in order to raise $2.3 billion. GM originally invested in Suzuki in the early 1980s. For other uses, see Suzuki (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Suzuki (disambiguation). ...


On March 23, 2006, a private equity consortium including KKR, Goldman Sachs Capital, and Five Mile Capital purchased $8.8 billion, or 78% of GMAC, GM's commercial mortgage arm. The new entity, in which GMAC will own a 21% stake, will be known as Capmark Financial Group.[37] is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co (commonly referred to as KKR) is a New York City based private equity firm that focuses primarily on late stage leveraged buyouts. ... The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. ... General Motors Acceptance Corporation (GMAC) is the financial services arm of General Motors, the worlds largest automobile manufacturer (by revenue). ...


On April 3, 2006, GM announced that it would sell 51% of GMAC as a whole to a consortium led by Cerberus Capital Management, raising $14 billion over 3 years. Investors also include Citigroup's private equity arm and Aozora Bank of Japan. The group will pay GM $7.4 billion in cash at closing. GM will retain approximately $20 billion in automobile financing worth an estimated $4 billion over three years. is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Motors Acceptance Corporation (GMAC) is the financial services arm of General Motors, the worlds largest automobile manufacturer (by revenue). ... Cerberus Capital Management, L.P. is one of the largest private equity investment firms in the USA. The firm is based in New York City, and run by 48-year-old financier Steve Feinberg. ... Citi redirects here. ... Aozora Bank is a financial institution of Japanese origin listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange that offers service in 19 branches in Japan and in 5 overseas representative offices. ...


GM sold its 8% stake in Isuzu on April 11, 2006, to raise an additional $300 million.[38]12,600 workers from Delphi, a key supplier to GM, agreed to buyouts and an early retirement plan offered by GM in order to avoid a strike, after a judge agreed to cancel Delphi's union contracts. 5,000 Delphi workers were allowed to flow to GM. This article is about a truck manufacturer. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Delphi is an automotive parts company headquartered in Troy, Michigan, USA. Delphi is one of the worlds largest automotive parts manufacturers and has approximately 171,400 employees (50,000 in the United States). ...

World locations of General Motors factories
World locations of General Motors factories

On June 28, 2007, GM agreed to sell its Allison Transmission division to private-equity firms Carlyle Group and Onex for $5.1 billion. The deal will increase GM's liquidity and echoes previous moves to shift its focus towards its core automotive business. The two firms will control seven factories around Indianapolis but GM will retain management of a factory in Baltimore. Former Allison Transmission president Lawrence E. Dewey will be the new CEO of the standalone company.[39] is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Allison Transmission is a manufacturer of automatic transmissions for medium and heavy-duty commercial vehicle applications. ... In finance, private equity is an asset class consisting of equity securities in operating companies that are not publicly traded on a stock exchange. ... The Carlyle Group is a global private equity investment firm, based in Washington, D.C., with more than $81. ... Onex Corporation is a Toronto based investment firm. ... Market liquidity is a business or economics term that refers to the ability to quickly buy or sell a particular item without causing a significant movement in the price. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Allison Transmission is a manufacturer of automatic transmissions for medium and heavy-duty commercial vehicle applications. ...


On February 12, 2008 GM announced its loss of $39 Billion. The biggest loss of any U.S. Automaker. GM has offered buyouts to all its UAW members. is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


In March 24, 2008 GM reported $24 billion, or $6 billion less than what was on hand September 31, 2007, which is a loss of $2 billion dollars a month. [40] is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up September in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


As GM opens new plants, those scheduled to close under the planned GM restructuring include (source: General Motors Corporation):

Plants Location Closing Role # Employees
Moraine Assembly Ohio 2009 Mid-size SUV assembly 4,165
Oklahoma City Assembly Oklahoma Early 2006 Mid-size trucks and SUV assembly 2,734
Lansing Craft Centre Michigan Mid-2006 Chevrolet SSR roadster assembly 398
Spring Hill Manufacturing Line 1 Tennessee March 2007 Saturn Ion sedan and coupe assembly 5,776
Janesville Assembly Wisconsin By 2010 Full Size SUV Assembly 2,800
Lansing Metal Center Michigan 2006 Metal fabricating 1,398
Portland Distribution Center Oregon 2006 Parts distribution 95
Saint Louis Distribution Center Missouri 2006 Parts distribution 182
Pittsburgh Metal Pennsylvania 2007 Metal fabricating 613
Ypsilanti Processing Center Michigan 2007 Parts processing 278
Flint North 3800 Michigan 2008 Engines 2,677
Massena 250 New York 2008 Foam

Moraine Assembly is a General Motors automobile factory in Moraine, Ohio. ... A fourth-generation (2006-) Ford Explorer, the best-selling mid-size SUV in the United States. ... Oklahoma City Assembly is a General Motors automobile factory in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... The Lansing Craft Centre is a specialized General Motors automobile factory in Lansing, Michigan. ... The Chevrolet SSR (the SSR standing for Super Sport Roadster) was a convertible pickup truck produced from the Chevrolet division of American automaker General Motors from 2003 through 2006. ... Spring Hill Manufacturing is a General Motors factory in Spring Hill, Tennessee. ... The Saturn ION was a compact car sold by the Saturn marque of American automaker General Motors. ... Janesville Assembly is an automobile factory owned by General Motors located in Janesville, Wisconsin. ... Flint North is a General Motors automobile engine factory in Flint, Michigan. ... André Masséna (May 6, 1758 - April 4, 1817), Duke of Rivoli, Prince of Essling, was a French soldier in the armies of Napoleon and a Marshal of France. ...

Mergers and Alliances

General Motors (GM) executives have mused aloud about the prospects of a merger with rival Ford Motor [41]. 2002 Ford Fiesta in the UK. The Ford Motor Company (sometimes nicknamed Fords or FoMoCo, (NYSE: F) is an automobile maker founded by Henry Ford in Detroit, Michigan, and incorporated on June 16, 1903. ...


Criticism

In 1980, J. Patrick Wright wrote a book named On a Clear Day You Can See General Motors. This book, which critics acclaimed "blows the lid off the king of carmakers" was about the allegations of corruption, "mismanagement and total irresponsibility" at the top level of the company, as seen by John Z. DeLorean, the Vice-President, who in 1973 resigned from his position in spite of a brilliant and meteoric rise (he was earning $ 650,000 per year and was expected to be the next President of GM). De Lorean featured with his namesake car, the De Lorean DMC-12 John Z. De Lorean (born John Zachary Delorean) is a personality, engineer, and executive in the U.S. automobile industry, and founder of the De Lorean Motor Company. ...


In June 2006 the documentary Who Killed the Electric Car? was released, criticizing among others, GM for the cancellation of its first electric car, the EV1. Who Killed the Electric Car? is a 2006 documentary film that explores the birth, limited commercialization, and subsequent death of the battery electric vehicle in the United States, specifically the General Motors EV1 of the 1990s. ... EV1 redirects here. ...


See also

People

Cover of Time Magazine (December 27, 1926) Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr. ... William Crapo Durant (December 8, 1861-March 18, 1947) was a leading pioneer of the United States automobile industry, creating the system of multi-brand holding companies with different lines of cars. ... Rick Wagoner George Richard Rick Wagoner, Jr. ... Robert Bob A. Lutz (born February 12, 1932, in Zurich, Switzerland) is the General Motors Vice Chairman of Product Development and Chairman of GM North America. ...

Books and films

  • Final Offer - A documentary film that shows the 1984 GM contract negotiations, that would result in the union split of the Canadian arm of the UAW.
  • Roger & Me - the first documentary by filmmaker Michael Moore. The film criticizes General Motors for closing down its factories in Moore's hometown of Flint, Michigan, despite record profits. After Flint residents lose their many jobs at GM, Moore claims the town descends into economic chaos.
  • Who Killed the Electric Car? - A documentary film charting GM's launch, then alleged self-sabotage of the electric car EV1.
  • General Motors is mentioned several times in Wheels a novel by Arthur Hailey

Final Offer is a Canadian film documenting the 1984 contract negotiations between the United Auto Workers Union (UAW) and GM. Ultimately, it provided a historical record of the birth of the Canadian Auto Workers Union (CAW) as Bob White, then head of the Canadian sector of the UAW, led his... The United Auto Workers (UAW), officially the United Automobile, Aerospace & Agricultural Implement Workers of America International Union, is one of the largest labor unions in North America, with more than 700,000 members in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico organized into approximately 950 union locals. ... Roger & Me is a 1989 American documentary film directed by independent filmmaker/author Michael Moore. ... Michael Francis Moore (born April 23, 1954) is an American political-activist, a film director, author, social commentator, and political humorist. ... Nickname: Location of Flint within Genesee County, Michigan. ... Who Killed the Electric Car? is a 2006 documentary film that explores the birth, limited commercialization, and subsequent death of the battery electric vehicle in the United States, specifically the General Motors EV1 of the 1990s. ... The EV1 was the first electric car produced by General Motors in the United States. ... Wheels (1971) is a novel by Arthur Hailey, concerning the automobile industry and the day-to-day pressures involved in its operation. ... Arthur Hailey (April 5, 1920 – November 24, 2004) was a British/Canadian novelist. ...

Active brands

The following GM brands were being produced in January 2008:

Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, China and in Spain by General Motors Corporation. ... For other uses, see Cadillac (disambiguation). ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (also known as Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... This article is about the auto company GM Daewoo. ... GMC, formerly known as GMC Truck, is a brand name used on trucks, vans, and SUVs marketed in North America and the Middle East by General Motors. ... Holdens rule This article is about the Australian car manufacturer. ... Hummer is a brand of off-road vehicles sold by General Motors, also known as GM. The H1 version is based on the military High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV, or Humvee). ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ... This article is about Pontiac automobiles; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for other uses see the Pontiac (disambiguation). ... Saab Automobile AB is automobile manufacturing company in Sweden, and is currently a wholly-owned subsidiary of the General Motors Corporation. ... For the cars collectively known as Saturns, see Saturn S-Series. ... Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ...

Defunct brands

Asüna was a captive import brand created in 1992 by General Motors as a counterpart to Geo in Canada. ... Beaumont was a make of automobile produced by General Motors of Canada from 1966 to 1969. ... Bedford was the first to use the Griffin logo Bedford Six WLG 2. ... Elmore Manufacturing Company was a manufacturer of Brass Era automobiles in Clyde, Ohio. ... Geo was a brand of small cars and SUVs marketed by General Motors and sold through Chevrolet dealerships throughout North America beginning in 1989 in the United States, and 1992 in Canada. ... 1936 LaSalle 5019 - see additional photos below For other uses of the name, see the LaSalle/La Salle disambiguation page. ... The Marquette automobile (1929-1930) was built by General Motors Corporation beginning in June, 1929 and was intended to compete with De Soto. ... An ad for the 1926 Oakland Oakland Motor Car Sensible Six Sedan, from 1917 magazine ad: p. ... Oldsmobile is a brand of automobile produced for most of its existence by General Motors. ... GMC, formerly known as GMC Truck, is a brand name used on trucks, vans, and SUVs marketed in North America and the Middle East by General Motors. ... GMC, formerly known as GMC Truck, is a brand name used on trucks, vans, and SUVs marketed in North America and the Middle East by General Motors. ... Statesman is a defunct Australian subsidiary of General Motors, beginning operations in 1971, and ceasing production in 1985. ... Viking was an automobile manufactured by General Motors Oldsmobile Division for model year 1929 and 1931. ...

Subsidiaries

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ... Allison Transmission is a manufacturer of automatic transmissions for medium and heavy-duty commercial vehicle applications. ... General Motors Acceptance Corporation (or GMAC) was the financial services arm of General Motors, the worlds largest automobile manufacturer (by revenue). ... Delta Motor Corporation was a South African car manufacturer, which was created through a management buy-out after General Motors (GM) divested from South Africa in 1986. ... This article is about the auto company GM Daewoo. ... Holdens rule This article is about the Australian car manufacturer. ... GM Performance Division is a division within General Motors (GM) that is responsible for developing performance vehicles for the various brands of GM. Its creations include the Super Sport (SS) vehicles from Chevrolet, the V-series from Cadillac, and the Red Line series from Saturn. ... Shanghai General Motors Company Limited (Shanghai GM) is a subsidiary of General Motors, and manufactures and sells automobiles in mainland China. ... Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ...

Industry Associations

  • United States Council for Automotive Research
  • Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers

Categories

General Motors has embraced the sharing of automobile platforms globally, although the company currently uses the term architecture rather than platform. ... This page chronicles the many automobile engines that General Motors has used in its various marques. ... General Motors was an innovator of automatic transmissions, introducing the Hydra-Matic in 1940. ... General Motors uses the following factories to produce automobiles. ... A tribrid vehicle is a third generation in alternative propulsion vehicles, that is, a bivalent hybrid vehicle with turbine (second generation), that also obtains energy from the ambient environment (solar panel, windmill or sail). ...

References

  1. ^ a b GM Reports Preliminary 2007 Financial Results AutoNews24h.com
  2. ^ GM Reports Loss for 2007 and Fourth Quarter - AutoObserver
  3. ^ GM reports record $38.7 bln annual loss in 2007 - People's Daily Online
  4. ^ AFP: GM to offer buyout to 74,000 US workers as losses mount
  5. ^ GM Posts $38.7 Billion Auto Loss - TIME
  6. ^ General Motors company profile. Retrieved on June 23, 2008.
  7. ^ General Motors | Corporate Information - About | GM
  8. ^ Global 500: The world's largest corporations - July 23, 2007
  9. ^ $116 million PACE gift puts Purdue students in drivers' seat (September 26, 2006) Purdue News. Retrieved on May 8, 2007.
  10. ^ "Welcome to the UAW-GM Center for Human Resources". UAW-GM Joint Activity System. Retrieved on June 19, 2007.
  11. ^ a b Sloan, Allan (April 10, 2007).GM's High-Performance Pension Machine Washington Post, D02.
  12. ^ GM becomes top-selling foreign automaker in China. Detroit News. Retrieved on April 10, 2007.
  13. ^ "GM plans a research center in Shanghai for hybrid technology", International Herald Tribune, October 29, 2007
  14. ^ GM To Start Removal Of Contaminated Sediments and Soils Next Week At Federal Superfund Site in Massena, New York | Newsroom | US EPA
  15. ^ Toxic 100 Detailed Company Report
  16. ^ Gale Group Search
  17. ^ GM's Cost - Auto News Report
  18. ^ Anthony Young, Lunar and Planetary Rovers: The Wheels of Apollo and the Quest for Mars. ISBN 0387307745
  19. ^ Delco Electronics Electron Magazine, June 1994, pages 1-5
  20. ^ James Bogner, SAE paper 962327 : Spread Spectrum Telemetry Data System for Indy Car Racing, October 1996.
  21. ^ Delphi's Innovative Earpiece Sensor System Becomes Safety Requirement for Indy Racing League Drivers[1]
  22. ^ America's First Turbine Car
  23. ^ GM workers lobbying for less-stringent CAFE rule
  24. ^ GM's Hybrid Propulsion System for Transit Buses. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  25. ^ http://www6.lexisnexis.com/publisher/EndUser?Action=UserDisplayFullDocument&orgId=101846&topicId=104970025&docId=l:780869115
  26. ^ Tom Krisher, "GM steps up work on hydrogen cars", Business Week. June 15, 2007
  27. ^ General Motors | Fuel Economy & Alternative Fuels - E85 Ethanol
  28. ^ General Motors 2007 Annual Report | Page 2 of 4
  29. ^ General Motors EV1: Information and Much More from Answers.com
  30. ^ My EV experiences
  31. ^ Smithsonian Kills the Electric Car. Retrieved on 2008-05-19.
  32. ^ http://fastlane.gmblogs.com/ GM FastLane Blog
  33. ^ a b c GM FYI Blog: Who Ignored the Facts About the Electric Car?
  34. ^ Who Ignored the Facts About the Electric Car?
  35. ^ Top Contributors to Federal Candidates and Parties: Automotive
  36. ^ Safe Kids USA. SK Buckle Up usa.safekids.org. Retrieved 24/02/08.
  37. ^ article. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved on March 23, 2006.
  38. ^ GM sells Isuzu shares for $300 million. Detroit News. Retrieved on 2006-04-12.
  39. ^ GM Agrees to Sell Allison Transmission Unit, The Wall Street Journal, 29 June 2007
  40. ^ GM Cash Burn 1B per month - Auto News Report - May 29, 2008
  41. ^ http://businessweek.com/lifestyle/content/jun2008/bw20080624_421000.htm?chan=top+news_top+news+index_news+%2B+analysis

is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Along with The Detroit Free Press, The Detroit News (owned by Gannett) is one of the two major Metro Detroit newspapers. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BusinessWeek is a business magazine published by McGraw-Hill. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Along with The Detroit News, the Detroit Free Press is one of the two major metro Detroit newspapers. ... Along with The Detroit Free Press, The Detroit News (owned by Gannett) is one of the two major Metro Detroit newspapers. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ...

Further reading

  • Barabba, Vincent P. Surviving Transformation: Lessons from GM's Surprising Turnaround (2004)
  • Chandler, Alfred D., Jr., ed. Giant Enterprise: Ford, General Motors, and the Automobile Industry 1964.
  • Cray, Ed. Chrome Colossus: General Motors and Its Times. 1980.
  • Farber, David. Sloan Rules: Alfred P. Sloan and the Triumph of General Motors U of Chicago Press 2002
  • Gustin, Lawrence R. Billy Durant: Creator of General Motors , 1973.
  • Halberstam, David. The Reckoning (1986) detailed reporting on the crises of 1973-mid 1980s
  • Keller, Maryann. Rude Awakening: The Rise, Fall, and Struggle for Recovery of General Motors, 1989.
  • Leslie, Stuart W. Boss Kettering: Wizard of General Motors Columbia University Press, 1983.
  • Maxton, Graeme P. and John Wormald, Time for a Model Change: Re-engineering the Global Automotive Industry (2004)
  • Maynard, Micheline. The End of Detroit: How the Big Three Lost Their Grip on the American Car Market (2003)
  • Rae, John B. The American Automobile: A Brief History. University of Chicago Press, 1965.
  • Sloan, Alfred P., Jr. My Years with General Motors, 1963.
  • Weisberger, Bernard A. The Dream Maker: William C. Durant, Founder of General Motors , 1979

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
General Motors
  • Blog of workers and works council members
  • Corporate website
  • Official Canadian site
  • Official European site
  • Official Brazilian site
  • Official wiki
  • General Motors Organization Chart

{{Navbox |name = General Motors brands |title = Automotive marques of General Motors General Motors has embraced the sharing of automobile platforms globally, although the company currently uses the term architecture rather than platform. ... This page chronicles the many automobile engines that General Motors has used in its various marques. ...


|above =

Buick · Cadillac · Chevrolet · GMC · Holden · Hummer · Opel · Pontiac · Saab · Saturn · Vauxhall Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, China and in Spain by General Motors Corporation. ... For other uses, see Cadillac (disambiguation). ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (also known as Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... GMC, formerly known as GMC Truck, is a brand name used on trucks, vans, and SUVs marketed in North America and the Middle East by General Motors. ... Holdens rule This article is about the Australian car manufacturer. ... Hummer is a brand of off-road vehicles sold by General Motors, also known as GM. The H1 version is based on the military High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV, or Humvee). ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ... This article is about Pontiac automobiles; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for other uses see the Pontiac (disambiguation). ... Saab is a line of automobiles manufactured by Saab Automobile AB, and is currently a wholly-owned subsidiary of the General Motors Corporation. ... For the cars collectively known as Saturns, see Saturn S-Series. ... Vauxhall Motors is a UK car company. ...

|group1 = Affiliates |list1 = GM Daewoo (50.9%) · Shanghai GM (50%) · Suzuki (3%) · Wuling (34%) This article is about the auto company GM Daewoo. ... Shanghai General Motors Company Limited (Shanghai GM) is a subsidiary of General Motors, and manufactures and sells automobiles in mainland China. ... For other uses, see Suzuki (disambiguation). ... SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile is a joint-venture between General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation of China. ...


|group2 = Defunct marques


|list2 =

Acadian (1962–1971) · Asüna (1992–1995) · [[Viking (1929–1931) Acadian was a make of automobile produced by General Motors of Canada from 1962 to 1971. ... After the demise of the Geo marque in the United States, General Motors continued to sell Isuzu and Suzuki imports under the Asüna name in Canada from 1993. ... The Viking was an automobile manufactured by General Motors Oldsmobile Division for model year 1929 and 1930. ...

}}

Linear graph of the DJIA from 1901 until today Logarithmic graph of the DJIA from 1901 until today The Dow Jones Industrial Average (NYSE: DJI, also called the DJIA, Dow 30, or informally the Dow Jones or The Dow) is one of several stock market indices created by nineteenth-century... 3M Company (NYSE: MMM), formerly Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company until 2002, is an American corporation with a worldwide presence. ... This article is about the company. ... American Express (NYSE: AXP), sometimes known as AmEx or Amex, is a diversified global financial services company, headquartered in New York City. ... American International Group, Inc. ... This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ... Bank of America (NYSE: BAC TYO: 8648) is the largest commercial bank in the United States in terms of deposits, and the largest company of its kind in the world. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... Caterpillar Inc. ... Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... Citi redirects here. ... The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE: KO) is the worlds largest beverage company, largest manufacturer, distributor and marketer of non-alcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups in the world, and one of the largest corporations in the United States. ... This article is about E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ... For other uses, see Exon (disambiguation). ... GE redirects here. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... The Home Depot (NYSE: HD), headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, is a big-box home improvement retailer that aims for both the do-it-yourself consumer and the professional in home improvement and construction. ... Intel redirects here. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Johnson & Johnson (NYSE: JNJ) is a global American pharmaceutical, medical devices and consumer packaged goods manufacturer founded in 1886. ... -1... McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ... Merck & Co. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Pfizer Incorporated (NYSE: PFE) is a major pharmaceutical company, which ranks number one in the world in sales[2]. The company is based in New York City. ... Procter & Gamble Co. ... United Technologies Corporation (UTC) (NYSE: UTX) is a multinational corporation based in Hartford, Connecticut, USA, and is the 20th largest U.S. manufacturer. ... Verizon Communications, Inc. ... Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... Disney redirects here. ... Philip Morris redirects here. ... AT&T (formerly an abbreviation for American Telephone and Telegraph) Corporation (NYSE: T) is an American telecommunications company. ... The American Tobacco Company was founded in 1890 by J. B. Duke as a merger between a number of tobacco manufacturers including Allen and Ginter. ... Bethlehem Steel Corporations flagship manufacturing facility in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Kodak redirects here. ... General Foods, formerly shorthand for the General Foods Corporation, is now a brand of Kraft Foods. ... Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company was founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling. ... Honeywell Heating Specialties Company Stock Certificate dated 1924 signed by Mark C. Honeywell - courtesy of Scripophily. ... International Paper (NYSE: IP) is an American pulp and paper company, the largest pulp and paper company in the world and the largest private owner of timberland in the United States. ... link titleJohns Manville, a Berkshire Hathaway company (NYSE: BRK.A, BRK.B), is a leading manufacturer and marketer of premium-quality building and specialty products. ... Also see: Kelvinator and American Motors Corporation Nash Motors Logo, 1940s Nash Motors was an automobile manufacturer based in Kenosha, Wisconsin, in the United States from 1916 to 1938. ... It has been suggested that International Harvester be merged into this article or section. ... The North American Company was a former holding company headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ... Owens-Illinois NYSE: OI is a Fortune 500 company that specializes in plastics and glass containers. ... Sears, Roebuck and Co. ... Union Carbide Corporation (Union Carbide) is one of the oldest chemical and polymers companies in the United States, and currently has more than 3,800 employees. ... The United States Rubber Company was a rubber manufacturer founded by Charles R. Flint in 1892. ... For formerly affiliated and similarly named companies, see Woolworth (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
General Motors Lemon - Free lemon law help for your General Motors car, truck or SUV (284 words)
General Motors Lemon - Free lemon law help for your General Motors car, truck or SUV
Please fill out our simple General Motors Lemon Law Complaint Form and an attorney will contact you for a free case evaluation.
General-Motors-Lemon.com is a free consumer service with affiliate attorneys in all 50 states who provide free lemon law representation to qualified consumers.
General Motors (244 words)
General Motors sätter en punkt för de generösa personalrabatterna vid köp av ny GM-bil.
Saabs nye försäljningschef Jan-Åke Jonsson, ser General Motors som en stor och ännu outnyttjad möjlighet att sälja fler företagsbilar i Storbritannien men också i länder som Tyskland och Frankrike.
General Motors redovisar en oförändrad vinst för fjärde kvartalet i fjol jämfört med 2002.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m