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Encyclopedia > General Government

The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. The term is also applied, though not strictly correctly, to the territory administered by the General Government. German cavalry and motorized units entering Poland from East Prussia during the Polish Defensive War of 1939 Wehrmacht (help· info) (Defence force) was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Contents


Creation of the General Government

Hans Frank was appointed Governor-General of the occupied territories on 26 October 1939. Two decrees by Hitler (8 October and 12 October 1939) provided for the division of the annexed areas of Poland into the following administrative units: Hans Frank File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hans Frank (May 23, 1900 – October 16, 1946) was a lawyer for the Nazi party during the 1920s and a senior official in Nazi Germany. ... Hans Frank (May 23, 1900 – October 16, 1946) was a lawyer for the Nazi party during the 1920s and a senior official in Nazi Germany. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... October 8 is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years). ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...

The area of these territories was 94,000 square kilometres and the population was about 10 million. Reichsgau Wartheland (initially Reichsgau Posen) was the name given by Nazis to the largest subdivision of the territory of Greater Poland which was directly incorporated into the German Reich after defeating the Polish army in 1939. ... The Poznan is also a breed of horse. ... Map as of 1975 Poznań Voivodship (1) 1975-1998 Poznań Voivodship 1975-1998 (Polish: województwo poznańskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975- 1998, superseded by Greater Poland Voivodship. ... Łódź voivodship since 1999 Coat of Arms of Łódź Voivodship Łódź Voivodship (1) ( Polish województwo łódzkie) is an administrative and local government region in central Poland created on January 1, 1999 out of the former Łódź (2), Sieradz, Piotrkow Trybunalski, Skierniewice and partly Plock voivodships as a result of Local... Historic Pomerania (outlined in yellow) on the background of modern country borders. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... The Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia (Danzig-Westpreussen) was a German administrative unit created in 1939 from Freie Stadt Danzig and Polish Pomerania. ... Ciechan w (pronounced: [tɕexanuv]) is a town in north-central Poland with 46,600 inhabitants (1995). ... Warszawa Voivodship (Polish: województwo warszawskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by Masovian Voivodship. ... Motto: none Voivodship Masovian Municipal government Rada Miasta Płock Mayor Mirosław Milewski Area 88 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 128 210 - 1456/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 52°33 N 19°42 E Area code +48 24 Car plates WP Twin towns - Municipal Website Płock (pronounce: [pwɔʦk]) is a... Płońsk is a town in north-central Poland with 22,700 inhabitants (1995). ... Sierpc is a town in Poland, in Mazowsze Voivodship, about 100 km northwest of Warsaw. ... Mława is a town in north-central Poland with 29,800 inhabitants (1995). ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Motto: none Voivodship Silesian Municipal government UrzÄ…d Miasta Katowice Mayor Piotr Uszok Area 164. ... Map of Upper Silesia, 1746 Upper Silesia (Polish: Górny ÅšlÄ…sk, German: Oberschlesien, Czech: Horní Slezsko) is the south-eastern part of Silesia, a historical and geographical region of Poland (Opole Voivodship and Silesian Voivodship) and of the Czech Republic (Silesian-Moravian Region). ... Motto: none Voivodship Silesian Municipal government Rada Miejska Sosnowiec Mayor Kazimierz Górski Area 91,2 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 231 540 2. ... Będzin. ... Chrzanów is a town in south Poland with 42,100 inhabitants (1995). ... Zawiercie is a town in Silesian Voivodship, south Poland with 55,800 inhabitants (2005). ... Olkusz is a town in south Poland with 40,500 inhabitants (1995). ... Żywiec is a town in southern Poland with 32,300 inhabitants (2001). ...


The remaining block of territory was placed under an administration called the General Government (in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete), with its capital at Krakow and subdivided into four districts, Warsaw, Lublin, Radom, and Krakow. After the German attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941, East Galicia, previously part of the Ukrainian SSR, was incorporated into the General Government and became its fifth district. This article needs cleanup. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... For other uses, see Lublin (disambiguation). ... Motto: none Voivodship Masovian Municipal government Rada miejska Radomia Mayor ZdzisÅ‚aw Marcinkowski Area 111,7 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 227 309 - 2047/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 51°24 N 21°10 E Area code +48 48 Car plates WR Twin towns Homyel (Belarus), Ternopil (Ukraine), Ploie... This article needs cleanup. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Supreme commander: Adolf Hitler Supreme commander: Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3,200,000 ~ 2,600,000 Casualties 830,903 (174,000 dead, 36,000 missing, 604,000 injured) unknown Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the German codename for Nazi Germanys invasion of the Soviet... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia Galicia is an historical region currently split between Poland and Ukraine. ...


The General Government was a purely German administration, not a Polish puppet government. A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ...


Population

The population in the General Government's territory was initially about 12 million, but this increased as about 860,000 Poles and Jews were expelled from the Germany-annexed areas and "resettled" in the General Government. Offsetting this was the German campaign of extermination of the Polish intelligentsia and other elements thought likely to resist. From 1941 disease and hunger also began to reduce the population. Poles were also deported in large numbers to work as forced labour in Germany: eventually about a million were deported, of whom many died in Germany. The intelligentsia (from Latin: intelligentia) is a social class of people engaged in complex mental and creative labor directed to the development and dissemination of culture: intellectuals and social groups close to them (e. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ...


In 1940 the population was divided on different groups. Each group had different rights, food rations, allowed strips in the cities, public transportation and restricted restaurants. Listed from the most privileged to the least: 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ...

  • Germans from Germany (Reichdeutsche),
  • Germans from outside, active ethnic Germans, Volksliste category 1 and 2 (see Volksdeutsche).
  • Germans from outside, passive Germans and members of families (this group included also many ethnic Poles), Volksliste category 3 and 4,
  • Ukrainians,
  • Highlanders (Goralenvolk) - an attempt to split the Polish nation by using local collaborators
  • Poles,
  • Jews (eventually sentenced to extermination as a category).

Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) is a historical term which arose in the early 20th century to apply for Germans living outside of the German Empire. ... During German occupation of Poland in World War II, attempts to divide the Polish nation by the new rulers led to the postulation of a separate ethnicity called Goralenvolk. Derived from the Polish word Górale (Mountain People or Highlanders), it designated the population of the region of Podhale in...

Genocide policies

During the Wannsee conference on January 20, 1942, The State Secretary of the General Government, Dr. Josef Bühler pushed Heydrich to implement the "final solution" in the General Government. As far as he was concerned, the main problem of General Government was an overdeveloped black market that disorganised the work of the authorities. He saw a remedy in solving the "Jewish question" in the country as fast as possible. An additional point in favour was, that there were no transportation problems here. The Wannsee Villa, location of the Wannsee Conference, is now a Holocaust museum. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Reinhard Heydrich as SS-Gruppenführer Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (March 7, 1904 – June 4, 1942) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, chief of the Reich Main Security Office, and Reich governor of Bohemia and Moravia. ... In a February 26, 1942 letter to German diplomat Martin Luther, Reinhard Heydrich follows up on the Wannsee Conference by asking Luther for administrative assistance in the implementation of the Endlösung der Judenfrage (Final Solution of the Jewish Question). ...


In 1942 the Germans began the systematic extermination of the Jewish population. The General Government was the location of four of the six extermination camps in which the most extreme measures of the Holocaust, the genocide by gassing of undesired "races," chiefly millions of Jews from Poland and other countries, was carried out between 1942 and 1944. This article is about the year. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of death camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... Genocide is defined by the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) article 2 as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: Killing members of the group; Causing... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ...


Overall 4 million of the 1939 population of the General Government area had lost their lives by the time the Soviet armed forces liberated the area in late 1944. 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ...


It was German policy that the (non-Jewish) Poles, like other Slavic peoples, were to be reduced to the status of serfs, and eventually replaced by German colonists of the "master race." In the General Government, all secondary education was abolished and all Polish cultural institutions closed. In 1943, the government selected the Zamojskie area for further German colonisation. German settlements were planned, and the Polish population expelled amid great brutality, but few Germans were settled in the area before 1944. See Generalplan Ost for more information about this. The Slavic peoples are defined by their linguistic attainment of the Slavic languages. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... The master race (German: Herrenrasse, (help· info)) is a concept in Nazi ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic people represent an ideal and pure race. It derives from nineteenth century racial theory, which posited a hierarchy of races placing African Bushmen and Indigenous Australians at the bottom of... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) is a common year starting on Friday. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... It has been suggested that silent ethnic cleansing be merged into this article or section. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Generalplan Ost (GPO) was a Nazi plan to realize Hitlers new order of ethnographical relations in the territories occupied in Eastern Europe during World War II. It was prepared in 1941 and confirmed in 1942. ...


Resistance

Resistance to the German occupation began almost at once, although there is little terrain in Poland suitable for guerrilla operations. The main resistance force was the Home Army (in Polish: Armia Krajowa or AK), loyal to the Polish government in exile in London. It was formed mainly of the surviving remnants of the pre-War Polish army together with many volunteers. Other forces existed side-by-side, such as the communist People's Army (Armia Ludowa or AL), backed by the Soviet Union and controlled by the Polish Communist Party. By 1944 the AK had some 380,000 men, although few arms. During the occupation, the various Polish resistance organizations killed about 150,000 Axis. The AL was about 15% of the size of the AK. Guerrilla War redirects here. ... The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the underground army in German-occupied Poland, which was active in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... This article is about the British city. ... Armia Ludowa (AL, pronounced ; English Polish Peoples Army) was a Polish World War II resistance organisation. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ...


In April 1943 the Germans began deporting the remaining Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto, provoking the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, April 19 to May 16. That was the first armed uprising against the Germans in Poland, and prefigured the larger Warsaw Uprising of 1944. 1943 (MCMXLIII) is a common year starting on Friday. ... The Ghetto Heroes Memorial The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. In the three years of its existence, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps dropped the population of the... Combatants Nazi Germany Jewish resistance (ŻOB, ŻZW) Commanders Jürgen Stroop Mordechai Anielewicz Strength 2,054, including 821 Waffen SS 40,000 civilians, 750-1000 fighting Casualties 300 KIA, official reports acknowledge 16 KIA and 85 wounded about 13,000 killed, almost all of the rest sent to extermination camps... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... Combatants Poland Germany Commanders Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, Antoni Chruściel, Tadeusz Pełczyński Erich von dem Bach, Rainer Stahel, Heinz Reinefarth, [Bronislav Kaminski] Strength 50,000 troops 25,000 troops Casualties 18,000 killed, 12,000 wounded, 15,000 taken prisoner 250,000 civilians killed 10,000 killed... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ...


In July 1944, as the Soviet armed forces approached Warsaw, the government in exile called for an uprising in the city, so that they could return to a liberated Warsaw and try to prevent a Communist take-over. The AK, led by Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, launched the Warsaw Rising on 1st August in response both to their government and to Soviet and Allied promises of help. However Soviet help was never forthcoming, despite the Soviet army being only 18 miles (30 km) away, and Soviet denial of their airbases to British and American planes prevented any effective resupply or air support of the insurgents by the Western allies. After 63 days of fighting the leaders of the rising agreed a conditional surrender with the Wehrmacht. The 15,000 remaining Home Army soldiers were granted POW status (prior to the agreement, captured rebels were shot), and the remaining civilian population of 180,000 expelled. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... General Count Tadeusz Komorowski (June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (after one of his wartime code-names: Bór) was a Polish military leader. ... The Warsaw Uprising (Powstanie Warszawskie) was an armed struggle during the Second World War by the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa) to liberate Warsaw from German occupation and Nazi rule. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


The end

As the Soviets advanced through Poland in late 1944 the General Government collapsed. Frank was captured by American troops in May 1945 and was one of the defendants at the Nuremberg Trials. During his trial he converted to Catholicism. Frank surrendered forty volumes of his diaries to the Tribunal and much evidence against him and others was gathered from them. He was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity and on October 1, 1946, he was sentenced to death by hanging. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The Nuremberg Trials were the sets of trials of officials involved in World War II and the Holocaust during the Nazi regime. ... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international (criminal) law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... This article is in need of attention. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... // Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is governmental killing by execution as punishment for a crime often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... Suicide by hanging. ...


See also

World War II evacuation and expulsion refers to forced deportation, mass evacuation and displacement of peoples spurred on by the hostilities between Axis and Allied powers, and the border changes enacted in the post-war settlement. ... After invading Poland in 1939, Germany decided to annex not only all the lands it was forced to return to Poland in 1919–1922, under the Treaty of Versailles (including the Polish Corridor, West Prussia, the Province of Posen), but also other territories. ... Under the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, adjusted by agreement on 28 September 1939, the Soviet Union annexed all Polish territory east of the line of the rivers Pisa, Narew, Western Bug, and San, except for Wilno country with its capital Wilno (Vilnius), which was given to Lithuania, and... During the Nazi German occupation of Poland during World War II, a system of camps of various kinds was established across the country. ...

References

External links


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