The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. A large gene pool indicates extensive genetic diversity, which is associated with robust populations that can survive bouts of intense selection. Meanwhile, low genetic diversity (see inbreeding and population bottlenecks) can cause reduced fitness and an increased chance of extinction. In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... An allele is any one of a number of viable DNA codings occupying a given locus (position) on a chromosome. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ... Selection is hierachically classified into natural and artificial selection. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. ... A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ... Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of taxa. ...
When many alleles exist for a given gene or locus, a population is said to be polymorphic with respect to that gene or locus. When no variation exists, it is labelled monomorphic. In biology and evolutionary computation, a locus is the position of a gene (or other significant sequence) on a chromosome. ... In biology, polymorphism can be defined as the occurrence in the same habitat of two or more forms of a trait in such frequencies that the rarer cannot be maintained by recurrent mutation alone. ... In the context of abstract algebra or universal algebra, a monomorphism is simply an injective homomorphism. ...
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Category: Genetics Genetic drift is the term used in population genetics to refer to the statistical drift over time of allele frequencies in a finite population due to random sampling effects in the formation of successive generations. ... Species with a small population size are subject to a higher chance of extinction because their small population size makes them more vulnerable to genetic drift, resulting in stochastic variation in their gene pool, their demography and their environment. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ...
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