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EncyclopediaGender > Sexuality-Rights-Association-Taiwan
Gender symbols: female (left), male (right). From symbols for Venus and Mars.
Gender symbols: female (left), male (right). From symbols for Venus and Mars.

Gender refers to the differences between men and women. Encyclopædia Britannica notes that gender identity is "an individual's self-conception as being male or female, as distinguished from actual biological sex."[1] Although gender is commonly used interchangeably with sex, within the social sciences it often refers to specifically social differences, known as gender roles in the biological sciences. Historically, feminism has posited that many gender roles are socially constructed, and lack a clear biological explanation. People whose gender identity feels incongruent with their physical bodies may call themselves transgender or genderqueer. Image File history File links Combotrans. ... Image File history File links Combotrans. ... A gender symbol is a symbol used to denote the sex of a life form or the gender of a human being. ... This article is about the planet. ... This article is about the planet. ... Gender has several meanings in modern usage: Gender is usually used to refer to the perceived masculinity or femininity of a person or characteristic. ... This article is about adult human males. ... Diverse women. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... For other uses, see Biology (disambiguation). ... Feminists redirects here. ... A social construction, social construct or social concept is an institutionalized entity or artifact in a social system invented or constructed by participants in a particular culture or society that exists because people agree to behave as if it exists, or agree to follow certain conventional rules, or behave as... A transwoman with XY written on her hand, at a protest in Paris, October 1, 2005. ... Genderqueer or intergender is a gender identity of both, neither or some combination of man and/or woman. In relation to the gender binary (the view that there are only two genders), genderqueer people generally identify as more both/and or neither/nor, rather than either/or. ...


Many languages have a system of grammatical gender, a type of noun class system — nouns may be classified as masculine or feminine (for example Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic and French) and may also have a neuter grammatical gender (for example Sanskrit, German, Polish, and the Scandinavian languages). In such languages, this is essentially a convention, which may have little or no connection to the meaning of the words. Likewise, a wide variety of phenomena have characteristics termed gender, by analogy with male and female bodies (such as the gender of connectors and fasteners) or due to societal norms. In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, the term noun class refers to a system of categorizing nouns. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Male sex. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... In electrical and mechanical trades and manufacturing, each of a pair of mating connectors or fasteners is conventionally assigned the designation male or female. ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Etymology and usage

The word gender in English

As kind

The word gender comes from the Middle English gendre, a loanword from Norman-conquest-era Old French. This, in turn, came from Latin la:genus. Both words mean 'kind', 'type', or 'sort'. They derive ultimately from a widely attested Proto-Indo-European (PIE) root gen-,[2][3] which is also the source of kin, kind, king and many other English words.[4] It appears in Modern French in the word genre (type, kind, also fr:genre sexuel) and is related to the Greek root gen- (to produce), appearing in gene, genesis and oxygen. As a verb, it means breed in the King James Bible: Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...

  • 1616: Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind — Leviticus 19:19.

Most uses of the root gen in Indo-European languages refer either directly to what pertains to birth or, by extension, to natural, innate qualities and their consequent social distinctions (for example gentry, generation, gentile, genocide and eugenics). The first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED1, Volume 4, 1900) notes the original meaning of gender as 'kind' had already become obsolete. The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...

Gender (dʒe'ndəɹ), sb. Also 4 gendre. [a. OF. gen(d)re (F. genre) = Sp. and Pg. genero, It. genere, ad. L. gener- stem form of genus race, kind = Gr. γένος, Skr. jánas:— OAryan *genes-, f. root γεν- to produce; cf. KIN.]
1. Kind, sort, class; also, genus as opposed to species. The general gender: the common sort (of people). Obs.
13.. E.E.Allit. P. P. 434 Alle gendrez so ioyst wern ioyned wyth-inne. c 1384 CHAUSER H. Fame* 1. 18 To knowe of hir signifiaunce The gendres. 1398 TREVISA Barth. De P. K. VIII. xxix. (1495) 34I Byshynynge and lyghte ben dyuers as species and gendre, for suery shinyng is lyght, but not ayenwarde. 1602 SHAKES. Ham. IV. vii. 18 The great loue the generall gender beare him. 1604Oth. I. iii. 326 Supplie it with one gender of Hearbes, or distract it with many. 1643 and so on.

As masculinity or femininity

The use of gender to refer to masculinity and femininity as types is attested throughout the history of Modern English (from about the 14th century). Manliness redirects here. ... In some cultures, makeup is associated with femininity. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...

  • 1387-8: No mo genders been there but masculine, and femynyne, all the remnaunte been no genders but of grace, in facultie of grammar — Thomas Usk, The Testament of Love II iii (Walter William Skeat) 13.
  • c. 1460: Has thou oght written there of the femynyn gendere? — Towneley Mystery Plays xxx 161 Act One.
  • 1632: Here's a woman! The soul of Hercules has got into her. She has a spirit, is more masculine Than the first genderShackerley Marmion, Holland's Leaguer III iv.
  • 1658: The Psyche, or soul, of Tiresias is of the masculine genderThomas Browne, Hydriotaphia.
  • 1709: Of the fair sex ... my only consolation for being of that gender has been the assurance it gave me of never being married to any one among them — Mary Wortley Montagu, Letters to Mrs Wortley lxvi 108.
  • 1768: I may add the gender too of the person I am to govern — Laurence Sterne, A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy.
  • 1859: Black divinities of the feminine genderCharles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities.
  • 1874: It is exactly as if there were a sex in mountains, and their contours and curves and complexions were here all of the feminine gender — Henry James, 'A Chain of Italian Cities', The Atlantic Monthly 33 (February, p. 162.)
  • 1892: She was uncertain as to his genderRobert Grant, 'Reflections of a Married Man', Scribner's Magazine 11 (March, p. 376.)
  • 1896: As to one's success in the work one does, surely that is not a question of gender either — Daily News 17 July.
  • c. 1900: Our most lively impression is that the sun is there assumed to be of the feminine gender — Henry James, Essays on Literature.

Thomas Usk (died March 4, 1388) was appointed the under-sheriff of London by Richard II in 1387. ... Walter William Skeat (November 21, 1835 - 1912), English philologist, was born in London on the 21st of November 1835, and educated at Kings College, Highgate Grammar School, and Christs College, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow in July 1860. ... The Wakefield Cycle or Towneley Cycle refers to a series of thirty-two mystery plays based on the Bible performed around Corpus Christi day in the town of Wakefield, England during the late Middle Ages until 1576. ... Shackerley Marmion (1603 - 1639), dramatist, son of a country gentleman of Northamptonshire, was educated at Oxford. ... Sir Thomas Browne (October 19, 1605 – October 19, 1682) was an English author of varied works that disclose his wide learning in diverse fields including medicine, religion, science and the esoteric. ... Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial, or a Discourse of the Sepulchral Urns lately found in Norfolk, is a work by Sir Thomas Browne, published in 1658 as the first part of a two-part work that concludes with The Garden of Cyrus. ... Mary Wortley Montague, by Charles Jervas, after 1716. ... Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (November 24, 1713 – March 18, 1768) was an Irish-born English novelist and an Anglican clergyman. ... A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy is a novel by the Irish-born English author Laurence Sterne, written and first published in 1768, as Sterne was facing death. ... Dickens redirects here. ... For other uses, see A Tale of Two Cities (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ... Robert Grant my also refer to the Romantic period writer, Robert Grant (Romantic writer). ... Scribners Magazine is a magazine. ... The News Chronicle was a British Liberal newspaper which closed in 1960, being absorbed into the right-wing Daily Mail. ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ...

As a grammatical term

According to Aristotle, the Greek philosopher Protagoras used the terms "masculine", "feminine", and "neuter" to classify nouns, introducing the concept of grammatical gender. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 427 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (536 × 752 pixel, file size: 99 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This picture was already on Wikipedia, and under a usable copyright (see below in quotes). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 427 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (536 × 752 pixel, file size: 99 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This picture was already on Wikipedia, and under a usable copyright (see below in quotes). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Protagoras (in Greek Πρωταγόρας) was born around 481 BC in Abdera, Thrace in Ancient Greece. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ...

τὰ γένη τῶν ὀνομάτων ἄρρενα καὶ θήλεα καὶ σκεύη
The classes (genē) of the nouns are males, females and things.[5]
— Aristotle, The Technique of Rhetoric III v

The words for this concept are not related to gen- in all Indo-European languages (for example, rod in Slavic languages). Aristotles Rhetoric (or Ars Rhetorica, or The Art of Rhetoric or Treatise on Rhetoric) places the discipline of public speaking in the context of all other intellectual pursuits at the time. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup...


The usage of gender in the context of grammatical distinctions is a specific and technical usage. However, in English, the word became attested more widely in the context of grammar, than in making sexual distinctions.


This was noted in OED1, prompting Henry Watson Fowler to recommend this usage as the primary and preferable meaning of gender in English. "Gender ... is a grammatical term only. To talk of persons ... of the masculine or feminine g[ender], meaning of the male or female sex, is either a jocularity (permissible or not according to context) or a blunder."[6] Henry Watson Fowler (10 March 1858 – 26 December 1933) was an English schoolmaster, lexicographer and commentator on the usage of English. ...


The sense of this can be felt by analogy with a modern expression like "persons of the female persuasion." It should be noted, however, that this was a recommendation, neither the Daily News nor Henry James citations (above) are "jocular" nor "blunders." Additionally, patterns of usage of gender have substantially changed since Fowler's day (noun class above, and sexual stereotype below).


As a sexual stereotype

The word sex is sometimes used in the context of social roles of men and women — for example, the British Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act 1919 that ended exclusion of women from various official positions. Such usage was more common before the 1970s, over the course of which the feminist movement took the word gender into their own usage to describe their theory of human nature. Early in that decade, gender was used in ways consistent with both the history of English and the history of attestation of the root. However, by the end of the decade consensus was achieved among feminists regarding this theory and its terminology. The theory was that human nature is essentially epicene and social distinctions based on sex are arbitrarily constructed. Matters pertaining to this theoretical process of social construction were labelled matters of gender. The Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act 1919 (9 & 10 Geo. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1) In linguistics, having only one form of the noun for both the male and the female. ...

The American Heritage Dictionary uses the following two sentences to illustrate the difference.[7] Wendy Kaminer is a law professor and feminist writer. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ... The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of the English language published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ...

  • 2000: The effectiveness of the medication appears to depend on the sex (not gender) of the patient.
  • 2000: In peasant societies, gender (not sex) roles are likely to be more clearly defined.

In the last two decades of the 20th century, the use of gender in academia increased greatly, outnumbering uses of sex in the social sciences.[8] Frequently, but not exclusively, this indicates acceptance of the feminist theory of human nature. However, in many instances, the term gender still refers to sexual distinction generally without such an assumption.

  • 2004: Among the reasons that working scientists have given me for choosing gender rather than sex in biological contexts are desires to signal sympathy with feminist goals, to use a more academic term, or to avoid the connotation of copulation — David Haig, The Inexorable Rise of Gender and the Decline of Sex.

In fact, the ideological distinction between sex and gender is only fitfully observed.[8]


The concept of gender in other languages

Greek (distinguishes biological from sociological in adjectives)


In Greek, male biology and masculine grammatical inflection are denoted by arsenikos (αρσενικός), in distinction to sociological masculinity, which is denoted by andrikos (ανδρικός). Likewise, female biology and feminine grammatical inflection are denoted by thēlukos (θηλυκός); and sociological femininity is denoted by gunaikeios (γυναικείος, compare English gynaecology). This distinction is at least as old as Aristotle (see above). It is a different distinction to English, where 'male' and 'female' refer to animals as well as humans, but not to grammatical categories; however, 'masculine' and 'feminine' refer to grammatical categories as well as humans, but not properly to animals, except as anthropomorphism. The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ... 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel. ...


German and Dutch (no distinction in nouns — Geschlecht and geslacht)


In English, both 'sex' and 'gender' can be used in contexts where they could not be substituted — 'sexual intercourse', 'safe sex', 'sex worker', or on the other hand, 'grammatical gender'. Other languages, like German or Dutch, use the same word, de:Geschlecht or nl:geslacht, to refer not only to biological sex, but social differences as well, making a distinction between biological 'sex' and 'gender' identity difficult. In some contexts, German has adopted the English loanword Gender to achieve this distinction. Sometimes Geschlechtsidentität is used for 'gender' (although it literally means 'gender identity') and Geschlecht for 'sex'.[9] More common is the use of modifiers: biologisches Geschlecht for 'biological sex', Geschlechtsidentität for 'gender identity' and Geschlechtsrolle for 'gender role', and so on. Both German and Dutch use a separate word, de:Genus, for grammatical gender.


Swedish (clear distinction in nouns — genus and kön)


In Swedish, 'gender' is translated with the linguistically cognate sv:genus, including sociological contexts, thus: Genusstudier (gender studies) and Genusvetenskap (gender science). 'Sex' in Swedish, however, only signifies sexual relations, and not the proposed English dichotomy, a concept for which sv:kön (also from PIE gen-) is used. A common distinction is then made between kön (sex) and genus (gender), where the former refers only to biological sex. However, Swedish uses the words sv:könsroll and sv:könsidentitet (literally 'sex role' and 'sex-identity') for the English terms 'gender role' and 'gender identity'. The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ...


Summary

The historical meaning of gender is something like "things we treat differently because of their inherent differences". It has three common applications in contemporary English. Most commonly it is applied to the general differences between men and women, without any assumptions regarding biology or sociology. Sometimes however, the usage is technical or assumes a particular theory of human nature, this is always clear from the context. Finally the same word, gender, is also commonly applied to the independent concept of distinctive word categories in certain languages. Grammatical gender has little or nothing to do with differences between men and women.


Likewise, the word sex has two distinct meanings in English. It can be used to describe whether an individual of a sexually reproducing species is physically male or female. Sex in this sense means of or pertaining to reproduction. Used this way, sex, male and female view humans as Homo sapiens and are impersonal, or dehumanizing, in many contexts.

  • Person A: We just had our first baby!
  • Reply 1: Boy or girl? (personal, suited to a friend)
  • Reply 2: Male or female? (impersonal, suited to a doctor — or vet — unsuited to a friend)

The word sex is also used to refer to erotic behaviour between humans, rather more broadly than mating is used of animals. Reproduction is not assumed in reference to human sexual behaviour. Both uses of sex are clearly relevant to the study of differences between men and women.


Biology of gender

The biology of gender became the subject of an expanding number of studies over the course of the late 20th century. One of the earliest areas of interest was what is now called gender identity disorder (GID). Studies in this, and related areas, inform the following summary of the subject by John Money, a pioneer and controversial sex and gender researcher. Human Brain The biology of gender is the physical basis for behavioural differences between men and women. ... Gender identity disorder, as identified by psychologists and physicians, is a condition in which a person has been assigned one gender, usually on the basis of their sex at birth (compare intersex disorders), but identifies as belonging to another gender, and feels significant discomfort or being unable to deal with... John William Money, Ph. ...

The term "gender role" appeared in print first in 1955. The term "gender identity" was used in a press release, November 21, 1966, to announce the new clinic for transsexuals at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. It was disseminated in the media worldwide, and soon entered the vernacular. The definitions of gender and gender identity vary on a doctrinal basis. In popularized and scientifically debased usage, sex is what you are biologically; gender is what you become socially; gender identity is your own sense or conviction of maleness or femaleness; and gender role is the cultural stereotype of what is masculine and feminine. Causality with respect to gender identity disorder is subdivisible into genetic, prenatal hormonal, postnatal social, and postpubertal hormonal determinants, but there is, as yet, no comprehensive and detailed theory of causality. Gender coding in the brain is bipolar. In gender identity disorder, there is discordancy between the natal sex of one's external genitalia and the brain coding of one's gender as masculine or feminine.[10]

Money refers to attempts to distinguish a difference between biological sex and social gender as "scientifically debased", because of our increased knowledge of a continuum of dimorphic features (Money's word is "dipolar"), that link biological and behavioural differences. These extend from the exclusively biological "genetic" and "prenatal hormonal" differences between men and women, to postnatal features, some of which are social, but others have been shown to result from "postpubertal hormonal" effects. Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ...


Prior to recent technology that made study of brain differences possible, observable differences in behaviour between men and women could not be adequately explained solely on the basis of the limited observable physical differences between them. Hence the, then plausible, theory that these differences might be explained by arbitrary cultural assignments of roles. However, Money notes concisely that masculine or feminine self-identity is now seen as essentially an expression of dimorphic brain structure (Money's word is "coding"). The new discoveries have an additional advantage over the theory of cultural arbitrariness of gender roles, as they help explain the similarities between these roles in widely divergent cultures (see Steven Pinker on Donald Brown's Human Universals, including romantic love,[11] sexual jealousy,[12][13][14] and patriarchy).[15] For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ... Donald E. Brown is an American professor of anthropology (emeritus). ... Human Universals is a book by Donald Brown, an American professor of anthropology (emeritus) who worked at the University of California, Santa Barbara. ... This article primarily discusses philosophical ideologies in relation to the subject of romantic love. ... Sexual jealousy is a special form of jealousy in sexual relationships, present in animals that reproduce through internal fertilization, and based on suspected or imminent sexual infidelity. ... English family c. ...


Although causation from the biological — genetic and hormonal — to the behavioural has been broadly demonstrated and accepted, Money is careful to also note that understanding of the causal chains from biology to behaviour in sex and gender issues is very far from complete. For example, we have not conclusively identified a "gay gene", but nor have we excluded such a possibility.[16] This article is about the general scientific term. ... A sex steroid is a steroid hormone which interacts with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors. ... According to the American Psychological Association, There is no consensus among scientists about the exact reasons that an individual develops a heterosexual, bisexual, gay, or lesbian orientation. ...


The following systematic list (gender taxonomy) illustrates the kinds of diversity that have been studied and reported in medical literature. It is placed in roughly chronological order of biological and social development in the human life cycle. The earlier stages are more purely biological and the latter are more dominantly social. Causation is known to operate from chromosome to gonads, and from gonads to hormones. It is also significant from brain structure to gender identity (see Money quote above). Brain structure and processing (biological) that may explain erotic preference (social), however, is an area of ongoing research. Terminology in some areas changes quite rapidly to accommodate the constantly growing knowledge base. One journal, published since 2002, is specifically devoted to Genes, Brains and Behavior. An interactive, animated display of early development is available online. The gender taxonomy is a classification of the range of different levels at which humans vary in sexual characteristics. ... Life cycle refers to: Biological life cycle New product development Honeybee life cycle This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Scientific journals are one type of academic journal An academic journal is a regularly-published, peer-reviewed publication that publishes scholarship relating to an academic discipline. ...


Gender taxonomy

For information about chromosomes in genetic algorithms, see chromosome (genetic algorithm). ... Not to be confused with XXX syndrome. ... Turner syndrome is a human genetic abnormality, caused by a nondisjunction in the sex chromosomes that occurs in females (1 out of every 2,500 births). ... In medicine (genetics), a mosaic or mosaicism denotes the presence of two populations of cells with different genotypes in one patient, where usually one of the two is affected by a genetic disorder. ... The gonad is the organ that makes gametes. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... For other uses, see Hermaphrodite (disambiguation). ... An ovotestis is a gonad with both testicular and ovarian aspects. ... Gonadal dysgenesis generally refers to a condition where gonadal development is abnormal, often only presenting streaks of connective tissue. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... Estriol. ... Estradiol (17β-estradiol) (also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. ... Chemical structure of estriol Estriol (also oestriol) is one of the three main estrogens produced by the human body. ... Estrone (also oestrone) is an estrogenic hormone secreted by the ovary. ... An antiandrogen, or androgen antagonist, is any of a group of hormone antagonist compounds that are capable of preventing or inhibiting the biologic effects of androgens, male sex hormones, on normally responsive tissues in the body (see androgen insensitivity syndrome). ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of the anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; in mammals, these are: Female: Bartholins glands, cervix, clitoris, Fallopian tubes, labia, ovaries, Skenes... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of the anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; in mammals, these are: Female: Bartholins glands, cervix, clitoris, Fallopian tubes, labia, ovaries, Skenes... A peacock displays his long, colored feathers, an example of his secondary sexual characteristics. ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Gynephilia (or gynophilia) (From Greek gunē, women, + -philia, love) is the romantic and/or sexual attraction to adult females, and its counterpart androphilia (from Greek andro-, male, + -philia, love) is attraction to adult males. ... Bisexual redirects here. ... This article is about the sexual orientation in humans. ... Look up paraphilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Sex

Sexual reproduction

  • Sexual differentiation demands the fusion of gametes which are morphologically different. — Cyril Dean Darlington, Recent Advances in Cytology, 1937.

Sexual reproduction is a popular system of producing new individuals within various species. Individuals of sexually reproducing species produce special kinds of cells called gametes, whose function is specifically to fuse with one unlike gamete and hence form a new individual. This fusion of two unlike gametes is called fertilization. By convention, where one type of gamete cell is physically larger than the other, it is associated with female sex. Thus an individual that produces exclusively large gametes (ova in humans) is said to be female, and one that produces exclusively small gametes (spermatozoa in humans) is said to be male. An individual that produces both types of gametes is called hermaphrodite (a name applicable also to people with one testis and one ovary). In some species hermaphrodites can self-fertilize, in others they can achieve fertilization with females, males or both. Some species, like the Japanese Ash, Fraxinus lanuginosa, only have males and hermaphrodites, a rare reproductive system called androdioecy. Cover of the biography of Darlington The Man Who Invented the Chromosome (see refs). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 262 KB) Hoverflies mating in midair. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 262 KB) Hoverflies mating in midair. ... Subfamilies Eristalinae Microdontinae Syrphinae 200 genera about 6,000 species For the helicopter see: Sikorsky R-4 Flies in the Diptera family Syrphidae are commonly known as hoverflies, flower flies, or Syrphid flies. ... Sexual reproduction is characterized by processes that pass a combination of genetic material to offspring, resulting in diversity. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετης; translated gamete = wife, gametes = husband) is a cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ... A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... Androdioecy is a reproductive system found in species comprised of a male population and a distinct hermaphrodite population. ...


What is considered defining of sexual reproduction is the difference between the gametes and the binary nature of fertilization. Multiplicity of gamete types within a species would still be considered a form of sexual reproduction. However, of more than 1.5 million living species,[17] recorded up to about the year 2000, "no third sex cell — and so no third sex — has appeared in multicellular animals."[18][19][20] Why sexual reproduction has an exclusively binary gamete system is not yet known. A few rare species that push the boundaries of the definitions are the subject of active research for light they may shed on the mechanisms of the evolution of sex. For example, the most toxic insect,[21] the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex, has two kinds of female and two kinds of male. One hypothesis is that the species is a hybrid, evolved from two closely related preceding species. The evolution of sex is a major puzzle in modern evolutionary biology. ... [[|Diversity]] Binomial name Trinomial name Type Species [[Image: ]] Synonyms Pogonomyrmex is a genus of harvester ants with the most toxic venom found in ants, with Pogonomyrmex maricopa being the most toxic. ... This article is about a biological term. ...


Fossil records indicate that sexual reproduction has been occurring for at least one billion years.[22] However, the reason for the initial evolution of sex, and the reason it has survived to the present are still matters of debate, there are many plausible theories. It appears that the ability to reproduce sexually has evolved independently in various species on many occasions. There are cases where it has also been lost. The flatworm, Dugesia tigrina, and a few other species can reproduce either sexually or asexually depending on various conditions.[23] Classes Monogenea Trematoda Cestoda Turbellaria Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Platyhelminthes Wikispecies has information related to: Platyhelminthes The flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes from the Greek platy, meaning flat and helminth, meaning worm) are a phylum of relatively simple soft-bodied invertebrate animals. ... Asexual reproduction in liverworts: a caducuous phylloid germinating Asexual reproduction is a form of reproduction which does not involve meiosis, ploidy reduction, or fertilization. ...


Sexual differentiation

Sexual differentiation in peafowl
Sexual differentiation in peafowl

Although sexual reproduction is defined at the cellular level, key features of sexual reproduction operate within the structures of the gamete cells themselves. Notably, gametes carry very long molecules called DNA that the biological processes of reproduction can "read" like a book of instructions. In fact, there are typically many of these "books", called chromosomes. Human gametes usually have 23 chromosomes, 22 of which are common to both sexes. The final chromosomes in the two human gametes are called sex chromosomes because of their role in sex determination. Ova always have the same sex chromosome, labelled X. About half of spermatozoa also have this same X chromosome, the rest have a Y chromosome. At fertilization the gametes fuse to form a cell, usually with 46 chromosomes, and either XX female or XY male, depending on whether the sperm carried an X or a Y chromosome. Some of the other possibilities are listed above. Download high resolution version (800x733, 148 KB)Fred the Peacock tries to woo an unsuspecting Peahen. ... Download high resolution version (800x733, 148 KB)Fred the Peacock tries to woo an unsuspecting Peahen. ... Peacock redirects here. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. ... A human ovum An ovum (loosely, egg or egg cell) is a female sex cell or gamete. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Schematic diagram of a sperm cell, showing the (1) acrosome, (2) cell membrane, (3) nucleus, (4) mitochondria, and (5) flagellum (tail) A sperm cell, or spermatozoon ( spermatozoa) (in Greek: sperm = semen and zoon = alive), is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... Gender symbols: female (left), male (right). ...


In humans, the "default" processes of reproduction result in an individual with female characteristics. An intact Y chromosome contains what is needed to "reprogram" the processes sufficiently to produce male characteristics, leading to sexual differentiation (see also Sexual dimorphism). Part of the Y chromosome, the Sex-determining Region Y (SRY), causes what would normally become ovaries to become testes. These, in turn, produce male hormones called androgens. However, several points in the processes have been identified where variations can result in people with atypical characteristics, including atypical sexual characteristics. Terminology for atypical sexual characteristics has not stabilized. Disorder of sexual development (DSD) is used by some in preference to intersex, which is used by others in preference to pseudohermaphroditism. Default in computer science refers to a default setting or value automatically assigned to a programme or device. ... This article is about the development of sexual dimorphisms in humans. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... This article is about the SRY gene. ... Intersexuality is the state of a person whose sex chromosomes, genitalia and/or secondary sex characteristics are determined to be neither exclusively male nor female. ... An intersexual or intersex person (or animal of any unisexual species) is one who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ...


Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an example of a DSD that also illustrates that female development is the default for humans. Although having one X and one Y chromosome, some people are biologically insensitive to the androgens produced by their testes. As a result they follow the normal human processes which result in a person of female sex. Women who are XY report identifying as a woman — feeling and thinking like a woman — and, where their biology is completely insensitive to masculinizing factors, externally they look identical to other women. Unlike other women, however, they cannot produce ova, because they do not have ovaries. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS, or Androgen resistance syndrome) is a set of disorders of sexual differentiation that results from mutations of the gene encoding the androgen receptor. ... In biology and medicine, virilization refers to the development of changes which make a male body different from a female body. ...


The human XY system is not the only sex determination system. Birds typically have a reverse, ZW system — males are ZZ and females ZW. Whether male or female birds influence the sex of offspring is not known for all species. Several species of butterfly are known to have female parent sex determination. The platypus has a complex hybrid system, the male has ten sex chromosomes, half X and half Y. Drosophila sex-chromosomes The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila) and some plants (Ginkgo). ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera. ... For other uses, see Platypus (disambiguation). ...


Genes, Brains and Behaviour

Genes

Chromosomes were likened to books (above), also like books they have been studied at more detailed levels. They contain "sentences" called genes. In fact, many of these sentences are common to multiple species. Sometimes they are organized in the same order, other times they have been "edited" — deleted, copied, changed, moved, even relocated to another "book", as species evolve. Genes are a particularly important part of understanding biological processes because they are directly associated with observable objects, outside chromosomes, called proteins, whose influence on cell chemistry can be measured. In some cases genes can also be directly associated with differences clear to the naked eye, like eye-colour itself. Some of these differences are sex specific, like hairy ears. The "hairy ear" gene is on the Y chromosome which is why only men have it. However, sex-limited genes on any chromosome can "say" for example, "if you are in a male body do X, otherwise don't." The same principle explains why chimpanzees and humans are distinct, despite sharing nearly all their genes. Image File history File links Common Chimpanzee also known as Vlad Raskin could be found in greater Boston or greater Tbilisi area depending on the season By Aaron Logan, from http://www. ... Image File history File links Common Chimpanzee also known as Vlad Raskin could be found in greater Boston or greater Tbilisi area depending on the season By Aaron Logan, from http://www. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Sex-limited genes are genes which are present in both sexes of sexually reproducing species but turned on in only one sex. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ...


The study of genetics is particularly inter-disciplinary. It is relevant to almost every biological science. It is investigated in detail by molecular level sciences, and itself contributes details to high level abstractions like evolutionary theory.


Brain

Human brain
Human brain

"It is well established that men have a larger cerebrum than women by about 8–10% (Filipek et al., 1994; Nopoulos et al., 2000; Passe et al., 1997a,b; Rabinowicz et al., 1999; Witelson et al., 1995).[24][25] However, what is functionally relevant are differences in composition and "wiring", some of these differences are very pronounced. Richard J. Haier and colleagues at the universities of New Mexico and California (Irvine) found, using brain mapping, that men have more than six times the amount of grey matter related to general intelligence than women, and women have nearly ten times the amount of white matter related to intelligence than men.[26] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x860, 69 KB) Description: saggital transection through the human brain Source: this is my very own brain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x860, 69 KB) Description: saggital transection through the human brain Source: this is my very own brain. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Richard J. Haier is an American psychologist best known for his work in the physiology of psychometrics, general intelligence, and sex and intelligence. ... The University of New Mexico (UNM) is a public university in Albuquerque, New Mexico. ... The University of California, Irvine is a public coeducational research university situated in Irvine, California. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Neuroimaging. ... Gray matter redirects here. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ...


Gray matter is used for information processing, while white matter consists of the connections between processing centers. Other differences are measurable but less pronounced.[27] Most of these differences are known to be produced by the activity of hormones, hence ultimately derived from the Y chromosome and sexual differentiation. However, differences arising from the activity of genes directly have also been observed.

A sexual dimorphism in levels of expression in brain tissue was observed by quantitative real-time PCR, with females presenting an up to 2-fold excess in the abundance of PCDH11X transcripts. We relate these findings to sexually dimorphic traits in the human brain. Interestingly, PCDH11X/Y gene pair is unique to Homo sapiens, since the X-linked gene was transposed to the Y chromosome after the human–chimpanzee lineages split.[28]
Language areas of the brain      Angular Gyrus      Supramarginal Gyrus      Broca's Area      Wernicke's Area      Primary Auditory Cortex
Language areas of the brain      Angular Gyrus      Supramarginal Gyrus      Broca's Area      Wernicke's Area      Primary Auditory Cortex

It has also been demonstrated that brain processing responds to the external environment. Learning, both of ideas and behaviours, appears to be coded in brain processes. It also appears that in several simplified cases this coding operates differently, but in some ways equivalently, in the brains of men and women.[29] For example, both men and women learn and use language; however, bio-chemically, they appear to process it differently. Differences in male and female use of language are likely reflections both of biological preferences and aptitudes, and of learned patterns. Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... A scale for measuring mass A quantitative property is one that exists in a range of magnitudes, and can therefore be measured. ... Realtime redirects here. ... “PCR” redirects here. ... In genetics, transcription is the first of the two-step protein biosynthesis process. ... In biology, a trait or character is a feature of an organism. ... It has been suggested that sex chromosome be merged into this article or section. ... Transposition is a method in genetics where a transposon is inserted into the studied gene to help identify the function or silence the selected gene. ... An evolutionary lineage (also called a clade) is composed of species, taxa, or individuals that are related by descent from a common ancestor. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ...


Two of the main fields that study brain structure, biological (and other causes) and behavioural (and other results) are brain neurology and biological psychology. Cognitive science is another important discipline in the field of brain research. Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ...


Behaviour

Some behaviours are so simple that biological explanation may be sufficient. Blinking, yawning and stretching are more reflexes than behaviours. However, etiquette and protocol are complicated behaviours, presumably influenced by many environmental factors, including social (man-made) ones. A large area of research in behavioural psychology collates evidence in an effort to discover correlations between behaviour and various possible antecedents such as genetics, culture, gender, physical or social development, or physical or social environments. For other uses, see Reflexive (disambiguation). ... -1... Look up Protocol in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Behavioralism (not to be confused with Behaviorism) is a Political Science discipline, modeled after the natural sciences, which seeks to provide a value free, quantified approach to understanding and predicting political behavior. ... Several sets of (x, y) points, with the correlation coefficient of x and y for each set. ...


A core research area within sociology is the way human behaviour operates on itself, in other words, how the behaviour of one group or individual influences the behaviour of other groups or individuals. Starting in the late 20th century, the feminist movement has contributed extensive study of gender and theories about it, notably within sociology but not restricted to it.


Social categories

Sociology

Mary Frith ("Moll Cutpurse") scandalised 17th Century society by wearing male clothing, smoking in public, and otherwise defying gender roles.
Mary Frith ("Moll Cutpurse") scandalised 17th Century society by wearing male clothing, smoking in public, and otherwise defying gender roles.

Sexologist John Money coined the term gender role in 1955. "The term gender role is used to signify all those things that a person says or does to disclose himself or herself as having the status of boy or man, girl or woman, respectively. It includes, but is not restricted to, sexuality in the sense of eroticism."[30] Elements of such a role include clothing, speech patterns, movement, occupations and other factors not limited to biological sex. Because social aspects of gender can normally be presumed to be the ones of interest in sociology and closely related disciplines, gender role is often abbreviated to gender in their literature, without leading to ambiguity in that context. Mary Frith or Moll Cutpurse ( 1584–July 26, 1659) was a notorious pickpocket and fence of the English underworld. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ...


Most societies have only two distinct, broad classes of gender roles — male and female — and these correspond with biological sex. However, some societies explicitly incorporate people who adopt the gender role opposite to their biological sex, for example the Two-Spirit people of some indigenous American peoples. Other societies include well-developed roles that are explicitly considered more or less distinct from archetypal male and female roles in those societies. In the language of the sociology of gender they comprise a third gender,[31] more or less distinct from biological sex (sometimes the basis for the role does include intersexuality or incorporates eunuchs).[32] One such gender role is that adopted by the hijras of India and Pakistan.[33][34] Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ... Sociology of gender is a prominent subfield of sociology. ... Anna P., who lived for many years as a man in Germany, was photographed for Magnus Hirschfelds book Sexual Intermediates in 1922. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ... For other uses, see Hijra. ...

"Rosie the Riveter" was an iconic symbol of the American homefront in WWII and a departure from gender roles due to wartime necessity.
"Rosie the Riveter" was an iconic symbol of the American homefront in WWII and a departure from gender roles due to wartime necessity.

The Bugis people of Sulawesi, Indonesia have a tradition incorporating all of the features above.[35] Joan Roughgarden argues that in some non-human animal species, there can also be said to be more than two genders, in that there might be multiple templates for behavior available to individual organisms with a given biological sex.[36] Download high resolution version (957x742, 131 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: World War II Rosie the Riveter Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (957x742, 131 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: World War II Rosie the Riveter Categories: U.S. history images ... A real-life Rosie working on the A-31 Vengeance bomber in Nashville, Tennessee (1943) Rosie the Riveter is a cultural icon of the United States, representing the six million[1] women who worked in the manufacturing plants that produced munitions and material during World War II. These women took... Homefront may be: a computer game mod, see Homefront (game) a TV show series, see Homefront (TV show) the civilian populace in a war, see home front This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A bagpiper in military uniform. ... This article is about ethnic groups of South Sulawesi. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... Joan E. Roughgarden (b. ...

Spain's desperate situation when invaded by Napoleon enabled Agustina de Aragón to break into a closely-guarded male preserve and become the only female professional officer in the Spanish Army of her time (and long afterwards).
Spain's desperate situation when invaded by Napoleon enabled Agustina de Aragón to break into a closely-guarded male preserve and become the only female professional officer in the Spanish Army of her time (and long afterwards).

Throughout history social theorists have sought to determine the specific nature of gender in relation to biological sex and sexuality,[citation needed] with the result being that culturally established gender and sex have become interchangeable identifications which signify the allocation of a specific ‘biological’ sex within a categorical gender.{{Fact} The social sciences, however, now argue that gender is socially constructed and hegemonic in all societies.[citation needed] Image File history File links The_Defence_of_Saragossa. ... Image File history File links The_Defence_of_Saragossa. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... // By the Summer of 1808, Zarragoza has become more than just another town under seige. ... In military organizations, an officer is a member of the service who holds a position of responsibility. ... The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra in Spanish; literally, Land Army) is one of oldest active armies in the world and a branch of the Spanish Armed Forces, in charge of land operations. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


Contemporary socialisation theory proposes the notion that when a child is first born it has a biological sex but no social gender.[citation needed] As the child grows, "society provides a string of prescriptions, templates, or models of behaviours appropriate to the one sex or the other"[37] which socialises the child into belonging to a culturally specific gender.[citation needed] There is huge incentive for a child to concede to their socialisation with gender shaping the individual’s opportunities for education, work, family, sexuality, reproduction, authority, and to make an impact on the production of culture and knowledge.[38] Adults who do not perform these ascribed roles are perceived from this perspective as deviant and improperly socialised.[39]


Some believe society is constructed in a way in which gender is split into a dichotomy by social organisations which constantly invent and reproduce cultural images of gender. Joan Ackner (The Gendered Society Reader) believes gendering occurs in at least five different interacting social processes:


1. The construction of divisions along the lines of gender, such as those which are produced by labour, power, family, the state, even allowed behaviours and locations in physical space 2. The construction of symbols and images such as language, ideology, dress and the media, that explain, express and reinforce, or sometimes oppose, those divisions 3. Interactions between men and women, women and women and men and men which involve any form dominance and submission. Conversational theorists, for example, have studied the way in which interruptions, turn taking and the setting of topics re-create gender inequality in the flow of ordinary talk 4. The way in which the preceding three processes help to produce gendered components of individual identity. i.e. the way in which they create and maintain an image of a gendered self 5. Gender is implicated in the fundamental, ongoing processes of creating and conceptualising social structures.[40]


Looking at gender through a Foucauldian lens, gender is transfigured into a vehicle for the social division of power. Gender difference is merely a construct of society used to enforce the distinctions made between that which is assumed to be male and female, and allow for the domination of masculinity over femininity through the attribution of specific gender-related characteristics.

‘The idea that men and women are more different from one another than either is from anything else, must come from something other than nature… far from being an expression of natural differences, exclusive gender identity is the suppression of natural similarities.’ (Glover & Kaplan, 2000, p. xxi)

Gender conventions play a large role in attributing masculine and feminine characteristics to a fundamental biological sex. Socio-cultural codes and conventions, the rules by which society functions, and which are both a creation of society as well as a constituting element of it, determine the allocation of these specific traits to the sexes. These traits provide the foundations for the creation of hegemonic gender difference. It follows then, that gender can be assumed as the acquisition and internalisation of social norms. Individuals are therefore socialised through their receipt of society’s expectations of ‘acceptable’ gender attributes which are flaunted within institutions such as the family, the state and the media. Such a notion of ‘gender’ then becomes naturalised into a person’s sense of self or identity, effectively imposing a gendered social category upon a sexed body.[41]


The conception that people are gendered rather than sexed also coincides with Judith Butler’s theories of gender performativity. Butler argues that gender is not an expression of what one is, but rather something that one does.[42] It follows then, that if gender is acted out in a repetitive manner it is in fact re-creating and effectively embedding itself within the social consciousness.


Contemporary sociological reference to male and female gender roles typically uses masculinities and femininities in the plural rather than singular, suggesting diversity both within cultures as well as across them.


From the 'evidence', it can only be concluded that gender is socially constructed and each individual is unique in their gender characteristics, regardless of which biological sex they are as every child is socialised to behave a certain way and have the ‘proper’ gender attributes. If individuals in society do not conform to this pressure, they are destined to be treated as abnormal; therefore it is personally greatly beneficial for them to cooperate in the determined ‘correct’ ordering of the world. In fact, the very construct of society is a product of and produces gender norms. There is bias in applying the word ‘gender’ to anyone in a finite way; rather each person is endowed with certain gender characteristics. The world cannot be egalitarian while there are ‘assigned’ genders and individuals are not given the right to express any gender characteristic they desire.


Feminism and Gender studies

The philosopher and feminist Simone de Beauvoir applied existentialism to women's experience of life: "One is not born a woman, one becomes one."[43] In context, this is a philosophical statement, however, it is true biologically — a girl must pass puberty to become a woman — and true sociologically — mature relating in social contexts is learned, not instinctive. La Beauvoir redirects here; also see: Beauvoir (disambiguation). ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ...


Within feminist theory, terminology for gender issues developed over the 1970s. In the 1974 edition of Masculine/Feminine or Human, the author uses "innate gender" and "learned sex roles",[44] but in the 1978 edition, the use of sex and gender is reversed.[45] By 1980, most feminist writings had agreed on using gender only for socioculturally adapted traits. Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Trait theory is an approach to personality theory in psychology. ...


In gender studies the term gender is used to refer to proposed social and cultural constructions of masculinities and femininities. In this context, gender explicitly excludes reference to biological differences, to focus on cultural differences.[46] This emerged from a number of different areas: in sociology during the 1950s; from the theories of the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan; and in the work of French psychoanalysts like Julia Kristeva, Luce Irigaray and Bracha L. Ettinger and American feminists such as Judith Butler. Those who followed Butler came to regard gender roles as a practice, sometimes referred to as "performative."[47] Gender studies is a field of interdisciplinary study which analyzes the phenomenon of gender. ... Jacques Lacan Jacques Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was an influential French psychoanalyst as well as a structuralist who based much of his theories on Ferdinand de Saussures theories on language. ... Julia Kristeva in 2007 Julia Kristeva (Bulgarian: ) (born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s. ... Luce Irigaray (born 1930 Belgium) is a French feminist and psychoanalytic and cultural theorist. ... Bracha L. Ettinger (also known as Bracha Ettinger, Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger, Hebrew: ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר) is a renowned artist, painter, photographer, theorist and psychoanalyst. ... Image:J Butler. ... The Performative is the part of speech representing the information conveyed by the fact that a speaker chose to say a particular sentence. ...


Hurst states that some people think sex will “automatically determine one’s gender demeanor and role (social) as well as one’s sexual orientation (sexual attractions and behavior). (Hurst, p. 141)”[48] We have cultural origins and habits for dealing with gender. Michael Schwalbe believes that humans must be taught how to act appropriately in their designated gender in order to properly fill the role. The way we behave as masculine or feminine interacts with social expectations. Schwalbe comments that we “are the results of many people embracing and acting on similar ideas.(Schwalbe, p.23)”[49] Sexual orientation refers to an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectional attraction toward others,[1] usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ...


We do this through everything from clothing and hairstyle to relationship and employment choices. Schwalbe believes that these distinctions are important, because we want to identify and categorize people as soon as we see them. We need to place people into distinct categories in order to know how we should feel about them. A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. ...


Hurst comments that in a society where we present our genders so distinctly, there can often be severe consequences for breaking these cultural norms. Many of these consequences are rooted in discrimination based on sexual orientation. Gays and lesbians are often discriminated against in our legal system due to societal prejudices. Hurst describes how this discrimination works against people for breaking gender norms, no matter what their sexual orientation is. He says that “courts often confuse sex, gender, and sexual orientation, and confuse them in a way that results in denying the rights not only of gays and lesbians, but also of those who do not present themselves or act in a manner traditionally expected of their sex. (Hurst, p.141)” This prejudice plays out in our legal system when a man or woman is judged differently because he or she does not present the “correct” gender. How we present and display our gender has consequences in everyday life, but also in institutionalized aspects of our society. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... The term institutionalization The term institutionalization is widely used in social theory to denote the process of making something (for example a concept, a social role, particular values and norms, or modes of behaviour) become embedded within an organization, social system, or society as an established custom or norm within...


Legal status

A person's sex as male or female has legal significance — sex is indicated on government documents, and laws provide differently for men and women. Many pension systems have different retirement ages for men or women. Marriage is usually only available to opposite-sex couples.


The question then arises as to what legally determines whether someone is male or female. In most cases this can appear obvious, but the matter is complicated for intersexual or transgender people. Different jurisdictions have adopted different answers to this question. Almost all countries permit changes of legal gender status in cases of intersexualism, when the gender assignment made at birth is determined upon further investigation to be biologically inaccurate — technically, however, this is not a change of status per se. Rather, it is recognition of a status which was deemed to exist, but unknown, from birth. Increasingly, jurisdictions also provide a procedure for changes of legal gender for transgender people. An intersexual or intersex person (or animal of any unisexual species) is one who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... A transwoman with XY written on her hand, at a protest in Paris, October 1, 2005. ... This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ...


Gender assignment, when there are indications that genital sex might not be decisive in a particular case, is normally not defined by a single definition, but by a combination of conditions, including chromosomes and gonads. Thus, for example, in many jurisdictions a person with XY chromosomes but female gonads could be recognised as female at birth. Sex assignment refers to the assigning of sex at the birth of a baby. ...


The ability to change legal gender for transgender people in particular has given rise to the phenomena in some jurisdictions of the same person having different genders for the purposes of different areas of the law. For example, in Australia prior to the Re Kevin decisions, transsexual people could be recognised as having the genders they identified with under many areas of the law, including social security law, but not for the law of marriage. Thus, for a period, it was possible for the same person to have two different genders under Australian law. Transsexual people are those who establish a permanent identity with the gender opposite to that which they were assigned at birth. ...


It is also possible in federal systems for the same person to have one gender under state law and a different gender under federal law (a state recognises gender transitions, but the federal government does not).


Gender and development

Gender, and particularly the role of women is widely recognized as vitally important to international development issues.[citation needed] This often means a focus on gender-equality, ensuring participation, but includes an understanding of the different roles and expectation of the genders within the community.[citation needed] This article is about International Development. ... Participation in social science is an umbrella term including different means for the public to directly participate in political, economic, management or other social decisions. ...


As well as directly addressing inequality, attention to gender issues is regarded as important to the success of development programs, for all participants.[citation needed] For example, in microfinance it is common to target women, as besides the fact that women tend to be over-represented in the poorest segments of the population, they are also regarded as more reliable at repaying the loans.[citation needed] Also, it is claimed that women are more likely to use the money for the benefit of their families.[citation needed] Microfinance is a term for the practice of providing financial services, such as microcredit, microsavings or microinsurance to poor people. ...


Some organizations working in developing countries and in the development field have incorporated advocacy and empowerment for women into their work. A notable example is Wangari Maathai's environmental organization, the Green Belt Movement. Dr. Wangari Muta Maathai born April 1, 1940 in Ihithe village, Tetu division, Nyeri District of Kenya is an environmental and political activist. ... The Green Belt Movement is a grassroots non-governmental organization based in Kenya that focuses on environmental conservation, community development and capacity building. ...


Spirituality

Further information: God and gender

In Taoism, yin and yang are considered feminine and masculine, respectively. This entry discusses how the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam deal with God and gender. ... Image File history File links Yin_yang. ... Image File history File links Yin_yang. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Hán tá»±: The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena... Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Chữ nôm: Hán tá»±: The Taijitu of Zhou Dun-yi In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena...


In Judaism, God is described with mainly masculine language. God is strongly identified with the sky - God lives in Heaven and sends rain - which was understood as masculine compared to the earth understood as feminine. God is often compared to a warrior, defender, judge, and king. Once God is compared to a person sewing and once to a person knitting. In the Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism) the Shekhinah represents the feminine aspect of God's essence. This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Shekhinah (- alternative transliterations Shekinah, Shechinah, Shekina, Shechina, Schechinah, שכינה) is the English spelling of a feminine Hebrew language word that means the dwelling or settling, and is used to denote the dwelling or settling presence of God, especially in the Temple in Jerusalem. ...


In Christianity, God is described in masculine terms and the Church has historically been described in feminine terms. On the other hand, Christian theology in many churches distinguishes between the masculine images used of God (Father, King, God the Son) and the reality they signify, which transcends gender, embodies all the virtues of both genders perfectly, and is the creator of both human sexes. In the New Testament, the Holy Spirit is treated with the neuter pronoun. Hebrew speaking Christians like the Ebionites used the female gender for the Holy Spirit. Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... Gender-neutral, gender-inclusive or epicene pronouns are pronouns that neither reveal nor imply the gender or the sex of a person. ... The Ebionites (Greek: Ebionaioi from Hebrew; , , the Poor Ones) were an early Jewish Christian sect that lived in and around the land of Israel in the 1st to the 5th century CE.[1] Without authenticated archaeological evidence for the existence of the Ebionites, their views and practices can only be...


In Hinduism, Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...

"One of the several forms of the Hindu God Shiva, is Ardhanarishwar (literally half-female God). Here Shiva manifests himself so that the left half is Female and the right half is Male. The left represents Shakti (energy, power) in the form of Goddess Parvati (otherwise his consort) and the right half Shiva. Whereas Parvati is the cause of arousal of Kama (desires), Shiva is the killer. Shiva is pervaded by the power of Parvati and Parvati is pervaded by the power of Shiva.

While the stone images may seem to represent a half-male and half-female God, the true symbolic representation is of a being the whole of which is Shiva and the whole of which is Shakti at the same time. It is a 3-D representation of only shakti from one angle and only Shiva from the other. Shiva and Shakti are hence the same being representing a collective of Jnana (knowledge) and Kriya (activity). Adi Shankaracharya, the founder of non-dualistic philosophy (Advaita–"not two") in Hindu thought says in his "Saundaryalahari"—Shivah Shaktayaa yukto yadi bhavati shaktah prabhavitum na che devum devona khalu kushalah spanditam api " i.e., It is only when Shiva is united with Shakti that He acquires the capability of becoming the Lord of the Universe. In the absence of Shakti, He is not even able to stir. In fact, the term "Shiva" originated from "Shva," which implies a dead body. It is only through his inherent shakti that Shiva realizes his true nature. Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... For the Harry Potter character, see Parvati Patil. ...


This mythology projects the inherent view in ancient Hinduism, that each human carries within himself both male and female components, which are forces rather than sexes, and it is the harmony between the creative and the annihilative, the strong and the soft, the proactive and the passive, that makes a true person. Such thought, leave alone entail gender equality, in fact obliterates any material distinction between the male and female altogether. This may explain why in ancient India we find evidence of homosexuality, bisexuality, androgyny, multiple sex partners and open representation of sexual pleasures in artworks like the Khajuraho temples, being accepted within prevalent social frameworks."[50]

Other uses

The word gender is used in several contexts to describe binary differences, more or less loosely associated by analogy with various actual or perceived differences between men and women.


Linguistics

Natural languages often make gender distinctions. These may be of various kinds.

  • Grammatical gender is a property of some languages in which every noun is assigned a gender, often with no direct relation to its meaning. For example, the word for "girl" is es:muchacha (grammatically feminine) in Spanish, de:Mädchen (grammatically neuter) in German, and ga:cailín (grammatically masculine) in Irish.
  • Several languages attest the use of different vocabulary by men and women, to differing degrees. See, for instance, Gender differences in spoken Japanese. The oldest documented language, Sumerian, records a distinctive sub-language only used by female speakers.
  • Most languages include terms that are used asymmetrically in reference to men and women. Concern that current language may be biased in favor of men has led some authors in recent times to argue for the use of a more Gender-neutral vocabulary in English and other languages.

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... The Japanese language is unusual among major languages in the high degree to which the speech of women seen collectively differs from that of men. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Gender-neutral language is a description of language usages which are aimed at minimizing assumptions regarding the biological sex of human referents. ...

Connectors, pipe fittings, and fasteners

In electrical and mechanical trades and manufacturing, and in electronics, each of a pair of mating connectors or fasteners (such as nuts and bolts) is conventionally assigned the designation male or female. The assignment is by direct analogy with animal genitalia; the part bearing one or more protrusions, or which fits inside the other, being designated male and the part containing the corresponding indentations or fitting outside the other being female. The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... An electrical connector is a conductive device for joining electrical circuits together. ... A fastener is a hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together. ... A nut is a type of hardware fastener with a threaded hole. ... This article is about screws and bolts. ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis...


This kind of male-female distinction is known as gender (not sex) of connectors and fastners. It provides an example of a technical use of the term gender that evokes association with the physiology, rather than sociology, of male-female differences.


The standard letters "M" and "F" are commonly used in part numbers. For example, in Switchcraft XLR microphone or hydrophone connectors, the part numbers are denoted as follows: Microphones redirects here. ... A hydrophone is a sound-to-electricity transducer for use in water or other liquids, analogous to a microphone for air. ...

  • A3F = Audio 3-pin Female connector;
  • A3M = Audio 3-pin Male connector.

A cable that has A3F on both ends or A3M on both ends is sometimes referred to as a "gay cable" or "gay cord".


In plumbing fittings, the "M" or "F" usually comes at the beginning rather than the end. For example:

  • MIP denotes Male International Pipe thread;
  • FIP denotes Female International Pipe thread.

A "gay" male pipe (i.e. a short length of pipe having an MIP at both ends) is sometimes called a "nipple".[51]


Music

In western music theory, keys, chords and scales are often described as having major or minor tonality, sometimes related to masculine and feminine.[citation needed] By analogy, the major scales are masculine (clear, open, extroverted), while the minor scales are given feminine qualities (dark, soft, introverted). German uses the word Tongeschlecht ("Tone gender") for tonality, and the words Dur (from Latin durus, hard) for major and moll (from Latin mollis, soft) for minor. See Major and minor. In music, the adjectives major and minor can describe a scale, key, chord, or interval. ...


See also

Look up Gender in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
General
Books
  • Brain Sex, Anne Moir and David Jessel, 1989.
  • The Female Brain, Louann Brizendine, 2006.
Other

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Androcentrism (Greek ανδρο, andro-, man, male, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... For other uses, see Androgyny (disambiguation). ... Categories: Biology stubs ... 1) In linguistics, having only one form of the noun for both the male and the female. ... In some cultures, makeup is associated with femininity. ... This article is about human gender. ... This article is about gender differences in humans. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... // Gender Inequality refers to the obvious or hidden disparities among individuals based on performance of gender (gender can be separate from biological sex, see Sex/gender distinction). ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... Gynocentrism (Greek γυνο, gyno-, woman, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, often consciously adopted, of placing female human beings or the female point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Manliness redirects here. ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Eva Prima Pandora, by Jean Cousin (Louvre Museum), Eve, the equivalent of Pandora embodies Original Sin Misogyny (pronounced ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... Sexual identity is a term that, like sex, has two distinctively different meanings. ... A transwoman with XY written on her hand, at a protest in Paris, October 1, 2005. ... This article is about the book. ... Louann Brizendine M.D., is a neuropsychiatrist and the author of The Female Brain published by Morgan Road Books in 2006. ... This lists names of animals used depending on the context. ...

References

  1. ^ Gender Identity, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2007.
  2. ^ Julius Pokorny, 'gen', in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, (Bern: Francke, 1959, reprinted in 1989), pp. 373-75.
  3. ^ 'genə-', in 'Appendix I: Indo-European Roots', to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000).
  4. ^ Your Dictionary.com, 'Gen', reformatted from AHD.
  5. ^ "A fourth rule is to observe Protagoras' classification of nouns into male, female and inanimate." Aristotle, Rhetoric, translated by William Rhys Roberts (1858–1929), (reprinted Dover, 2004), p. 297f. ISBN 9780486437934
  6. ^ Fowler's Modern English Usage, 1926: p. 211.
  7. ^ Usage note: Gender, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, (2000).
  8. ^ a b David Haig, 'The Inexorable Rise of Gender and the Decline of Sex: Social Change in Academic Titles, 1945–2001', Archives of Sexual Behavior 33 (2004): 87–96. Online at PubMed and Questia.
  9. ^ See translation of Judith Butler's Gender Trouble
  10. ^ John Money, 'The concept of gender identity disorder in childhood and adolescence after 39 years', Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 20 (1994): 163-77.
  11. ^ See also Helen Fisher, A Aron and LL Brown, 'Romantic Love: A Mammalian Brain System for Mate Choice,' Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences 361 (2006): 2173–2186.
  12. ^ David M Buss, The Dangerous Passion: Why Jealousy is as Necessary as Love and Sex, (New York: Free Press, 2000).
  13. ^ David M Buss, 'Human nature and culture: An evolutionary psychological perspective'. Journal of Personality 69 (2001): 955-978.
  14. ^ White, GL and PE Mullen, Jealousy: Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice, (New York, NY: Guilford Press, 1989).
  15. ^ Steven Goldberg, Why Men Rule, (Chicago, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company, 1993).
  16. ^ Michael Abrams, 'The Real Story on Gay Genes: Homing in on the science of homosexuality—and sexuality itself', Discover June (2007).
  17. ^ 'RedList', International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources official website.
  18. ^ Amanda Schaffer, Pas de Deux: Why Are There Only Two Sexes?, Slate updated 27 September, 2007.
  19. ^ Laurence D. Hurst, 'Why are There Only Two Sexes?', Proceedings: Biological Sciences 263 (1996): 415-422
  20. ^ ES Haag, 'Why two sexes? Sex determination in multicellular organisms and protistan mating types', Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 18 (2007): 348-9.
  21. ^ Patricia J. Schmidt, Wade C. Sherbrooke, Justin O. Schmidt, 'The Detoxification of Ant (Pogonomyrmex) Venom by a Blood Factor in Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma)', Copeia 198 (1989): 603-607.
  22. ^ Leslie E. Orgel, 'The Origin of Life on the Earth', Scientific American October, 1994.
  23. ^ H. Gee, JR Pickavance and JO Young, 'A comparative study of the population biology of the American immigrant triclad Dugesia tigrina (Girard) in two British lakes', Hydrobiologia 361 (1977): 135-143.
  24. ^ Richard J Haier, Rex E Jung and others, 'The Neuroanatomy of General Intelligence: Sex Matters', NeuroImage 25 (2005): 320–327. Page 324 for cerebrum difference of 8–10%.
  25. ^ Michael A. McDaniel, 'Big-Brained People are Smarter: A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between In Vivo Brain Volume and Intelligence', Intelligence 33 (2005): 337–346.
  26. ^ Richard J Haier, Rex E Jung and others, 'The Neuroanatomy of General Intelligence: Sex Matters', NeuroImage 25 (2005): 320–327.
  27. ^ Carol A. Tamminga, 'Brain Development, XI: Sexual Dimorphism', American Journal of Psychiatry 156 (1999): 352.
  28. ^ Alexandra M. Lopes and others,'Inactivation status of PCDH11X: sexual dimorphisms in gene expression levels in brain', Human Genetics 119 (2006): 1–9.
  29. ^ "Even when men and women do the same chores equally well, they may use different brain circuits to get the same result." Linda Marsha, 'He Thinks, She Thinks', Discover July (2007).
  30. ^ John Money, "Hermaphroditism, gender and precocity in hyperadrenocorticism: Psychologic findings', Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital 96 (1955): 253–264.
  31. ^ Gilbert Herdt (ed.), Third Sex Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History, 1996. ISBN 0-942299-82-5
  32. ^ Will Roscoe, Changing Ones: Third and Fourth Genders in Native North America, Palgrave Macmillan, 2000. ISBN 0-312-22479-6
  33. ^ Nanda, Serena (1998). Neither Man Nor Woman: The Hijras of India. Wadsworth Publishing. ISBN 0-534-50903-7
  34. ^ Reddy, Gayatri (2005). With Respect to Sex: Negotiating Hijra Identity in South India. (Worlds of Desire: The Chicago Series on Sexuality, Gender, and Culture), University Of Chicago Press (July 1, 2005). ISBN 0-226-70756-3
  35. ^ Sharyn Graham, Sulawesi's Fifth Gender, Inside Indonesia April-June, 2001.
  36. ^ Joan Roughgarden, Evolution's Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People, University of California Press, 2004. ISBN 0-520-24073-1
  37. ^ Connell, R 1987, Gender & Power, Polity Press, Cambridge.
  38. ^ Lorber, J & Farrell, S (eds.) 1991, The Social Construction of Gender, Sage, Newbury Park.
  39. ^ Wearing, B 1996, Gender: The Pain and Pleasure of Difference, Longman, Melbourne.
  40. ^ Acker, J 2000, ‘Hierarchies, Jobs, Bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organizations’, in M Kimmel with A Aronson (eds), The Gendered Society Reader, Oxford University Press, New York.
  41. ^ Glover, D & Kaplan, C 2000, Genders, Routledge, New York.
  42. ^ Lloyd, M 1999, ‘Performativity, Parody, Politics’ in CULT 19016 Contemporary Modes of Culture Resourse Materials, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton.
  43. ^ Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, 1949, as translated and reprinted 1989."
  44. ^ Chafetz, JS. Masculine/Feminine or Human? An Overview of the Sociology of Sex Roles. Itasca, Illinois: F. E. Peacock, 1974.
  45. ^ Chafetz, JS. Masculine/Feminine or Human? An Overview of the Sociology of Sex Roles. Itasca, Illinois: F. E. Peacock, 1978.
  46. ^ Stephanie Garrett, Gender, (1992), p. vii.
  47. ^ Judith Butler, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, (1999), p. 9.
  48. ^ [Hurst, C. Social Inequality: Forms, Causes, and Consequences. Sixth Edition. 2007. 131, 139-142]
  49. ^ [Schwalbe, M. The Sociologically Examined Life: Pieces of the Conversation Third Edition. 2005. 22-23]
  50. ^ "The Male-Female Hologram," Ashok Vohra, Times of India, March 8, 2005, Page 9
  51. ^ Chrome Fittings & Nipples

Julius Pokorny (1887–1970) was born in Prague and studied at Vienna university. ... The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of the English language published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Dover Publications is a book publisher founded in 1941. ... A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, often referred to simply as Fowlers Modern English Usage, or Fowler, is a style guide to British English usage, authored by Henry W. Fowler. ... John William Money, Ph. ... Helen Fisher is an anthropology professor and human behavior researcher at the Rutgers University. ... Cover of Cover the first volume of , published in 1665 The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, or Phil. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Why Men Rule is a book by Steven Goldberg, published by the Open Court Publishing Company in 1993. ... Discover is a science magazine that publishes articles about science for a general audience. ... Slate is an online news and culture magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley and owned by Microsoft (as part of MSN). ... Copeia is a quarterly published periodical pertaining to ichthyological and herpetological subjects. ... NeuroImage is a scientific journal in the neuroimaging field. ... Intelligence is a psychology journal that addresses intelligence and psychometrics. ... NeuroImage is a scientific journal in the neuroimaging field. ... The American Journal of Psychiatry (AJP) is the most widely read psychiatric journal in the world. ... A karyotype of a human male, showing 46 chromosomes including XY sex chromosomes. ... Discover is a science magazine that publishes articles about science for a general audience. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... The Common Man featured on a commemorative stamp released by the Indian Postal Service on the 150th Anniversary of the Times of India - 1988. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Chafetz, JS. Masculine/Feminine or Human? An Overview of the Sociology of Sex Roles. Itasca, Illinois: F. E. Peacock, 1974 (1st ed.), 1978 (2nd ed.).
  • Lepowsky, Maria. Fruit of the Motherland: Gender in an Egalitarian Society. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

External links

This article is about the city in Alberta, Canada. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Male sex. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Androgyny (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cisgender (IPA: ) is an adjective used in the context of gender issues and counselling to refer to a type of gender identity formed by a match between an individuals biological sex and the behavior or role considered appropriate for ones sex. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Gender identity disorder, as identified by psychologists and physicians, is a condition in which a person has been assigned one gender, usually on the basis of their sex at birth (compare intersex disorders), but identifies as belonging to another gender, and feels significant discomfort or being unable to deal with... Genderqueer or intergender is a gender identity of both, neither or some combination of man and/or woman. In relation to the gender binary (the view that there are only two genders), genderqueer people generally identify as more both/and or neither/nor, rather than either/or. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... Intersexuality is the state of a person whose sex chromosomes, genitalia and/or secondary sex characteristics are determined to be neither exclusively male nor female. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pansexuality. ... Anna P., who lived for many years as a man in Germany, was photographed for Magnus Hirschfelds book Sexual Intermediates in 1922. ... A transwoman with XY written on her hand, at a protest in Paris, October 1, 2005. ... Transmen or trans men are transgender or transsexual people who were assigned female at birth based on genital appearance (or, in cases of intersexuality, were later assigned to the female gender) and who feel that this is not an accurate or complete description of themselves. ... MTF redirects here. ... For the electronic music EP by Mr. ... Womyn is one of a number of alternate spellings of the word woman, which some feminists use. ... Anna P., who lived for many years as a man in Germany, was photographed for Magnus Hirschfelds book Sexual Intermediates in 1922. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ... Faafafine (Samoa), fakaleiti (Tonga), rae rae or mahu (French Polynesia) is a Polynesian concept related to gender role and gender identity. ... A fakaleiti (or leiti or fakafefine or lady) is a Tongan man who behaves in in effeminate ways, in contrast to mainstream Tongan men, who tend to be very masculine. ... For other uses, see Hijra. ... Ladyboy redirects here. ... Khanith (variant transcription Xanith) is a vernacular Arabic term for both standard written Arabic mukhannath and khuntha. ... Mukhannathun (also mukhannath) are gender-variant (typically male-to-female) persons of the Islamic faith who are accepted within the boundaries of Makkah and Madinah (Islam). ... In Zapotec cultures of Oaxaca (southern Mexico), a muxe (or muxhe) is a physically male individual who dresses and behaves in a feminine manner; they may be seen as a third gender. ... A sworn virgin is a virgin who adamantly refuses to ever have sexual intercourse. ... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ... Sexual orientation refers to an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectional attraction toward others,[1] usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... This article is about the sexual orientation in humans. ... Bisexual redirects here. ... One version of a Heterosexuality symbol Heterosexuality is sexual or romantic attraction between opposite sexes, and is the most common sexual orientation among humans. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Pansexuality (sometimes referred to as omnisexuality[1]) is a sexual orientation characterized by the potential for aesthetic attraction, romantic love and/or sexual desire for people regardless of their gender identity or biological sex. ... Sexual identity is a term that, like sex, has two distinctively different meanings. ... Attitude, clothing, ethnicity, masculinity, physique and youth are all elements of what has been called banjee realness. Banjee or banjee boy is a term from the 1980s or earlier that describes a certain type of young Man who is thugged out and has a sexy body and they have sex... In human sexuality, bisexuality describes a man or woman having a sexual orientation to persons of either or both sexes (a man or woman who sexually likes both sexes; people who are sexually and/or romantically attracted to both males and females). ... Femme redirects here. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... Two women in handcuffs and latex miniskirts and tops - Latex and PVC fetishism Wikinews has related news: Dr. Joseph Merlino on sexuality, insanity, Freud, fetishes and apathy Sexual fetishism is the sexual attraction for material and terrestrial objects while in reality the essence of the object is inanimate and sexless. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about same-sex desire and sexuality among women. ... Polyamory (from Greek (, literally “multiple”) and Latin (literally “love”)) is the desire, practice, or acceptance of having more than one loving, intimate relationship at a time with the full knowledge and consent of everyone involved. ... For other uses, see Queer (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Same-sex attraction is an intense interest in members of the same sex. ... This article is about the subcultural sexual lifestyle. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gender and Identity: Just Male and Female? (Book Notes: With Pleasure) (755 words)
In the debate over gay marriage, a common refrain hear from religious conservatives is that marriage is only between "one man and one woman." Gender, it is assumed, comes it precisely two forms: no more, no less.
Such a choice is mandated by cultural assumptions that conceptualize gender as a strict dichotomy.
These systems aren’t compatible with the idea that sex must exist for procreation, that God created two genders, that heterosexual relations within marriage are the only permissible form of sexual behavior, and so forth.
Gender Education and Advocacy - Gender.org (547 words)
Gender Education and Advocacy (GEA) is a national organization focused on the needs, issues and concerns of gender variant people in human society.
Since gender follows physical sex for most people, transgenderism and even transsexualism are almost impossible to understand by those who are not transgendered themselves.
While transgendered people are most familiar with gender variant expressions and cross-gender identities, there are many other forms of gender variance exhibited by all kinds of people — regardless of their social or gender identities.
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