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Encyclopedia > Gender studies
Gender studies Portal

Gender studies is a field of interdisciplinary study which analyzes the phenomenon of gender. Esh EshIt examines both cultural representations of gender and people's lived experience. Gender Studies is sometimes related to studies of class, race, ethnicity and location.[1] Image File history File links Portal. ... // What is science? There are different theories of what science is. ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... Look up Experience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article discusses the general concept of experience. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... For other uses, see Race. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ...


The philosopher Simone de Beauvoir said: “One is not born a woman, one becomes one.”[2] In Gender Studies the term "gender" is used to refer to the social and cultural constructions of masculinities and femininities. It does not refer to biological difference, but rather cultural difference.[3] The field emerged from a number of different areas: the sociology of the 1950s and later (see Sociology of gender); the theories of the psychoanalyst Jaques Lacan; and the work of feminists such as Judith Butler. Each field came to regard "gender" as a practice, sometimes referred to as something that is performative.[4] Feminist theory of psychoanalysis, articulated mainly by Julia Kristeva[5] (the "semiotic" and "abjection") and Bracha Ettinger[6] (the "matrixial trans-subjectivity" and the "primal mother-phantasies"), and informed both by Freud, Lacan and the Object relations theory, is very influential in Gender studies. La Beauvoir redirects here; also see: Beauvoir (disambiguation). ... Social scientists and literary scholars have claimed that many things are social constructions or social constructs, or that they have been socially constructed. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Sociology of gender is a prominent subfield of sociology. ... Jacques Lacan Jacques Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was an influential French psychoanalyst as well as a structuralist who based much of his theories on Ferdinand de Saussures theories on language. ... Image:J Butler. ... The Performative is the part of speech representing the information conveyed by the fact that a speaker chose to say a particular sentence. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Julia Kristeva in 2007 Julia Kristeva (Bulgarian: ) (born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s. ... Bracha L. Ettinger (also known as Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger, Bracha Ettinger, Hebrew: ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר) is a renowned artist, painter, photographer, theorist and psychoanalyst. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... In psychodynamics, Object relations theory is the idea that the ego-self exists only in relation to other objects, which may be external or internal. ...

Contents

Studying gender

Studies of gender have been undertaken in many academic areas, such as literary theory, drama studies, film theory, performance theory, contemporary art history, anthropology, sociology, psychology and psychoanalysis. These disciplines sometimes differ in their approaches to how and why they study gender. For instance in anthropology, sociology and psychology, gender is often studied as a practice, whereas in cultural studies representations of gender are more often examined. Gender Studies is also a discipline in itself: an interdisciplinary area of study that incorporates methods and approaches from a wide range of disciplines. Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... Film theory debates the essence of the cinema and provides conceptual frameworks for analyzing, among other things, the film image, narrative structure, the function of film artists, the relationship of film to reality, and the film spectators position in the cinematic experience. ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... This article is about the social science. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Interdisciplinarity is the act of drawing from two or more academic disciplines and integrating their insights to work together in pursuit of a common goal. ...


Influences of gender studies

Gender studies and psychoanalytic theory

Sigmund Freud

Some feminist critics have dismissed the work of Sigmund Freud as sexist, because of his view that women are 'mutilated and must learn to accept their lack of a penis' (in Freud's terms a "deformity").[7] On the other hand, feminist theorists such as Juliet Mitchell, Nancy Chodorow, Jessica Benjamin, Jane Gallop, Bracha Ettinger, Shoshana Felman, Griselda Pollock[8] and Jane Flax have argued that psychoanalytic theory is vital to the feminist project and must, like other theoretical traditions, be adapted by women to free it from vestiges of sexism. Shulamith Firestone, in "Freudianism: The Misguided Feminism", discusses how Freudianism is almost completely accurate, with the exception of one crucial detail: everywhere that Freud writes "penis", the word should be replaced with "power". Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Juliet Mitchell (* 1940 in New Zealand) is a British feminist. ... Nancy Chodorow is a feminist sociologist and psychoanalyst born 20 January 1944 in New York City. ... Jane Gallop is a Distinguished Professor of English and Comparative Literature at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. ... Bracha L. Ettinger (also known as Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger, Bracha Ettinger, Hebrew: ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר) is a renowned artist, painter, photographer, theorist and psychoanalyst. ... Shoshana Felman is Woodruff Professor of Comparative Literature and French at Emory University. ... Shulamith Firestone (1945, also called Shulie Firestone) was a founding member of the Chicago Womens Liberation Union in 1969, and was a member of Redstockings and the New York Radical Feminists. ...


Jacques Lacan

Lacan's theory of sexuation organizes femininity and masculinity according to different unconscious structures. Both male and female subjects participate in the "phallic" organization, and the feminine side of sexuation is "supplementary" and not opposite or complementary.[9] Sexuation (sexual situation) — the development of gender-roles and role-play in childhood — breaks down concepts of gender identity as innate or biologically determined.[10] Critics like Elizabeth Grosz accuse Jacques Lacan of maintaining a sexist tradition in psychoanalysis.[11] Others, such as Judith Butler and Jane Gallop have used Lacanian work to develop gender theory.[12][13] Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French pronounced ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ...


Julia Kristeva

Main article: Julia Kristeva

Julia Kristeva has significantly developed the field of Semiotics. In her work on abjection, she structures subjectivity upon the abjection of the mother and argues that the way in which an individual excludes (or abjects) their mother as means of forming an identity is similar to the way in which societies are constructed. She contends that patriarchal cultures, like individuals, have had to exclude the maternal and the feminine so that they can come into being.[14][15] Julia Kristeva in 2007 Julia Kristeva (Bulgarian: ) (born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s. ... The term Abjection literally means the state of being cast off. ...


Bracha Ettinger

Main article: Bracha L. Ettinger

Bracha Ettinger worked from the late Lacanian theory to expose Freudian and Lacanian blind spots concerning the feminine, the maternal, and the female specisicities in the bodily Real, and developed their potential for thinking subjectivity and transforming the Symbolic. She articulated a feminine, pre-maternal and maternal "matrixial" sexual difference.[16] Ettinger articulated the matrixial borderspace unconscious sphere of "subjectivity as encounter" where "I" and "non-I" emerge in jointmess without rejection and without symbiosis, starting from the infant's primordial contact (transconnectivity) with female body, phantasy and trauma (before birth). The matrixial is a feminine difference that informs gender[17] and has particular relevance to mother-daughter relations. [18] Ettinger structures subjectivity with a "trans-subjective" dimension and reattunement of jointness-in-differentiation, and suggests that primary access to the maternal and the other occurs via aesthetic proto-ethical affects of "fascinance" and "primary compassion", which arise before and also beside "abjection". She argues that blindness to these processes, as well as the therapist's production of "ready-made mother-monster" harm women by destroying or harming the transformational potentiality of mother/daughter relations, the mother-daughter transmission and the potential of creativity. Bracha L. Ettinger (also known as Bracha Ettinger, Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger, Hebrew: ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר) is a renowned artist, painter, photographer, theorist and psychoanalyst. ... Bracha L. Ettinger (also known as Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger, Bracha Ettinger, Hebrew: ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר) is a renowned artist, painter, photographer, theorist and psychoanalyst. ...


Literary Theory

Psychoanalytically oriented French feminism focused on visual and literary theory all along. Virginia Woolf's legacy as well as "Adrienne Rich's call for women's revisions of literary texts, and history as well, has galvanized a generation of feminist authors to reply with texts of their own".[19] Griselda Pollock and other femininsts have articulated Myth and Poetry[20] and literature[21],[22],[23] from the point of view of gender. For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... Adrienne Rich (born May 16, 1929 in Baltimore, Maryland) is an American poet, essayist, and feminist. ...


Post-modern influence

The emergence of post-feminism affected gender studies,[10] causing a movement in theories identity away from the concept of fixed or essentialist gender identity, to post-modern[24] fluid or multiple identities .[25] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... ... Look up Identity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ...


See Donna Haraway, The Cyborg Manifesto, as an example of post-identity feminism. Donna Haraway, born in 1944 in Denver, Colorado, is currently a professor and former chair of the History of Consciousness Program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, United States. ...


Visual Theory

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

The development of gender theory

History of gender studies

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Women's studies

Main article: Women's Studies

Women's studies is an interdisciplinary academic field concerning women, feminism, gender, and politics. It can include feminist theory, women's history, women's fiction and women's health. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... Feminists redirects here. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Womens history is a term that refers to information about the past in regard to the female human being. ... Womens fiction is a wide-ranging genre that includes various types of novels one expects would appeal more to women than men. ... Womens health generally refers to health issues and matters specific to human female anatomy. ...


Men's studies

Main article: Men's studies

Men's Studies is an interdisciplinary academic field that includes discussions of men's rights,Men's health, feminist theory, queer theory, patriarchy, as well, social, historical, and cultural representations of men and masculinity. Mens studies - also sometimes called masculinity studies - is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to topics concerning men, gender, and politics. ... This box:      Mens Rights involves the promotion of male equality, rights, and freedoms in society. ... Mens Health (MH), published by Rodale Press in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA, is the largest circulation mens lifestyle magazine in the world. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... English family c. ... Manliness redirects here. ...


Judith Butler

Main article: Judith Butler

The concept of gender performativity is at the core of Butler's work, notably in Gender Trouble. In Butler’s terms the performance of gender, sex, and sexuality is about power in society. [4] She locates the construction of the "gendered, sexed, desiring subject" in "regulative discourses." A part of Butler's argument concerns the role of sex in the construction of "natural" or coherent gender and sexuality. In her account, gender and heterosexuality are constructed as natural because the opposition of the male and female sexes is constructed as natural.[4] Image:J Butler. ... Gender Trouble is a 1990 book by Judith Butler that is highly influential in academic feminism and queer theory. ...


Criticism

Rosi Braidotti has criticized gender studies as: "the take-over of the feminist agenda by studies on masculinity, which results in transferring funding from feminist faculty positions to other kinds of positions. There have been cases...of positions advertised as 'gender studies' being given away to the 'bright boys'. Some of the competitive take-over has to do with gay studies. Of special significance in this discussion is the role of the mainstream publisher Routledge who, in our opinion, is responsible for promoting gender as a way of deradicalizing the feminist agenda, re-marketing masculinity and gay male identity instead."[citation needed]


Calvin Thomas counters that, "as Joseph Allen Boone points out, 'many of the men in the academy who are feminism's most supportive 'allies' are gay,'" and that it is "disingenuous" to ignore the ways in which mainstream publishers such as Routledge have promoted feminist theorists.[citation needed]


Gender studies is criticized by Paul Nathanson and Katherine K. Young for being a discipline that "philosophizes, theorizes and politicizes on the nature of the female gender" as a social construct, to the point of excluding the male gender from analysis. They also assert that the 'gender' in gender studies is "routinely used as a synonym for 'women'.[26] Such criticism is irrelevant both to Butler who emphasizes performance and to contemporary psychoanalytically informed contemporary Gender studies since Kristeva and Ettinger contribute different insights concerning sexual difference and the maternal, Kristeva in terms of pre-Oedipal and "abjection", and Ettinger in terms of "trans-subjective coemergence", psychic "pregnance" and same-sex differentiation which are concepts and processes that inform gender and identity from beyond social constructs. Authors Paul Nathanson and Katherine K. Young are collaborators on a series of books on the subject of misandry, which they consider to be a form of prejudice and discrimination that has become institutionalized in North American society. ... Social scientists and literary scholars have claimed that many things are social constructions or social constructs, or that they have been socially constructed. ...


Historian and theorist Bryan Palmer argues that the current reliance on poststructuralism — with its reification of discourse and avoidance of the structures of oppression and struggles of resistance — obscures the origins, meanings, and consequences of historical events and processes, and he seeks to counter the current "gender studies" with an argument for the necessity to analyze lived experience and the structures of subordination and power.[27]


Theorists associated with gender studies

Julia Kristeva in 2007 Julia Kristeva (Bulgarian: ) (born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s. ... Charlotte Perkins Gilman (July 3, 1860 – August 17, 1935) was a prominent American poet, non-fiction writer, short story writer, novelist, lecturer, and social reformer. ... Otto Weininger (April 3, 1880 – October 4, 1903) was an Austrian philosopher. ... Image:J Butler. ... La Beauvoir redirects here; also see: Beauvoir (disambiguation). ... Bracha L. Ettinger (also known as Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger, Bracha Ettinger, Hebrew: ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר) is a renowned artist, painter, photographer, theorist and psychoanalyst. ... Donna Haraway, born in 1944 in Denver, Colorado, is currently a professor and former chair of the History of Consciousness Program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, United States. ... Karen Horney Karen Horney (horn-eye), born Danielsen (September 16, 1885 – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst of Norwegian and Dutch descent. ... Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (born February 24, 1942) is an Indian literary critic and theorist. ... Luce Irigaray (born 1930 Belgium) is a French feminist and psychoanalytic and cultural theorist. ... Hélène Cixous (born 1937) is a French feminist writer, poet, playwright, philosopher and literary critic. ... Evelyn Fox Keller (*1936) is an American physicist, author and feminist and is currently a Professor of History and Philosophy of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... Gayle Rubin is best known as an activist and influential theorist of sex and gender politics. ... Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick (b. ... Judith Halberstam is Professor of English and Director of The Center for Feminist Research at University of Southern California. ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (15 October 1926–25 June 1984) was a French philosopher, historian, critic and sociologist. ... Gloria Jean Watkins (born on September 25, 1952), better known as bell hooks, is an African-American intellectual, feminist, and social activist. ... Lorde redirects here. ... Kate Bornstein is a transgender author, playwright, performance artist and gender theorist. ... Gayle Rubin is best known as an activist and influential theorist of sex and gender politics. ... Jeff(ery) Richard Hearn (born August 5, 1947 ) is a British sociologist and one of the founders of Critical studies on men. ... Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens (born January 18, 1938) is a British sociologist who is renowned for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern societies. ... Kaja Silverman is an American film critic. ...

See also

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Mens studies - also sometimes called masculinity studies - is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to topics concerning men, gender, and politics. ... In some cultures, makeup is associated with femininity. ... Manliness redirects here. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Masculinism aims to break negative heterosexual male stereotyping but refuses to be perceived as anti-feminist or anti-gay. ... Gynocentrism (Greek γυνο, gyno-, woman, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, often consciously adopted, of placing female human beings or the female point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Androcentrism (Greek ανδρο, andro-, man, male, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... In Eva Prima Pandora, by Jean Cousin (Louvre Museum), Eve, the equivalent of Pandora embodies Original Sin Misogyny (pronounced ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... Feminine psychology is a term sometimes used to describe and categorize issues concerning the gender related psychology of female human identity, as well as the issues that females confront during their lives. ... Robert A. Johnsons He: Understanding Masculine Psychology Masculine psychology is a term sometimes used to describe and categorize issues concerning the gender related psychology of male human identity, as well as the issues that males confront during their lives. ... French feminism (which is a phrase mostly used in English-speaking countries) refers to the work of a group of feminists in France from the 1970s to the early 1990s. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... The sex/gender distinction is a concept in feminist theory, political feminism, and sociology which distinguishes sex, a natural or biological feature, from gender, the cultural or learned significance of sex. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... This article is about gender differences in humans. ... Gender and sexuality studies is a collective term for the interdisciplinary study of human gender and sexuality. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church, a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Heterophobia is a term used to describe prejudice or discrimination against heterosexuals, or the belief that heterosexuality is an inferior sexuality to others. ... A transwoman with XY written on her hand, at a protest in Paris, October 1, 2005. ... Genderqueer or intergender is a gender identity of both, neither or some combination of man and/or woman. In relation to the gender binary (the view that there are only two genders), genderqueer people generally identify as more both/and or neither/nor, rather than either/or. ... Transgender is a very complex topic, where consensual and precise definitions have not yet been reached. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Intersexuality is the state of a person whose sex chromosomes, genitalia and/or secondary sex characteristics are determined to be neither exclusively male nor female. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The Feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement and Womens Liberation) campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, discrimination and sexual violence. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... ... The mens movement is a social movement that includes a number of philosophies and organizations that seek to support men, change the male gender role and improve mens rights in regard to marriage and child access and victims of domestic violence. ... This box:      Mens Rights involves the promotion of male equality, rights, and freedoms in society. ... Mens liberation is a stream of the modern mens movement, it holds that men are hurt by the male gender role and patriarchy and that mens lives are alienating, unhealthy and impoverished. ...

References

  1. ^ Healey, J. F. (2003). "Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class : the Sociology of Group Conflict and Change".
  2. ^ de Beauvoir, S. (1949, 1989). "The Second Sex".
  3. ^ Garrett, S. (1992). "Gender", p. vii.
  4. ^ a b c Butler, J. (1999). "Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity", 9.
  5. ^ Anne-Marie Smith, Julia Kristeva: Speaking the Unspeakable (Pluto Press, 1988)
  6. ^ Griselda Pollock, "Inscriptions in the Feminine" and "Introduction" to "The With-In-Visible Screen", in: Inside the Visible edited by Catherine de Zegher. MIT Press, 1996.
  7. ^ Karen Horney was one of the first to question the theory of penis envy. She argues that it is "the actual social subordination of women" that shapes their development: not the lack of the organ, but of the privilege that goes with it. Karen Horney (1922). "On the Genesis of the Castration Complex in Women." Psychoanalysis and Women. Ed. J.B. Miller. New York: Bruner/Mazel, 1973.
  8. ^ Griselda Pollock, Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum: Time, Space and the Archive. Routledge. 2007.
  9. ^ Lacan, J. (1973). Encore. Paris: Seuil, 1975.
  10. ^ a b Wright, E. (2003). "Lacan and Postfeminism (Postmodern Encounters)"
  11. ^ Grosz, E. (1990). "Jacques Lacan: A Feminist Introduction", London: Routledge
  12. ^ Butler, J. (1999). "Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity".
  13. ^ Gallop, J. (1993). "The Daughter's Seduction: Feminism and Psychoanalysi", Cornell University Press
  14. ^ Kristeva, J. (1982). "Powers of Horror."
  15. ^ The book Laughing with Medusa Edited by Vanda Zajko and Miriam Leonard is on the thinking of Cixous, irigaray, Ettinger and kristeva. (Oxford University Press, 2006. 87-117. ISBN 0-19-927438-X)
  16. ^ Ettinger, B. (1996). "Metramorphic Borderlinks and Matrixial Borderspace." In: John Welchman (ed.), Rethinking Borders. Minnesota University Press, 1996.
  17. ^ Ettinger, B. (1994-1999). The Matrixial Borderspace. University of Minnesota Press, 2006, with Forward by Judith Butler.
  18. ^ Ettinger, B. (2006). "Fascinance. The Woman-to-woman (Girl-to-m/Other) Matrixial Feminine Difference". In: Psychoanalysis and the Image. Edited by Griselda Pollock. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006.
  19. ^ Mica Howe & Sarah A. Aguier (eds.). He said, She Says. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2001.
  20. ^ Vanda Zajko & Miriam Leonard (eds.). Laughing with Medusa. Oxford University Press, 2006.
  21. ^ Humm, Maggie, Modernist Women and Visual Cultures. Rutgers University Press, 2003. ISBN 0813532663
  22. ^ Nina Cornietz, Dangerous Women, Deadly Words. Stanford University Press, 1999.
  23. ^ Vanda Zajko & Miriam Leonard (eds.). Laughing with Medusa. Oxford University Press, 2006.
  24. ^ Grebowicz, M. (2007). Gender After Lyotard. NY: Suny Press, 2007.
  25. ^ Benhabib, S. (1995). "Feminist Contentions: A Philosophical Exchange." and Butler, J. (1995) "Feminist Contentions: A Philosophical Exchange.".
  26. ^ Nathanson, P. and K. K. Young (2006). "Spreading Misandry: The Teaching of Contempt for Men in Popular Culture." Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press
  27. ^ Bryan Palmer, "Descent into Discourse: The Reification of Language and the Writing of Social History", Trent University (Peterborough, Canada)

Karen Horney Karen Horney (horn-eye), born Danielsen (September 16, 1885 – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst of Norwegian and Dutch descent. ... Image:J Butler. ...

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  • Spector, Judith A, ed., 1986. Gender Studies: New Directions in Feminist Criticism, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0879-72351-3
  • Thomas, Calvin, ed., 2000. "Introduction: Identification, Appropriation, Proliferation", in Straight with a Twist: Queer Theory and the Subject of Heterosexuality. Champaign: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252-06813-0
  • Zajko, Vanda and Leonard, Miriam, 2006. "Laughing with Medusa". Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-927438-X
  • de Zegher, Catherine (ed.) (1996). Inside the Visible. MIT Press, Boston.

External links

This article is about same-sex desire and sexuality among women. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... Bisexual redirects here. ... A transwoman with XY written on her hand, at a protest in Paris, October 1, 2005. ... The initialism LGBT also GLBT is in use (since the 1990s) to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... This article is about same-sex desire and sexuality among women. ... For other uses, see Queer (disambiguation). ... Attitude, clothing, ethnicity, masculinity, physique and youth are all elements of what has been called banjee realness. Banjee or banjee boy is a term from the 1980s or earlier that describes a certain type of young Man who is thugged out and has a sexy body and they have sex... Heterosexism is the presumption that everyone is straight or heterosexual (i. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church, a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Lesbophobia (sometimes Lesbiphobia) is a term which describes prejudice, discrimination, harassment or abuse, either specifically targeting a lesbian person, based on their lesbian identity, or, more generally, targetting lesbians as a class. ... Societal attitudes towards homosexuality vary greatly in different cultures and different historical periods, as do attitudes toward sexual desire, activity and relationships in general. ... The relationship between religion and homosexuality varies greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and sects, and regarding different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality. ... Sexuality researchers are often interested in homosexuality because there is evidence from twin studies that there is a biological involvement in its determination. ... Homosexuality and psychology have a closely intertwined history. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ... Bisexual redirects here. ... Someone who is bi-curious does not identify as bisexual, but has an interest in both men and women to one degree or another. ... Pansexuality (sometimes referred to as omnisexuality[1]) is a sexual orientation characterized by the potential for aesthetic attraction, romantic love and/or sexual desire for people regardless of their gender identity or biological sex. ... Gay-for-pay is the slang term accorded to male (and sometimes, but less frequently, female) actors, pornographic stars or prostitutes who identify as heterosexual but perform homosexual acts professionally. ... Prison sexuality deals with sexual relationships between confined individuals or those between a prisoner and a prison employee (or other persons to whom prisoners have access). ... Biphobia is the fear of, discrimination against, or hatred of bisexuals (although in practice it extends to pansexual people too). ... Bisexual chic is a phrase sometimes used to describe the public acknowledgement of bisexuality among various segments of society. ... Bisexual erasure is the tendency to ignore, remove, falsify, or reexplain evidence of bisexuality in the historical record, academic materials, the news media, and other primary sources. ... The portrayal of bisexuality in the media reflects societal attitudes towards bisexuality. ... A transwoman with XY written on her hand, at a protest in Paris, October 1, 2005. ... For the electronic music EP by Mr. ... A male dressed as a female. ... This articles is about cross-dressing in general, that is the act of wearing the clothing of another gender for any reason. ... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ... Genderqueer or intergender is a gender identity of both, neither or some combination of man and/or woman. In relation to the gender binary (the view that there are only two genders), genderqueer people generally identify as more both/and or neither/nor, rather than either/or. ... For other uses, see Androgyny (disambiguation). ... Anna P., who lived for many years as a man in Germany, was photographed for Magnus Hirschfelds book Sexual Intermediates in 1922. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Homosexuality and transgender are two separate concepts. ... A drag king performance troupe NYC Drag King Alliance Switch NPlay photo:Jenny Norris Drag kings are mostly female-bodied or -identified performance artists who dress in masculine drag and personify male gender stereotypes as part of their performance. ... Drag artist Lypsinka. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children... Sex reassignment therapy is an umbrella term for all medical procedures regarding gender reassignment of both transgender and intersexual people. ... Transsexual people are those who establish a permanent identity with the gender opposite to that which they were assigned at birth. ... // Several movies feature transgender as a central plot element, including: Glen or Glenda? (1953) is a semi-autobiographical movie starring its director Ed Wood, who was a transvestite. ... Feminists redirects here. ... The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement or Womens Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ... Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... Feminist film theory is theoretical work within film criticism that is derived from feminist politics and feminist theory. ... Feminist economics broadly refers to a developing branch of economics that applies feminist insights and critiques to mainstream economics. ... Feminist sexology is the study of sexuality from a feminist viewpoint, i. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... ђЂЖЖж Pro-feminism refers to support of the cause of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. ... Antifeminism refers to disbelief regarding the economic, political, and or social equality of females as a sex. ... Womens history is a term that refers to information about the past in regard to the female human being. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The history of feminism reaches far back before the 18th century, but the seeds of modern feminism were planted during the late part of that century. ... The History of Feminism is the history of Feminist movements. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Womens suffrage has been granted (and been revoked) at various times in various countries throughout the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Suffrage parade, New York City, 1912 The effort to obtain womens suffrage in the United States was a primary effort of those involved in the greater womens rights movement of the 19th century. ... First-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... A Womens Lib march in Washington, D.C. in 1970 Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s. ... Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s. ... Amazon feminism is dedicated to the image of the female hero in fiction and in fact, as it is expressed in art and literature in the physiques and feats of female athletes, martial artists, and other powerfully built women, and in gender-related and sexual orientations. ... Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... The current incarnation of Black Feminism is a political/social movement that grew out of a sense of feelings of discontent with both the Civil Rights Movement and the Feminist Movement of the 1970s. ... Chicana feminism, also called Xicanisma, is a group of social theories that analyze and historical, social, political, and economic roles and of Mexican American, Chicana, and Hispanic women in the United States, especially as they concern issues of gender. ... Christian feminism, a branch of feminist theology, seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in the scope of the equality of men and women morally, socially, spiritually and in leadership. ... Cultural feminism is the ideology of a female nature or female essence reappropriated by feminists themselves in an effort to revalidate undervalued female attributes. ... Difference feminism is a philosophy that stresses that men and women are ontologically different versions of the human being. ... Ecofeminism is a minor social and political movement which unites environmentalism and feminism[1], with some currents linking deep ecology and feminism. ... Equality feminism is a submovement of feminism. ... Equity feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994). ... Fat feminism or fat-positive feminism is a form of feminism that argues overweight women are economically, educationally, and socially disadvantaged due to their size. ... Gender feminism is a phrase coined by Christina Hoff Sommers in her book Who Stole Feminism (Simon & Schuster, 1994) to critique the mainstream of the contemporary feminist movement, which she felt was unduly gynocentric. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe) that questions the position of women and homosexuals in society. ... Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform, and that men as a group need not be challenged. ... Marxist feminism is a sub-type of feminist theory which focuses on the dismantling of capitalism as a way to liberate women. ... New feminism is a predominantly Catholic philosophy, and is a form of difference feminism. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Pro-life feminism is the opposition to abortion based on feminism. ... Radical feminism is a branch of feminism that views womens oppression (which radical feminists refer to as patriarchy) as a basic system of power upon which human relationships in society are arranged. ... Feminist theology is a movement, generally in Christianity and Judaism, to reconsider the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of their religion from a feminist perspective. ... Separatist feminism is a form of feminism that does not support heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between men and women are unresolvable. ... Sex-positive feminism, sometimes known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a movement that was formed in the early 1980s. ... Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a womans life and argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of womens oppression. ... Although third world women have always been engaged in the feminism movement, they criticise it on the grounds that it is ethnocentric and does not take into account the unique experiences of women from third world countries or the existence of feminism(s) indigenous to third world countries. ... Transfeminism is a form of feminism that includes transgender and transexual rights and issues, especially those of transwomen. ... The word womanism was adapted from Pulitzer Prize winning author, Alice Walker. ... French feminism (which is a phrase mostly used in English-speaking countries) refers to the work of a group of feminists in France from the 1970s to the early 1990s. ... This article is mainly about the womens movement in modern day Iran. ... Feminist movements in Latin America started at the grassroots level in each of the distinct nation-states. ... VIoleta Chamorro- President elect in 1990. ... Feminism in Norway has its political origins in the movement for womens suffrage that was officially started in 1885, but can be traced back to earlier literary and historical sources. ... Feminist history in the United Kingdom covers part of the Feminism movement in the UK from 1800 to the present day. ... This is a history of the role of women throughout the history of the United States and of feminism in the United States. ... This is a list of important participants in the development of feminism, listed by feminist ideology. ... . ... This is a list of topics related to the issue of feminism, womens rights and womens liberation: All-women band Christian Feminism Coeducation Eco-feminism Erotophobia Female superiority (or male inferiority) Feminazi Feminist censorship Feminist history Feminist history in the United States Nineteenth Amendment to the United States...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gender Studies Program :: University of Notre Dame (186 words)
Gender Studies analyzes the significance of gender—and the cognate subjects of sex, sexuality, race, ethnicity, class, religion, and nationality—in all areas of human life, especially in the social formation of human identities, practices, and institutions.
Gender Studies also provides its students and alumni with an intellectual framework in which the analysis of gender and its cognates can be creatively and critically applied to their personal, familial, professional, and civic roles.
In the context of the Catholic identity of Notre Dame, Gender Studies facilitates the study of the intersection of gender and religion in the shaping of ethics, culture, and politics.
Gender studies - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (467 words)
Gender studies is a theoretical work in the social sciences or humanities that focuses on issues of sex and gender in language and society, and often addresses related issues including racial and ethnic oppression, postcolonial societies, and globalization.
Work in gender studies is often associated with work in feminist theory, queer studies, and other theoretical aspects of cultural studies.
While work in gender studies is principally found in humanities departments and publications (in areas such as English literature and other literary studies), it is also found in social-scientific areas such as anthropology, sociology, and psychology.
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