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Encyclopedia > Gender identity

In sociology, gender identity describes the gender with which a person identifies (i.e, whether one perceives oneself to be a man, a woman, or describes oneself in some less conventional way), but can also be used to refer to the gender that other people attribute to the individual on the basis of what they know from gender role indications (social behavior, clothing, hair style, etc.). Gender identity may be affected by a variety of social structures, including the person's ethnic group, employment status, religion or irreligion, and family. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Gender often refers to the distinctions between males and females in common usage. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... This section does not cite its references or sources. ... A family in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by analogous or comparable relationships — including domestic partnership, cohabitation, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the...

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Gender identity - below the surface

Many human beings are considered to be cisgendered, attributed to either women or men, on the basis of their biological sex. Before the 20th century a person's sex would be determined entirely by the appearance of the genitalia, but as chromosomes and genes came to be understood, these were then used to help determine sex. Those defined as women, by sex, have genitalia that is considered female as well as two X chromosomes; those viewed as men, by sex, are seen as having male genitalia, one X and one Y chromosome. However some individuals have combinations of chromosomes, hormones, and genitalia that do not follow the traditional definitions of "men" and "women". In addition, genitalia vary greatly or individuals may have more than one type of genitalia, and other bodily attributes related to a person's sex (body shape, facial hair, high or deep voice, etc.) may or may not coincide with the social category, as woman or man, assigned to that person according to her or his genitalia. Recent research suggests that as many as one in every hundred individuals may have some intersex characteristic.[1] Transgender individuals are those whose gender expression and/or their genitalia and sex chromosomes differ from the traditional definitions. Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Cisgender (IPA: ) is an adjective neologism that means non-transgender. ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... This article concerns how a man differs from women. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... A sex organ, or primary abnormal characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those anatomical parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; namely: Male: penis, prepuce, testicles, scrotum... This article concerns how a man differs from women. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth, as well as the role traditionally held by society. ...


Gender identities (specifically, which aspects are considered proper behavior and appearances for men, women, etc.) differ greatly across societies, and many people's gender identities do not exactly follow the stereotyped roles of "women" and "men", although some diverge more than others. The most easily understood case in which it becomes necessary to distinguish between sex and gender is that in which the external genitalia are removed - when such a thing happens through accident or through deliberate intent, the libido and the ability to express oneself in sexual activity are changed, but the individual's gender identity may or may not change. One such case is that of David Reimer, reported in As Nature Made Him by John Colapinto. It details the persistence of a male gender identity and the stubborn adherence to a male gender role of a person whose penis had been totally destroyed shortly after birth as the result of a botched circumcision, and who had subsequently been surgically reassigned by constructing female genitalia. In other cases, a person's gender identity may contrast sharply with that assigned to them according to their genitalia, and/or a person's gendered appearance as a woman or man (or an androgynous person, etc.) in public may not coincide with their physical sex. So the term "gender identity" is broader than the sex of the individual as determined by examination of the external genitalia. Libido in its common usage means sexual desire; however, more technical definitions, such as those found in the work of Carl Jung, are more general, referring to libido as the free creative—or psychic—energy an individual has to put toward personal development, or individuation. ... David Reimer David Reimer (August 22, 1965 – May 5, 2004) was a Canadian man who was born as a mentally and biologically healthy boy, but was sexually reassigned and raised as a girl in an attempt to improve his life after his penis was inadvertently destroyed during circumcision. ... This article is about male circumcision. ...


Formation of gender identity

The formation of a gender identity is a complex process that starts with conception, but which involves critical growth processes during gestation and even learning experiences after birth. There are points of differentiation all along the way, but language and tradition in many societies insist that every individual be categorized as either a man or a woman, although there are societies, such as the Native American identity of a two-spirit, which include multiple gender categories. Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ...


When the gender identity of a person makes him a man, but his genitals are female, he may experience what is called gender dysphoria, i.e., a deep unhappiness caused by his experience of himself as a man and his lack of male genitals. Gender identity disorder as identified by psychologists and medical doctors is a condition where a person who has been assigned one gender (usually at birth on the basis of their sex, but compare intersexual) but identifies as belonging to another gender, or does not conform with the gender role their...


Some research has been done that indicates that gender identity is fixed in early childhood and is thereafter static. This research has generally proceeded by asking transsexuals when they first realized that the gender role that society attempted to place upon them did not match the gender identity that they found in themselves and the gender role that they chose to live out. These studies estimate the age at which gender identity is formed at around 2-3. Such research may be problematical if it made no comparable attempt to discover when non-transsexual people became aware of their own gender identities and choice of gender roles.


Some critics question this research, claiming that the studies suffer from a sampling bias. The acquisition of hormone replacement therapy and sexual reassignment surgery is generally controlled by doctors. One of the questions some doctors ask to distinguish between "real" transsexuals and others is to ask them when they first felt identification with the opposite sex. The researchers may then be unintentionally eliminating some subjects from consideration when they try to determine a typical time of gender identity formation. There is also a possibility of reporting bias, since transsexuals may feel that they must give the "correct" answers to such questions in order to increase the chances of obtaining hormones. Patrick Califia, author of Sex Changes and Public Sex, has indicated that this group has a clear awareness of what answers to give to survey questions in order to be considered eligible for hormone replacement therapy and/or sexual reassignment surgery: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a system of medical treatment for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, based on the assumption that it may prevent discomfort and health problems caused by diminished circulating estrogen hormones. ... Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) includes the surgical procedures by which a persons physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are changed to that of the other sex. ... Patrick Califia (formerly known as Pat Califia; born 1954 near Corpus Christi, Texas) is a writer about womens sexuality and of erotic fiction, nonfiction essays, and poetry. ...

"None of the gender scientists seem to realize that they, themselves, are responsible for creating a situation where transsexual people must describe a fixed set of symptoms and recite a history that has been edited in clearly prescribed ways in order to get a doctor's approval for what should be their inalienable right".

Problems - gender identity and sex

Some people do not believe that their gender identity corresponds to their biological sex, namely transgender people, including transsexual people and many intersexed individuals as well. Consequently, complications arise when society insists that an individual adopt a manner of social expression (gender role) which is based on sex, that the individual feels is inconsistent with that person's gender identity. Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth, as well as the role traditionally held by society. ... A transsexual (sometimes transexual) person establishes a permanent identity with the opposite gender to their assigned (usually at birth) sex. ... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ...


One reason for such discordances in intersexed people is that some individuals have a chromosomal sex that has not been expressed in the external genitalia because of hormonal or other abnormal conditions during critical periods in gestation. Such a person may appear to others to be of one sex, but may recognize himself or herself as belonging to the other sex. The causes of transgenderism are less clear; it has been subject of much speculation, but no psychological theory has ever been proven to apply to even a significant minority of transgender individuals, and theories that assume a sex difference in the brain are relatively new and difficult to prove, because at the moment they require a destructive analysis of inner brain structures, which are quite small. Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth, as well as the role traditionally held by society. ...


In recent decades it has become possible to surgically reassign sex. A person who experiences gender dysphoria may, then, seek these forms of medical intervention to have their physiological sex match their gender identity. Alternatively, some people who experience gender dysphoria retain the genitalia that they were born with (see transsexual for some of the possible reasons), but adopt a gender role that is consonant with what they perceive as their gender identity. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A transsexual (sometimes transexual) person establishes a permanent identity with the opposite gender to their assigned (usually at birth) sex. ...


There is an emerging vocabulary for those who defy traditional gender identity - see transgender and genderqueer. Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth, as well as the role traditionally held by society. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Relationship to gender role

The related term, "gender role," has two meanings that in individual cases may be divergent: First, people's gender roles are the totality of the ways by which they express their gender identities. Second, people's gender roles may be defined as the kinds of activities that society determines to be appropriate for individuals possessing their kind of external genitalia. A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ...


There are probably as many shades and complexities of sexual identity and gender identity as there are human beings, and there are an equal number of ways of working those gender identities out in the intricacies of daily life. Societies, however, tend to assign some classes of social roles to "male" individuals, and some classes of social roles to "female" individuals (as society perceives their sexes). In some societies, there are other classes of social roles for, e.g., surgically neutered physiological male. See Hijra (India), for example. Sometimes the connection between gender identity and gender role is unclear. The original oversimplification was that there are unambiguously male human beings and unambiguously female human beings, that they are clearly men and clearly women, and that they should behave in all important ways as women and men "naturally" behave. (Compare Heteronormativity) Investigations in biology and sociology have strongly supported the view that "the sex between the ears is more important than the sex between the legs", and the implication has been that people with masculine gender identities will truthfully give external representation of their gender identities by adopting gender roles that are appropriate to men, and, similarly, that people with feminine gender identities will adopt gender roles that are appropriate to women. It may be very difficult to determine, however, whether a specific drag queen is someone who has a female gender identity and is learning a female gender role, or whether that person is someone with a male gender identity who enjoys mimicking a female gender role to entertain others, to taunt the more rigid members of his society, or for some other reason, such as to repudiate the value or validity of rigid gender roles. Some, such as RuPaul, refuse to be categorized. Two Hijras bless a baby in a Hindu ceremony. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... Heteronormativity is a term used in the discussion of sexual behavior, gender, and society, primarily within the fields of queer theory and gender theory. ... Drag queens Luc DArcy and Jerry Cyr and friend at Montreals 2003 Divers/Cité pride parade. ... RuPaul (born RuPaul Andre Charles on November 17, 1960), and named after Paul Bergeron, is an American drag performer, dance music singer, actor, and songwriter who gained worldwide fame in the 1990s; appearing in a wide variety of television programs, films, and musical albums. ...


Some famous people known for their cross-dressing or androgynous appearances in the 20th century include Brett Anderson,Dame Edna, Gladys Bentley, David Bowie, Pete Burns, Eddie Izzard, Boy George, Norman Iceberg, k.d. lang, Annie Lennox, Jaye Davidson, Marilyn Manson, Marlene Dietrich, Mylène Farmer, Gackt, Grace Jones, Patrick Wolf, Marc Bolan, Brian Molko, Pat, Phranc, Prince, Susan Powter, Kate Bornstein, and Kristen McMenamy. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Brett Lewis Anderson (born September 29, 1967) is an English singer-songwriter, and former lead vocalist of rock band Suede. ... Dame Edna Everage is a character played by Barry Humphries. ... Gladys Bentley (12 August 1907-18 January 1960) was a famous butch lesbian African-American blues singer during the Harlem Renaissance. ... David Bowie (IPA: []) (born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947) is an English singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, producer, arranger and audio engineer. ... Peter Pete Burns (b. ... Edward John Eddie Izzard (born February 7, 1962) is a British stand-up comedian and actor; famous for his cross-dressing, he describes himself as an executive or action transvestite. ... George Alan ODowd, better known as Boy George (born June 14, 1961 in Eltham, Kent) is a pop singer-songwriter. ... Norman Iceberg (born Norman Joseph Bédard on July 30, 1962) is a Canadian singer and songwriter. ... Kathryn Dawn Lang, OC (born November 2, 1961), best known by the stage name k. ... Annie Lennox (born 25 December 1954) is an Oscar, BRIT, Grammy and Golden Globe award-winning Scottish pop musician and vocalist. ... Jaye Davidson (born Alfred Amey on March 21, 1968) is a Oscar-nominated former actor. ... Marilyn Manson (born Brian Hugh Warner ) is the lead singer of the band Marilyn Manson. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mylène Farmer (September 12, 1961), born Mylène Jeanne Gautier,[1] is a Canadian-born French singer and songwriter. ... Gackt Camui ) , but most often written in Latin alphabet) is a Japanese songwriter, vocalist, and multi-instrumentalist. ... Cover of Grace Jones 1981 album Nightclubbing. ... Patrick Wolf (born on June 30, 1983 at St Thomas Hospital, London[1]) is an English singer-songwriter from South London. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Brian Molko (born December 10, 1972 in Belgium) is lead vocalist and guitarist of the band Placebo. ... Pat was an androgynous fictional character created and performed by Julia Sweeney for the American sketch comedy show Saturday Night Live. ... Phranc Phranc (born Susan Gottlieb in 1958) is an influential singer-songwriter from California whose career has spanned several decades. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Susan Powter (circa 1993) Susan Powter (b. ... Kate Bornstein is a transgender author, playwright, performance artist and gender theorist. ... Kristen McMenamy (born December 13, 1966 in Easton, Pennsylvania) is a supermodel. ...


Conceptual origins

During the 1950s and '60s, psychologists began studying gender development in young children, partially in an effort to understand the origins of homosexuality (which was still viewed as a mental disorder at the time). In 1958, the Gender Identity Research Project was established at the UCLA Medical Center for the study of intersexuals and transexuals. Psychoanalyst Robert Stoller generalized many of the findings of the project in his book Sex and Gender: On the Development of Masculinity and Femininity (1968). He is also credited with introducing the term gender identity to the International Psychoanalytic Congress in 1963. Psychoendocrinologist John Money was also instrumental in the development of early theories of gender identity. His work at Johns Hopkins Medical School's Gender Identity Clinic (established in 1965) popularized an interactionist theory of gender identity, suggesting that, up to a certain age, gender identity is relatively fluid and subject to constant negotiation. His book Man and Woman, Boy and Girl (1972) became widely used as a college textbook, although many of Money's ideas have since been challenged.[2] Money's famous case study was David Reimer. Money wrote that Reimer's sex reassignment proved that gender identity is socially constructed. Reimer later went public with accusations that he had always identified as male, and that Money had largely fabricated his results.[3] Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... UCLA Medical Center is a hospital located on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles in Los Angeles, California. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... John William Money, Ph. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... David Reimer David Reimer (August 22, 1965 – May 5, 2004) was a Canadian man who was born as a mentally and biologically healthy boy, but was sexually reassigned and raised as a girl in an attempt to improve his life after his penis was inadvertently destroyed during circumcision. ...


Non-Western gender identities

See also: Third gender
See also: Two-Spirit

Third gender was used from the late 19th century to describe people who did not fit into the then existing gender categories: female genitalia = female identity = female behavior = desire male partner male genitalia = male identity = male behavior = desires female partner Today this scheme is also known as binary gender system... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ...

Fa'afafine

In some Polynesian societies, fa'afafine are considered to be a "third gender" alongside male and female. They are biologically male, but dress and behave in a manner considered typically female. According to Tamasailau Sua'ali'i (see references), fa'afafine in Samoa at least are often physiologically unable to reproduce. Fa'afafine are accepted as a natural gender, and neither looked down upon nor discriminated against.[4] Polynesian is an adjectival form which refers variously to: Polynesian pie Polynesian sauce, a food condiment available at Chick-fil-A the aboriginal inhabitants of Polynesia, and their: Polynesian culture Polynesian mythology Polynesian languages Category: ... Faafafine (Samoa), fakaleiti (Tonga), rae rae or mahu (French Polynesia) is a Polynesian concept related to gender role and gender identity. ... Third gender was used from the late 19th century to describe people who did not fit into the then existing gender categories: female genitalia = female identity = female behavior = desire male partner male genitalia = male identity = male behavior = desires female partner Today this scheme is also known as binary gender system... The shield and spear of the Roman god Mars, which is also the alchemical symbol for iron, represents the male sex. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Hijra

In the culture of the Indian subcontinent, a hijra is usually considered to be neither a man nor a woman. Most are biologically male or intersex, but some are biologically female. The hijra form a third gender, although they do not enjoy the same acceptance and respect as males and females in their cultures. They can run their own households, and their occupations are singing and dancing, working as cooks or servants, sometimes prostitutes (for men), or long-term sexual partners for men. Hijras can be compared to transvestites or drag queens of contemporary western culture.[5] Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... In the culture of the Indian subcontinent a hijra (also known by a number of different names and romanised spellings) is usually considered a member of the third sex — neither man nor woman. ... The shield and spear of the Roman god Mars, which is also the alchemical symbol for iron, represents the male sex. ... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Gender often refers to the distinctions between males and females in common usage. ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ... For a discussion of the history and current usage of the term transvestite, see transvestism. ... Drag queens Luc DArcy and Jerry Cyr and friend at Montreals 2003 Divers/Cité pride parade. ...


Berdache

In some Native American cultures, the berdache form an institutionalized third gender for individuals who are biologically male, but refuse to assume the socially assigned roles of males in their own cultures. Hence, they perform female roles, such as the education of children, singing and dancing at tribal gatherings, sometimes playing important roles in religious rituals, and have garments that indicate their gender. In addition, the berdache are legitimately homosexual. However, their gender status differs from that of their partner: the husband of a berdache does not lose status as a male marrying a berdache, and he can wed heterosexually in case a divorce between him and a berdache occurs.[6] Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ... Gender often refers to the distinctions between males and females in common usage. ... The shield and spear of the Roman god Mars, which is also the alchemical symbol for iron, represents the male sex. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Husband may refer to: the male spouse in a marriage a husband pillow. ...


Xanith

The xanith form an accepted third gender in Oman, an Islamic, gender-segregated society. The xanith are male homosexual prostitutes whose dressing is male, featuring pastel colors (rather than white, worn by men), but their mannerisms female. Xanith can mingle with women, and they often do at weddings or other formal events. Xaniths have their own households, performing all tasks (both male and female). However, similarly to men in their society, xaniths can marry women, proving their masculinity by consummating the marriage. Should a divorce or death take place, these men can revert to their status as xaniths at the next wedding.[7] Xanith, also written as khanith is a vernacular Arabic term for both mukhannath and khuntha. Mukhannath refers to individuals with a gender identity that is discordant with their visible sexual organs. ... The shield and spear of the Roman god Mars, which is also the alchemical symbol for iron, represents the male sex. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ... Young people interacting within a an ethnically diverse society. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... For the record label, see Divorce Records. ...


See also

Gender
Gender studies, Gender and sexuality studies, Gender role, Gender-Identity/Role, Gender bias
Other
List of transgender-related topics, Sex/gender distinction, Queer theory

Gender often refers to the distinctions between males and females in common usage. ... Gender studies is a theoretical work in the social sciences or humanities that focuses on issues of sex and gender in language and society, and often addresses related issues including racial and ethnic oppression, postcolonial societies, and globalization. ... Gender and sexuality studies is a collective term for the interdisciplinary study of human gender and sexuality. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... The term Gender-Identity/Role has been coined by the Dr. John Money, Emeritus Professor of Medical Psychology and behavioral sciences and of Pediatrics at The Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... Transgender is a very complex topic, where consensual and precise definitions have not yet been reached. ... The sex/gender distinction is a concept in feminist theory, political feminism, and sociology which distinguishes sex, a natural or biological feature, from gender, the cultural or learned significance of sex. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...

External articles and references

Citations

  1. ^ Blackless, Melanie; Anthony Charuvastra, Amanda Derryck, Anne Fausto-Sterling, Karl Lauzanne, and Ellen Lee (February 2000). "How sexually dimorphic are we? Review and synthesis". American Journal of Human Biology 12 (2): 151-166. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6300(200003/04)12:2%3C151::AID-AJHB1%3E3.0.CO;2-F. PMID 11534012. Retrieved on 2007-02-15. 
  2. ^ Haraway, Donna (1991). Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. London: Free Association Books, 133. ISBN 0-415-90386-6. 
  3. ^ Colapinto, John. "The True Story of John/Joan." Rolling Stone, December 11, 1997: 54–97.
  4. ^ SUA'ALI'I, Tamasailau, "Samoans and Gender: Some Reflections on Male, Female and Fa'afafine Gender Identities", in: Tangata O Te Moana Nui: The Evolving Identities of Pacific Peoples in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Palmerston North (NZ): Dunmore Press, 2001, ISBN 0-86469-369-9
  5. ^ LORBER, Judith. Paradoxes of Gender. Yale University Press:Yale, 1994. pp. 92-93.
  6. ^ LORBER, Judith. Paradoxes of Gender. Yale University Press:Yale, 1994. pp. 90-91.
  7. ^ LORBER, Judith. Paradoxes of Gender. Yale University Press:Yale, 1994. pp. 94-95.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Donna Haraway, born in 1944 in Denver, Colorado, is currently a professor and former chair of the History of Consciousness Program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, United States. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gender often refers to the distinctions between males and females in common usage. ... Look up Aotearoa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Books and publications

  • Morgan, R., & Wieringa, S. (2005). Tommy boys, lesbian men, and ancestral wives: female same-sex practices in Africa. Johannesburg: Jacana Media.

Gerneral information

  • International Foundation for Gender Education
  • National Center for Transgender Equality
  • National Transgender Advocacy Coalition
  • Gender PAC
  • Human Rights Campaign Foundation, Transgender Resources for the Workplace
  • The Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association
  • Genderology Directory Project, International listing of service providers for those affected by GID

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mental Health: Gender Identity Disorder (641 words)
Gender identity disorder is a condition in which a male or female feels a strong identification with the opposite sex.
Gender identity disorder is a rare disorder that affects children and adults.
Gender identity disorder is diagnosed when the evaluation confirms the persistent desire to be the opposite sex.
Gender identity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1277 words)
Gender identity may be affected by a variety of social structures, including the person's ethnic group, employment status, religion or irreligion, and family.
When, for instance, the gender identity of a person makes him a man, but his genitals are female, he may experience what is called gender dysphoria, i.e., a deep unhappiness caused by his experience of himself as a man and his lack of male genitals.
Alternatively, some people who experience gender dysphoria retain the genitalia that they were born with (see transsexual for some of the possible reasons), but adopt a gender role that is consonant with what they perceive as their gender identity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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