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Encyclopedia > Gemini 7
Gemini 7
Mission insignia
Gemini 7 insignia
Mission statistics
Mission name: Gemini 7
Call sign: Gemini 7
Number of
crew:
2
Launch: December 4, 1965
19:30:03.702 UTC
Cape Canaveral
LC 19
Stationkeeping w/GT-6A:
Start:
End:
December 15-16, 1965
19:33 UTC
00:52 UTC
Landing: December 18, 1965
14:05:04 UTC
25°25.1′N 70°6.7′W
Duration: 13 days, 18 hours
35 minutes
1 second
Distance traveled: 9,029,771 km
Orbits: 206
Apogee: (1st orbit) 328.2 km
Perigee: (1st orbit) 161.6 km
Period: (1st orbit) 89.39 min
Inclination: 28.89 deg
Mass: 3,663 kg
Crew picture
Gemini 7 crew portrait (L-R: Lovell, Borman)
Gemini 7 crew portrait
(L-R: Lovell, Borman)
Gemini 7 crew

Gemini 7 (officially Gemini VII) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASA's Gemini program. It was the 4th manned Gemini flight, the 12th manned American flight and the 20th spaceflight of all time (includes X-15 flights over 100 km). Gemini 7 Patch File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... It has been suggested that leap second be merged into this article or section. ... Cape Canaveral from space, August 1991 Cape Canaveral (Cabo Cañaveral in Spanish) is a strip of land in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of that states Atlantic coast. ... December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Gemini 7 crew: Lovell, Borman. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Project Gemini insignia Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program in which the United States of America sent humans into space, between Projects Mercury and Apollo, during the years 1963-1966. ... Description Role: Research Aircraft Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Length: 50. ...

Contents


Crew

Frank Borman (right) poses with Jim Lovell (left) and Bill Anders (center) for an Apollo 8 publicity photo Frank Borman (born March 14, 1928) was a NASA astronaut, best remembered as one of the three crewmembers of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon. ... Apollo 8 was the second manned mission of the Apollo space program, in which Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James Lovell and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders became the first humans to leave Earth orbit and to orbit around the Moon. ... James Arthur Lovell, Jr. ... Gemini 12 (officially Gemini XII) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Apollo 8 was the second manned mission of the Apollo space program, in which Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James Lovell and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders became the first humans to leave Earth orbit and to orbit around the Moon. ... Link title // Headline text This article is about the Moon mission. ...

Backup crew

Edward Higgins White, II (Lt. ... Michael Collins (born October 31, 1930) is a former American astronaut and test pilot. ...

Mission parameters

Mass is a property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it contains. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ...

See also

Atlantic splashdown locations of American spacecraft. ...

Objectives

Gemini 7 was originally intended to fly after Gemini 6, but the original Gemini 6 mission was cancelled after the failure during launch of the Agena Target Vehicle it was meant to rendezvous and dock with. However the objective of rendezvous was so important it was decided to fly Gemini 6 at the same time as Gemini 7, thus using the latter as the rendezvous target. Gemini 6A (officially Gemini VI-A) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... The Agena Target Vehicle was designed to develop and practice orbital rendezvous and docking in space, in preparation for the lunar mission. ...


This 14 day mission required NASA to solve problems of long-duration space flight, not the least of which was stowage (the crew had practiced stuffing waste paper behind their seats before the flight). Timing their workday to match that of ground crews, both men worked and slept at the same time. Gemini VII flew the most experiments – 20 – of any Gemini mission, including studies of nutrition in space. The astronauts also evaluated a new, lightweight spacesuit, which proved uncomfortable if worn for a long time in Gemini's hot, cramped quarters. The high point of the mission was the rendezvous with Gemini VI. But the three days that followed were something of an endurance test, and both astronauts, heeding Pete Conrad's Gemini V advice, brought books along. Gemini VII was the longest space flight in U.S. history, until the Skylab missions of the 1970s. Charles Pete Conrad, Jr. ... Gemini 5 (officially Gemini V) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Drawing of Skylab with components labelled Skylab was the first space station the United States launched into orbit. ...


The original mission of Gemini 7 changed little with these new plans. It was always planned to be a long duration flight, investigating the effects of a fortnight in space on the human body. The nearly fourteen days in space would double the length of time that anyone had been in space and would stand as the single spaceflight duration record for five years. A fortnight is a unit of time equal to two weeks: that is 14 days, or literally 14 nights. ... Human anatomy or anthropotomy is a special field within anatomy. ...


Flight

Their launch and ascent was nominal. After separating from the spent rocket stage, they turned the spacecraft around and proceeded to station keep with the rocket stage. They spent fifteen minutes formation flying with the stage, but Borman felt they were using too much fuel and the rocket stage was acting erratically as it vented its own fuel.


They spent the rest of their first day in space doing some experiments and eating their first meal. Their sleep periods were scheduled at the same time unlike previous missions and they were able to get some sleep. They next morning they woke at 9:06 am EST and found out the days news which included the fact that two airliners had collided over New York.[1](this link is dead) A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft whose primary function is the transportation of paying passengers. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq. ...


For the first time during a flight, one of the crew were allowed to take off their suits. Borman and Lovell had planned to both take them off two days into the mission when they were satisfied that the environmental system was working properly. The NASA managers didn't like this idea and said that at least one crew member had to be wearing their suit at all times. Borman who was wearing his suit was sweating profusely but agreed to let Lovell stay out his suit as Lovell was the larger of the two and it required a lot of effort to get in and out of a suit in little more space than the front seat of a car.

Moon and clouds over the western Pacific as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft
Moon and clouds over the western Pacific as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft

In the end the flight controllers ordered Lovell to don his suit and Borman to get out of his. This was because the doctors wanted to see the effects of being suited and unsuited on the crewmembers. So 148 hours into the flight, Borman got his chance to cool down. In the end the NASA managers decided that there was little benefit in having the crew members suited and so relented after a couple of days. Moon and clouds over the western Pacific as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Moon and clouds over the western Pacific as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


After five days, they had performed four orbital adjustment burns that put them in a circular 300 kilometer orbit. This meant that the Gemini 7 spacecraft could stay in orbit for at least 100 days without its orbit degrading, more than stable enough for the passive target during a rendezvous. In physics, an orbit is the path that an object makes, around another object, whilst under the influence of a source of centripetal force, such as gravity. ... Look up Rendezvous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Rendezvous

Gemini 6A launched December 15, after a day-long delay due to a malfunction right at the point of ignition. It entered into a 161 by 259 kilometer orbit, and was briefly visible from Gemini 7 just after launch. Borman and Lovell were also able to see the contrail from the launch. Gemini 6A (officially Gemini VI-A) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ignition occurs when the heat produced by a reaction becomes sufficient to sustain the reaction, whether it be a fire, an explosion, or nuclear fusion. ... Contrails are condensation trails (sometimes vapour trails): artificial clouds made by the exhaust of jet aircraft or wingtip vortices which precipitate a stream of tiny ice crystals in moist, frigid upper air. ...


The plan called for the rendezvous to take place on the fourth orbit of Gemini 6A. Their first burn came 94 minutes after launch when they increased their speed by 5 metres per second. Due to their lower orbit they were gaining on Gemini 7 and were only 1,175 kilometres behind. The next burn was at 2 hours and 18 minutes when Gemini 6A made a phase adjustment to put them on the same orbital inclination as Gemini 7. They now only trailed by 483 kilometers. In physics, an orbit is the path that an object makes, around another object, whilst under the influence of a source of centripetal force, such as gravity. ...


The radar on Gemini 6A first made contact with Gemini 7 at 3 hours and 15 minutes when they were 434 kilometers away. A third burn put them into a 270 by 274 kilometer orbit. As they slowly gained Walter Schirra put Gemini 6A's computer in charge of the rendezvous and then at 5 hours and 4 minutes he saw a bright star that he thought was Sirius, but was in fact Gemini 7. This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll[1]. Radar is a system that uses radio waves to detect, determine the distance of, and map, objects such... Walter Marty Schirra, Jr. ... Sirius (α CMa / α Canis Majoris / Alpha Canis Majoris) is the brightest star in the nighttime sky, with a visual apparent magnitude of −1. ...


After several more burns the two spacecraft were only 40 meters apart. The burns had only used 51 kilograms of fuel on Gemini 6A, giving plenty of fuel for some fly arounds. During the next 270 minutes the crews moved as close as 30 centimeters, talking over the radio. At one stage the spacecraft were stationkeeping so well that neither crew had to make any burns for 20 minutes.


As the sleep periods approached Gemini 6A made a separation burn and slowly drifted out to 16 kilometers, to prevent an accidental collision in the night. Gemini 6A reentered the next day, landing within 18 km of the planned site, the first truly accurate reentry. Atmospheric entry is the transition from the vacuum of space to the atmosphere of any planet or other celestial body. ...


The last few days

By this time the novelty of spaceflight had worn off for the crew of Gemini 7. They had spent 11 days in space already and had three more to go. They were doing little more than drifting around the Earth and the incentive of the rendezvous had gone. Borman read Roughing It by Mark Twain and Lovell Drums along the Mohawk by Walter D. Edmonds. Roughing It is a semi-non-fiction work written by American author Mark Twain. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, novelist, writer, and lecturer. ... Drums Along the Mohawk is an historical novel of the American Revolution written by Walter D. Edmonds. ... Walter Wat Dumaux Edmonds (July 15, 1903 - January 24, 1998) was an American author noted for his historical novels, including the popular Drums Along the Mohawk of 1936 which was later made into a movie. ...


Malfunctions began to start. Some of the thrusters stopped working. After the flight this was traced to the fact that they had an old type of laminate in the thrust chamber. Also on the 12th day the fuel cell started to give only a partial amount of power. But the manufacturers of the Gemini spacecraft decided that the spacecraft could survive by battery power alone for the next couple of days. A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ...


Finally the last day of the mission arrived and the crew stowed everything for re-entry. The retro-rockets worked perfectly, even after 14 days in space. The managed to land within 11.8 kilometres of the targeted landing point. A retrorocket is a rocket engine used for providing thrust to oppose the motion of a space vehicle, thereby causing deceleration of the vehicle. ...


The crew were somewhat weakened by their time in space. However, both were in good health and were up and about after a good night's sleep on the recovery ship USS Wasp. The ninth USS Wasp (CV-18) of the United States Navy was an Essex-class aircraft carrier. ...


The Gemini 7 & 6A missions were supported by the following U.S. Department of Defense resources: 10,125 personnel, 125 aircraft and 16 ships. The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ...


Insignia

The patch features an Olympic torch, symbolising the marathon-like length of the mission. There is a small stylised image of a Gemini spacecraft and the roman numerals VII for seven. The crew did not put its names on the patch, although souvenir versions did include the flight and crew names. The olympic flame at the Athens 2004 Summer Olympics The Olympic Flame or Olympic Fire is a symbol of the Olympic Games. ... Modern day marathon runners The word marathon refers to a long-distance road running event of 42. ... The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ...


Capsule location

The capsule is on display at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington D.C.. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


External links

 
Project Gemini Gemini program insignia
Previous mission: Gemini 5 Next mission: Gemini 6A
Gemini 1 | Gemini 2 | Gemini 3 | Gemini 4 | Gemini 5 | Gemini 7 | Gemini 6A | Gemini 8 | Gemini 9A | Gemini 10 | Gemini 11 | Gemini 12

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gemini 7 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1363 words)
Gemini 7 was originally intended to fly after Gemini 6, but the original Gemini 6 mission was cancelled after the failure during launch of the Agena Target Vehicle it was meant to rendezvous and dock with.
Gemini VII was the longest space flight in U.S. history, until the Skylab missions of the 1970s.
As they slowly gained Walter Schirra put Gemini 6A's computer in charge of the rendezvous and then at 5 hours and 4 minutes he saw a bright star that he thought was Sirius, but was in fact Gemini 7.
Gemini 12 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (507 words)
It was the 10th manned Gemini flight, the 18th manned American flight and the 26th spaceflight of all time (includes X-15 flights over 100 km).
In preparation for Gemini XII, new, improved restraints were added to the outside of the capsule, and a new technique—underwater training—was introduced, which would become a staple of all future space-walk simulation.
Gemini 12 was designed to perform rendezvous and docking with the Agena target vehicle, to conduct three ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) operations, to conduct a tethered stationkeeping exercise, to perform docked maneuvers using the Agena propulsion system to change orbit, and demonstrate an automatic reentry.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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