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Encyclopedia > Gemini 4
Gemini 4
Mission insignia
Gemini 4 insignia
Mission statistics
Mission name: Gemini 4
Call sign: Gemini 4
Number of
crew:
2
Launch: June 3, 1965
15:15:59.562 UTC
Cape Canaveral
LC 19
Spacewalk:
Open hatch:
Start walk:
End walk:
Close hatch:
June 3, 1965
19:34 UTC
19:46 UTC
20:06 UTC
20:10 UTC
Landing: June 7, 1965
16:12:11 UTC
27°44′N 74°11′W
Duration: 4 days, 1 hour
56 minutes
2 seconds
Distance traveled: ~2,782,486 km
Orbits: 62
Apogee:
(1st orbit)
282.1 km
Perigee:
(1st orbit)
162.3 km
Period:
(1st orbit)
88.94 min
Inclination: 32.53 deg
Mass: 3,574 kg
Crew Picture
Gemini 4 crew portrait (L-R: White, McDivitt)
Gemini 4 crew portrait
(L-R: White, McDivitt)
Gemini 4 Crew

Gemini 4 (officially Gemini IV) was a 1965 manned space flight in NASA's Gemini program. It was the 2nd manned Gemini flight, the 10th manned American flight and the 18th spaceflight of all time (includes X-15 flights over 100 km). It was crewed by James McDivitt and Edward White. Image File history File links Gemini4-Patch. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Cape Canaveral from space, August 1991 Cape Canaveral (Cabo Cañaveral in Spanish) is a strip of land in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of that states Atlantic coast. ... The launch of Gemini 6A from LC-19. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Gemini 4 crew: White, McDivitt. ... Human spaceflight is space exploration with a human crew, and possibly passengers (in contrast to unmanned space missions, which are remotely-controlled or robotic space probes). ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States Government, responsible for that nations public space program. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ... Description Role: Research Aircraft Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Length: 50. ... James A. McDivitt (Brig. ... Edward Higgins White, II (Lt. ...

Contents

Objectives

The plan for this four-day, 62-orbit mission was for Gemini IV to fly in formation with the spent second stage of its Titan 2 booster in orbit. On this first attempt, however, space flight engineers learned something about the complication of orbital rendezvous. Thrusting toward their target, the astronauts only moved farther away. They finally gave up after using nearly half their fuel. (On later rendezvous missions, a spacecraft chasing another in orbit would first drop to a lower, faster orbit before rising again.) The mission's highlight was White's 22-minute space walk, the first ever for an American. Tied to a tether and using a handheld "zip gun" to maneuver himself, White swam through space while McDivitt took photographs. Gemini IV set a record for flight duration, and eased fears about the medical consequences of longer missions. It also was the first use of the new Mission Control Center outside Houston, which because of the long duration, had to conduct the first three-shift operations. A space rendezvous between two spacecraft, often between a spacecraft and a space station, is an orbital maneuver where the two arrive at the same orbit, make the orbital velocities the same, and bring them together (an approach maneuver, taxiing maneuver); it may or may not include docking. ...


Gemini 4 was the first multi day space flight by the United States. It had been realised that in order to get to the Moon you would have to show that it was possible for a man to stay in space for the length of time it would take for him to get there and back. Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ...


Also on this mission was the first ever American Extra-vehicular activity (EVA). This objective was not originally intended to be part of the mission but after Aleksei Leonov on Voskhod 2 had performed the first ever it was necessary to give the appearance that the US was not falling behind. Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... General Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov, Soviet Air Force (Ret. ... Voskhod 2 (Russian: Восход 2) was a Soviet manned space mission. ...


Flight

The launch was also historical for the fact that for the first time there was an international audience watching it live. It was broadcast on television to 12 European nations via the Early Bird satellite. It would also be the first time that the Mission Control center at Houston had been used. Due to these factors the press interest was high. NASA had to lease buildings to house all 1,100 journalists who requested accreditation. Early Bird is the name of the first communications satellite to be placed in synchronous orbit on April 6, 1965. ... Mission Control Center (MCC) is a unit that manages aerospace flights. ... Nickname: Space City Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Country United States State Texas Counties Harris County Fort Bend County Montgomery County Incorporated June 5, 1837 Government  - Mayor Bill White Area  - City  601. ...


The launch was perfect except for a few moments of pogo (axial vibrations in the rocket), with the spacecraft entering into a 163 by 282 kilometres orbit. One of the first objectives was to see if Gemini could station keep with its spent rocket stage. This turned out to be harder than anticipated. The crew had little training in the idiosyncrasies of orbital mechanics. Therefore, they couldn't understand it when they fired their thrusters in the direction of the rocket stage and found it moved away and downward. Pogo oscillation is the term for a potentially dangerous type of oscillation found in rocket engines. ... This article or section should be merged with Celestial Mechanics Astrodynamics is the study and creation of orbits, especially those of artificial satellites. ...


After several attempts over the first orbit to get closer to the stage the crew gave up. They decided that the EVA was more important than the rendezvous, something that would be performed on later missions.


Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA)

They postponed the EVA until the third orbit after McDivitt decided that White looked tired and hot. After the rest they finished the checklist that would get them ready for the EVA. Over Carnarvon, Australia, they began to depressurise the cabin. A spring failed to compress in the hatch mechanism meaning that the hatch wouldn't open at first. It finally did after some pushing and shoving.


White then floated out of the hatch and fired his nitrogen powered gun to move him out of the spacecraft. He travelled five metres and began to experiment with maneuvering. He found it to be easy, especially the pitch and yaw, though he thought the roll would use too much fuel. After 15 minutes 40 seconds he was told to reenter the spacecraft. He said "It's the saddest moment of my life." The hatch was difficult to relatch but it finally did with McDivitt pulling on White and White pulling on the hatch handle. General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Atomic mass 14. ...

Ed White performing the first American EVA
Ed White performing the first American EVA

They powered down the spacecraft intending to drift for the next two and a half days. They also intended to sleep alternate four hour periods but this turned out to be nearly impossible with the constant radio communications and the small cabin meaning each was almost in the other person's lap. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1650, 361 KB) Ed White First American Spacewalker On June 3, 1965 Edward H. White II became the first American to step outside his spacecraft and let go, effectively setting himself adrift in the zero gravity of space. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1650, 361 KB) Ed White First American Spacewalker On June 3, 1965 Edward H. White II became the first American to step outside his spacecraft and let go, effectively setting himself adrift in the zero gravity of space. ...

Experiments

Eleven experiments were carried on the spacecraft. Experiment D-8 was five dosimeters that measured the radiation in the spacecraft environment. Of particular interest was the South Atlantic Anomaly. Experiment D-9 was an experiment in simple spacecraft navigation where the crew used a sextant to measure their position using the stars. In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions and observations, performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... The Van Allen radiation belts and the point of the South Atlantic Anomaly. ... A sextant is a measuring instrument generally used to measure the angle of elevation of a celestial object above the horizon. ...


Experiments 5-5 and 5-6 were both photography experiments where they used a 70-millimeter Hasselblad camera to photograph the weather and terrain below them. There were two medical experiments: M-3 and M-4. The first was a bungee cord that the crew used for exercise. They said, after the mission, that this got harder as the mission went on, though this may have been due to a lack of sleep. The second was the Phonocardiogram experiment, which had sensors attached to their bodies that measured heartbeat rates, especially during liftoff, EVA, and reentry. Bungee may mean: Bungee Jumping, the adventure sport Bungee, the Métis language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


There were four engineering experiments. MSC-1 measured the Electrostatic charge in the spacecraft, MSC-2 was a Proton-Electron Spectrometer, MSC-3 was a Tri-Axis Magnetometer and MSC-10 involved the crew photographing the red-blue Earth limb. Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interactions. ...


The computer failed on the 48th revolution. This was unfortunate for IBM which had just put an advertisement in the Wall Street Journal saying that its computers were so reliable that even NASA used them. The computer failure meant that the capsule would not be able to perform a lifting reentry as planned. International Business Machines Corporation (known as IBM or Big Blue; NYSE: IBM) is a multinational computer technology corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company is one of the few information technology companies with a continuous history dating back to the 19th century. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ...


Reentry

Reentry came on the 62nd revolution. They started rolling the spacecraft at 120,000 metres to increase its stabilty. They started slowing this rolling at 27,000 metres and it had stopped by 12,000 metres. The drogue parachute deployed shortly after this and the main deployed at 3,230 metres. The landing was rough but neither of the crew encountered any problems. Even though they were 80 kilometres short of the intended landing point, some ships had already started steaming to the touchdown point and a helicopter was able to see them land. A B-52H Stratofortress from the 5 Bomb Wing deploying its drag chute for landing Apollo Command Module splashdown A drogue parachute is a type of parachute designed to be deployed from a rapidly moving object. ... The Bell 206 of Canadian Helicopters Robinson Helicopter Company (USA) R44, a four seat development of the R22 A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors consisting of two or more rotor blades. ...


The Gemini 4 mission was supported by the following U.S. Department of Defense resources: 10,249 personnel, 134 aircraft and 26 ships.


Insignia

There was no patch or callsign for this mission. The NASA management sent a memo around saying that they didn't want a repeat performance of the previous mission where Gus Grissom had named his spacecraft Molly Brown. Gemini 4's crew had intended to call their mission American Eagle, but this was scuttled. As the crew were unable to name their spacecraft they decided to put the American flag on their suits, surprisingly the first crew to do so, although Soviet crews used the Cyrillic "CCCP" on their spacesuit helmets. National flag and ensign. ...


Capsule location

Gemini 4 on display in 2004.
Gemini 4 on display in 2004.
Gemini 4 on display in 2004 (inside capsule).
Gemini 4 on display in 2004 (inside capsule).


The Gemini 4 space capsule on display at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington DC. Image taken on May 22nd 2004 by Jawed Karim. ... The Gemini 4 space capsule on display at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington DC. Image taken on May 22nd 2004 by Jawed Karim. ... The Gemini 4 space capsule on display at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington DC. Image taken on May 22nd 2004 by Jawed Karim. ... The Gemini 4 space capsule on display at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington DC. Image taken on May 22nd 2004 by Jawed Karim. ...


The capsule is on display at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington D.C.. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


Crew

*Number in parentheses indicates number of spaceflights by each individual, prior to and including this mission. James A. McDivitt (Brig. ... Edward Higgins White, II (Lt. ...


Backup Crew

Frank Borman (right) poses with Jim Lovell (left) and Bill Anders (center) for an Apollo 8 publicity photo Frank Borman (born March 14, 1928) was a NASA astronaut, best remembered as one of the three crewmembers of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon. ... James Jim Arthur Lovell, Jr. ...

Mission parameters

Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... Perigee is the point at which an object in orbit around the Earth makes its closest approach to the Earth. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ...

Space walk

  • White - EVA - June 3, 1965
  • Open hatch: 19:34 UTC
  • Start EVA: 19:46 UTC
  • End EVA: 20:06 UTC
  • Close hatch: 20:10 UTC
  • Duration: 20 minutes

June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...

See also

Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Related article Mir extra-vehicular activity (just an excerpt from the table above) List of ISS spacewalks (just an excerpt from the table above) External link NASA JSC Oral History Project: See link near page end to Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology PDF document. ... Atlantic splashdown locations of American spacecraft. ...

External links

 

Project Gemini Gemini program insignia
Previous mission: Gemini 3 Next mission: Gemini 5
Gemini 1 | Gemini 2 | Gemini 3 | Gemini 4 | Gemini 5 | Gemini 7 | Gemini 6A | Gemini 8 | Gemini 9A | Gemini 10 | Gemini 11 | Gemini 12

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gemini 4 (7347 words)
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Gemini IV was the first of the program's longer missions, and it imposed a set of new demands on ground control, which moved for the first time into a three-shift operation.
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It was the 5th manned Gemini flight, the 13th manned American flight and the 21st spaceflight of all time (includes X-15 flights over 100 km).
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