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Encyclopedia > Gemini 3
Gemini 3
Mission insignia
Gemini 3 insignia
Mission statistics
Mission name: Gemini 3
Call sign: Molly Brown
Number of
crew:
2
Launch: March 23, 1965
14:24:00.064 UTC
Cape Canaveral
LC 19
Landing: March 23, 1965
19:16:31 UTC
22°26′N 70°51′W
Duration: 4 hours - 52 minutes
31 seconds
Distance traveled: 128,748 km
Orbits: 3
Apogee:
(1st orbit)
224.2 km
Perigee:
(1st orbit)
161.2 km
Period:
(1st orbit)
88.3 min
Inclination: 32.6 deg
Mass: 3,236.9 kg
Crew Picture
Gemini 3 crew portrait (L-R: Young, Grissom)
Gemini 3 crew portrait
(L-R: Young, Grissom)
Gemini 3 Crew

Gemini 3 was a 1965 manned space flight in NASA's Gemini program. It was the first manned Gemini flight, the ninth manned American flight and the 17th manned spaceflight of all time (includes X-15 flights over 100 kilometres). Gemini 3 insignia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in leap years). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... UTC redirects here. ... Cape Canaveral from space, August 1991 Cape Canaveral (Cabo Cañaveral in Spanish) is a strip of land in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of that states Atlantic coast. ... The launch of Gemini 6A from LC-19. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in leap years). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Gemini 3 crew: Young, Grissom Downloaded from tne NASA GRIN Website: http://grin. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States Government, responsible for that nations public space program. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ... Description Role: Research Aircraft Crew: one, pilot Dimensions Length: 50. ... km redirects here. ...

Contents

Crew

*Number in parentheses indicates number of spaceflights by each individual, prior to and including this mission. Gus Grissom in his Mercury spacesuit Virgil Ivan Gus Grissom (April 3, 1926–January 27, 1967) was a U.S. Air Force pilot who became one of the first American astronauts. ... John W. Young in 1986 John Watts Young (born September 24, 1930) is a former NASA astronaut who walked on the Moon on Apollo 16, April 21, 1972. ...


Backup crew

Walter M. “Wally” Schirra Walter Marty Schirra, Jr. ... Thomas P. Stafford (born September 17, 1930) is an American astronaut and Air Force general. ...

Mission parameters

  • First orbital maneuver by manned spacecraft

On March 23, 1965 at 15:57:00 UTC, at the end of the first orbit, over Corpus Christi, Texas, a 1 minute 14 second burn of the Orbit attitude and maneuvering system (OAMS) engines gave a delta-V of 15.5 meters per second. The orbit was changed from 161.2 km x 224.2 km, period 88.3 minutes to an orbit of 158 km x 169 km, period 87.8 minutes. Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... Perigee is the point at which an object in orbit around the Earth makes its closest approach to the Earth. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in leap years). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... UTC redirects here. ... Nickname: Sparkling City by the Sea Location in the state of Texas Counties Nueces County Mayor Henry Garrett Area    - City 1,192. ... The Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System or OAMS was a propulsion system used in orbit by the Gemini spacecraft. ... General In general physics delta-v is simply the change in velocity. ... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ...


Objectives

This first manned flight of the Gemini spacecraft was very much a test flight. In a playful reference to the Broadway hit The Unsinkable Molly Brown, Grissom nicknamed the Gemini 3 spacecraft "Molly Brown," hoping that it would not duplicate his experience with Liberty Bell 7. (It was the last Gemini to be named by an astronaut. All subsequent flights in the program were designated by a Roman numeral.) The mission's primary goal was to test the new, maneuverable Gemini spacecraft. In space, the crew fired thrusters to change the shape of their orbit, shift their orbital plane slightly, and drop to a lower altitude. Other firsts were achieved on Gemini 3: two people flew aboard an American spacecraft (the Soviet Union launched a three-man crew on Voskhod 1 in 1964, upstaging the two-man Gemini and three-man Apollo programs); the first manned re-entry where the spacecraft was able to produce lift to change its touchdown point. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Unsinkable Molly Brown is a musical play which tells the fictionalized account of the life of Margaret Brown, whose husband made a fortune in the Colorado gold mines, and who survived the sinking of the RMS Titanic. ... Mercury 4 was a Mercury program manned space mission launched on July 21, 1961 using a Redstone rocket. ... Voskhod 1 (Russian: ) was the first spaceflight to carry more than one person into space and the first flight without space suits. ...


Flight

The only major incident during the orbital phase involved a contraband corned beef sandwich that Young had snuck on board. The transcript of the crew's conversation during the episode reveals Grissom was unimpressed: (C=Commander Grissom, P=Pilot Young) Corned beef is beef that is first pickled in brine and then cooked by simmering. ...

01 52 26 C What is it?
01 52 27 P Corn beef sandwich.
01 52 28 C Where did that come from?
01 52 30 P I brought it with me. Let's see how it tastes. Smells, doesn't it?
01 52 41 C Yes, it's breaking up. I'm going to stick it in my pocket.
01 52 43 P Is it?
01 52 49 P It was a thought, anyway.
01 52 51 C Yep.
01 52 52 P Not a very good one.
01 52 52 C Pretty good, though, if it would just hold together.
01 53 13 P Want some chicken leg?
01 53 15 C No, you can handle that. [1]

The crew each took a few bites before the sandwich had to be restowed. The crumbs it released could have wreaked havoc with the craft's electronics, so the crew were reprimanded when they returned to Earth. Other crews were warned not to pull the same type of stunt again.

Launch of the first manned Gemini flight
Launch of the first manned Gemini flight

Two small failures occurred in-orbit. The first was an experiment testing the Synergistic Effect of Zero Gravity on Sea Urchin Eggs. A lever essential to the experiment broke off when pulled. The second involved the photographic coverage objective. It was only partially successful due to an improper lens setting on the 16 mm camera. Launch of Gemini-Titan 3 http://science. ... Launch of Gemini-Titan 3 http://science. ... Subclasses Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Sea urchins are spiny sea creatures of...


Early in the flight there was a minor problem with one of the Orbital maneuvering system thrusters:

00 18 41 C I seem to have a leak. There must be a leak in one of the thrusters, because I get a continuous yaw left.
00 18 53 CC Roger. Understand that you get a continuous yaw left.
00 18 57 C Very slight. Very slow drift. [1]

This is of interest as a similar problem with a stuck thruster in Gemini 8 became much more significant, as Neil Armstrong took some time to regain control of the spinning vehicle. In this mission the problem did not get out of hand, and the thruster was disabled. Gemini 8 (officially Gemini VIII) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Neil Alden Armstrong born August 5, 1930 (age 76) is a former American astronaut, test pilot, university professor, and Naval Aviator, and was the first human to set foot on the Moon. ...



The crew made their first orbit change an hour and a half into the flight. The burn lasted 75 seconds and moved them from a 122 by 175 kilometer orbit to a nearly circular one with a drop in speed of 15 metres per second. The second burn was 45 minutes later when the orbital inclination was changed by 0.02 degrees. The last burn came during the third orbit when the perigee was lowered to 72 kilometres. This meant that even if retrorockets had failed, they would still have reentered. When reentry finally occurred, crew commented that even the colours matched ground simulations. In physics, an orbit is the path that an object makes, around another object, whilst under the influence of a source of centripetal force, such as gravity. ...


On descent, the capsule shifted from a vertical to horizontal attitude under its parachutes. The change was so sudden that Grissom cracked his faceplate (made of plexiglas) on the control panel in front of him. Later Gemini spacesuits and all Apollo and Space Shuttle (both the launch-entry and EVA suits) used polycarbonate plastic. The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure. ...


The craft landed eventually 84 kilometers short of its intended splashdown point. Wind tunnel testing incorrectly predicted the craft's ability to compensate for course deviation. When the crew discovered the error, they decided to stay in the capsule, not wanting to open the hatch before the arrival of the recovery ship. The crew spent an uncomfortable half an hour in a spacecraft never designed to be a boat. Due to unexpected smoke from the thrusters the crew decided to deviate from the post landing checklist and to keep their helmets on with the face plates closed for some time after splashdown [1]. The USS Intrepid recovered the craft and crew. The Gemini 3 mission was supported by the following United States Department of Defense resources: 10,185 personnel, 126 aircraft and 27 ships. Atlantic splashdown locations of American spacecraft. ... NASA wind tunnel with the model of a plane A wind tunnel is a research tool developed to assist with studying the effects of air moving over or around solid objects. ... This article is about the aircraft carrier USS Intrepid. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ...


Insignia

The mission insignia was not worn by the flight crew as a patch, like those from Gemini 5 onwards. The Gemini 3 Molly Brown logo was designed and minted on gold plated, sterling silver, 1-inch (25-mm) medallions. The crew carried a number of these medallions into space to give to their families and friends. The same design was imprinted on the cover of Gus Grissom's book, GEMINI, and John Young was seen wearing the Molly Brown logo as a patch on his flightsuit as late as 1981.


The name "Molly Brown" was chosen by Grissom as a reference to the sinking of Liberty Bell 7; NASA officials found the slightly sarcastic reference embarrassing, and astronauts were not allowed to name their spacecraft again until Apollo 9 when for the first time, two spacecraft would be operating independently as part of the same mission. Apollo 9 was the third manned mission in the Apollo program, a ten day earth-orbital mission launched 3 March 1969. ...


Capsule location

The capsule is on display at the Grissom Memorial, Spring Mill State Park, Mitchell, Indiana. Spring Mill State Park Spring Mill State Park is a 1,319 acre state park in the state of Indiana. ... Mitchell is a city in Lawrence County, Indiana, United States. ...


External links

 

Project Gemini Gemini program insignia
Previous mission: Gemini 2 Next mission: Gemini 4
Gemini 1 | Gemini 2 | Gemini 3 | Gemini 4 | Gemini 5 | Gemini 7 | Gemini 6A | Gemini 8 | Gemini 9A | Gemini 10 | Gemini 11 | Gemini 12

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gemini Project (3372 words)
Gemini 1 was to check compatibility between the Gemini spacecraft and the Titan II launch vehicle (see Gemini-Titan II) and no attempt was made to separate the two during their brief flight.
Gemini 4’s goals were to evaluate the spacecraft and crew during a lengthy stay in space, rendezvous with the spent Titan II second stage, carry out the first American spacewalk, and continue testing the Orbital Attitude Maneuvering System (OAMS).
Gemini 7 was also the first American spaceflight during which for much of the time the crew left off their pressurized suits.
Gemini 3 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (756 words)
Gemini 3 was a 1965 manned space flight in NASA's Gemini program.
It was the first manned Gemini flight, the ninth manned American flight and the 17th manned spaceflight of all time (includes X-15 flights over 100 kilometres).
Other firsts were achieved on Gemini 3: two people flew aboard an American spacecraft; the first manned re-entry where the spacecraft was able to produce lift to change its touchdown point.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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