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Encyclopedia > Gelisols

Gelisols are an order in USA soil taxonomy. They are soils of very cold climates which are defined as containing permafrost within two metres of the soil surface. The word "Gelisol" comes from the Latin gelare meaning "to freeze", a reference to the process of cryoturbation that occurs from the alternating thawing and freezing characteristic of Gelisols. Soil taxonomy provided by United States Department of Agriculture / Natural Resources Conservation Centre provides an elaborate classification of soil types according to several parameters and in several levels: Order, Suborder, Great Group, Subgroup, Family, and Series. ... This article is about frozen ground. ... Latin is the language that was originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


In the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization soil classification system, Gelisols are known as Cryosols. The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... Headquartered in Rome, Italy, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations programs seek to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and, by these means, to eliminate hunger. ...


Structurally, Gelisols have no B horizon and have an A horizon resting on the permafrost. Because organic matter accumulates in the upper layer, most Gelisols are black or dark brown in colour, followed by a shallow mineral layer. Despite the influence of glaciation in most areas where Gelisols occur, chemically they are not highly fertile because nutrients, especially calcium and potassium, are very easily leached above the permafrost. The permafrost greatly restricts the engineering use of Gelisols, as large structures (eg. buildings) subside as the frozen earth thaws when they are put in place. In ABC soil, the second or subsurface zone of soil made of clay and oxidized materials and organic matter obtained from the A horizon by leaching; subsoil. ... Glaciation, often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Nutrients and the body A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Series alkaline earth metal Group, Period, Block 2 (IIA), 4, s Density, Hardness 1550 kg/m3, 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1(IA), 4, s Density, Hardness 856 kg/m3, 0. ...


Gelisols are found chiefly in Siberia, Alaska and Canada. Smaller areas are found in the Andes (mainly near the intersection between Chile, Bolivia and Argentina), Tibet, northern Scandinavia and the ice-free parts of Greenland and Antarctica. Fossil Gelisols are known from as far back as Precambrian ice ages 900 million years ago. Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia ( Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... State nickname: The Last Frontier, The Land of the Midnight Sun Other U.S. States Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Governor Frank Murkowski Official languages English Area 1,717,854 km² (1st)  - Land 1,481,347 km²  - Water 236,507 km² (13. ... Note that the geology in this article currently reflects views from the first decade of the 20th century. ... This article is on Historic Tibet. ... Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under DOS. FOSSIL stands for Fido Opus SEAdog Standard Interface Layer and was made by a group of Fidonet sysops to make their software work on different machines. ... The Precambrian or Cryptozoic is the period of the geologic timescale from the formation of Earth around 4500 million years before the present (BP) to the evolution of abundant macroscopic hard-shelled fossils, which marked the beginning of the Cambrian, some 542 million years BP. Remarkably little is known about...


Suborders

In USA soil taxonomy, Gelisols are subdivided into: Soil taxonomy provided by United States Department of Agriculture / Natural Resources Conservation Centre provides an elaborate classification of soil types according to several parameters and in several levels: Order, Suborder, Great Group, Subgroup, Family, and Series. ...

  • Histels: organic soils similar to Histosols exept that they have permafrost within 2 meters below ground surface. They have 80 % or more organic materials from the soil surface to a depth of 50 cm or to a glacic layer or densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallowest. These soils occur predominantely in Subarctic and Low Arctic regions of continuous or widespread permafrost. Less than one-third of the active layer (the soil between the ground surface and a permafrost table) or an ice layer which is at least 30-cm thick has been cryoturbated.
  • Turbels: soils that show marked influence of cryoturbation (more than one-third of the depth of the active layer) such as irregular, broken, or distorted horizon boundaries and involutions and areas with patterned ground. They commonly contain tongues of mineral and organic horizons, organic and mineral intrusions and oriented rock fragments. Organic matter is accumulated on top of the permafrost and ice wedges are a common features. Turbels occur primarily in the zone of continuous permafrost.
  • Orthels: soils that show little or no cryoturbation (less than one-third of the depth of the active layer). Patterned ground (except for polygons) generally is lacking. Orthels occur primarily within the zone of discontinuous permafrost, and in alpine areas.

The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia. ...

External links

  • Permafrost Soils and Biogeochemistry (http://www.soils.wisc.edu/soils/courses/451/Permafrost%20Soils%20and%20Biogeochemistry.pdf)

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gelisols - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (469 words)
The word "Gelisol" comes from the Latin gelare meaning "to freeze", a reference to the process of cryoturbation that occurs from the alternating thawing and freezing characteristic of Gelisols.
Because soil organic matter accumulates in the upper layer, most Gelisols are fl or dark brown in soil color, followed by a shallow mineral layer.
Gelisols are found chiefly in Siberia, Alaska and Canada.
Gelisols | NRCS Soils (273 words)
The central concept of Gelisols is that of soils that have permafrost within 100 cm of the soil surface and/or have gelic materials within 100 cm of the soil surface and have permafrost within 200 cm.
Gelic materials are mineral or organic soil materials that have evidence of cryoturbation (frost churning) and/or ice segeration in the active layer (seasonal thaw layer) and/or the upper part of the permafrost.
Turbels are the Gelisols show cryoturbation in the form of irregular, broken, or distorted horizon boundaries, involutions, an accumulation of organic matter on top of the permafrost, ice or sand wedges, or oriented rock fragments.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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