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Encyclopedia > Gelatin

Gelatin (also gelatine, from French gélatine) is a translucent, colourless, brittle, nearly tasteless solid substance, extracted from the collagen inside animals' connective tissue. It has been commonly used as an emulsifier in food, pharmaceutical, photography, and cosmetic manufacturing. Substances containing gelatin or functioning in a similar way are called gelatinous. Gelatin is an irreversibly hydrolyzed form of collagen. Gelatin is classified as a foodstuff and has E number 441. Gelitin is a group of four artists. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... A. Two immiscible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase II dispersed in Phase I; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Photography [fÓ™tÉ‘grÓ™fi:],[foÊŠtÉ‘grÓ™fi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Make-up redirects here. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is cleaved into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. ... For the mathematical constant see: E (mathematical constant). ...


Gelatin is a protein produced by partial hydrolysis of collagen extracted from the bones, connective tissues, organs, and some intestines of animals such as the domesticated cattle, and horses. The natural molecular bonds between individual collagen strands are broken down into a form that rearranges more easily. Gelatin melts when heated and solidifies when cooled again. Together with water, it forms a semi-solid colloid gel. Gelatin forms a solution of high viscosity in water, which sets to a gel on cooling, and its chemical composition is, in many respects, closely similar to that of its parent collagen. [1] Gelatin solutions show viscoelastic flow and streaming birefringence. If gelatin is put into contact with cold water, some of the material dissolves. The solubility of the gelatin is determined by the method of manufacture. Typically, gelatin can be dispersed in a relatively concentrated acid. Such dispersions are stable for 10-15 days with little or no chemical changes and are suitable for coating purposes or for extrusion into a precipitating bath. Gelatin is also soluble in most polar solvents. Gelatin gels exist over only a small temperature range, the upper limit being the melting point of the gel, which depends on gelatin grade and concentration and the lower limit, the ice point at which ice crystallizes. The mechanical properties are very sensitive to temperature variations, previous thermal history of the gel, and time. The viscosity of the gelatin/water mixture increases with concentration and when kept cool (≈40°F). A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... A Colloid or colloidal dispersion is a type of homogeneous mixture. ... In optical filters and theatrical lighting a color gel is a transparent or translucent colored panel used to change the color of transmitted light. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... A calcite crystal laid upon a paper with some letters showing the double refraction Birefringence, or double refraction, is the decomposition of a ray of light into two rays (the ordinary ray and the extraordinary ray) when it passes through certain types of material, such as calcite crystals or boron...

Contents

Production

The worldwide production amount of gelatin is about 300,000 tons per year (roughly 600 million lbs.) [2]. On a commercial scale, gelatin is made from by-products of the meat and leather industry, mainly pork skins, pork and cattle bones, or split cattle hides. Recently, by-products of the fishery industry began to be considered as raw material for gelatin production because they eliminate most of the religious obstacles surrounding gelatin consumption [3]. Contrary to popular belief, horns and hooves are not commonly used[citation needed]. The raw materials are prepared by different curing, acid, and alkali processes which are employed to extract the dried collagen hydrolysate. These processes may take up to several weeks, and differences in such processes have great effects on the properties of the final gelatin products [4]. A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and is not the primary product or service being produced. ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ...


Gelatin can also be prepared at home. Boiling certain cartilaginous cuts of meat or bones will result in gelatin being dissolved into the water. Depending on the concentration, the resulting broth, when cooled, will naturally form a jelly or gel. This process, for instance, may be used for the pot-au-feu dish. A variety of pre-packaged gelatin dessert products Jelly, as sold in UK The most common culinary use for gelatin is as a main ingredient in varieties of gelatin desserts. ... A pot-au-feu, with this recipe. ...


While there are many processes whereby collagen can be converted to gelatin, they all have several factors in common. The intermolecular and intramolecular bonds which stabilize insoluble collagen rendering it insoluble must be broken, and the hydrogen bonds which stabilize the collagen helix must also be broken [1]. The manufacturing processes of gelatin consists of three main stages: A helix (pl: helices), from the Greek word έλικας/έλιξ, is a twisted shape like a spring, screw or a spiral (correctly termed helical) staircase. ...

  1. Pretreatments to make the raw materials ready for the main extraction step and to remove impurities which may have negative effects on physicochemical properties of the final gelatin product,
  2. The main extraction step, which is usually done with hot water or dilute acid solutions as a multistage extraction to hydrolyze collagen into gelatin, and finally,
  3. The refining and recovering treatments including filtration, clarification, evaporation, sterilization, drying, grinding, and sifting to remove the water from the gelatin solution, to blend the gelatin extracted, and to obtain dried, blended and ground final gelatin.

Pretreatments

If the physical material which will be used in production is bones, dilute acid solutions should be used to remove calcium and similar salts. Hot water or several solvents may be used for degreasing. Maximum fat content of the material should not exceed 1% before the main extraction step. If the raw material is hides and skin, size reduction, washing, removing hair from the hides, and degreasing are the most important pretreatments used to make the hides and skins ready for the main extraction step. Raw material preparation for extraction is done by three different methods: acid, alkali, and enzymatic treatments. Acid treatment is especially suitable for less fully crosslinked materials such as pig skin collagen. Pig skin collagen is less complex than the collagen found in bovine hides. Acid treatment is faster than alkali treatment and requires normally 10 to 48 hours. Alkali treatment is suitable for more complex collagen as being in bovine hides. This process requires longer time, normally several weeks. The purpose of the alkali treatment is to destroy certain chemical crosslinkages still present in collagen. The gelatin obtained from acid treated raw material has been called type-A gelatin, and the gelatin obtained from alkali treated raw material is referred to as type-B gelatin. Enzymatic treatments used for preparing raw material for the main extraction step are relatively new. Enzymatic treatments have some advantages in contrast to alkali treatment. Time required for enzymatic treatment is short, the yield is almost 100% in enzymatic treatment, the purity is also higher, and the physical properties of the final gelatin product are better. For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Alkaline redirects here. ... Vulcanization is an example of cross-linking. ...


Extraction

After preparation of the raw material, i.e., reducing crosslinkages between collagen components and removing some of the impurities such as fat and salts, partially purified collagen is converted into gelatin by extraction with either water or acid solutions at appropriate temperatures. This extraction is one of the most important steps in gelatin production. All industrially used processes are based on neutral or acid pH values because alkali treatments speed up conversion, but, at the same time, degradation processes are promoted. Acid extract conditions are extensively used in the industry but the degree of acid varies with different processes. This extraction step is a multi stage process, and extraction temperature is usually increased in later extraction steps. This procedure ensures the minimum thermal degradation of the extracted gelatin.


Recovery

This process includes several steps such as filtration, evaporation, sterilization, drying, grinding, and sifting. These operations are concentration-dependent and also dependent on the particular gelatin used. Degradation must be avoided or minimized. For this purpose, limiting the temperature as much as possible would be helpful. Rapid processing is required for most of them. All of these processing steps should be done in several stages to avoid extensive deterioration of peptide structure. Otherwise, low gelling strength would be obtained that is not generally desired. This article is about operation of solid-fluid separation. ... Vaporization redirects here. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ... Drying is a mass transfer process resulting in the removal of water moisture or moisture from another solvent, by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid (hereafter product) to end in a solid state. ... The word grinding can mean many things: Grinding is a manufacturing process that uses friction with a rough surface to wear away or smooth the surface of a work piece - see grinding machine. ...


Edible gelatins

Household gelatin comes in the form of sheets, granules, or powder. Instant types can be added to the food as they are; others need to be soaked in water beforehand.


Special kinds of gelatin indicate the specific animal origin that was used for its production. For example, Jewish kosher or Muslim halal customs may require gelatin from fish. Vegetarians avoid gelatin and use other emulsifiers instead, such as agar, carrageenan, pectin, or konnyaku. There is no vegetable source for gelatin. For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products[1] [2]. The reasons for choosing vegetarianism may be related to morality, religion, culture, ethics, aesthetics, environment, society, economy, politics, taste, or health. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Carrageenans or carrageenins (pronounced ) are a family of linear sulphated polysaccharides extracted from red seaweeds. ... Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ... Binomial name Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch, 1858 Konnyaku Konnyaku (蒟蒻), also known as Konjak, Devils tongue, Voodoo lily or Snake palm, is a tubiferous plant grown in Japan used to create a flour of the same name. ...


Uses

Probably best known as a gelling agent in cooking, different types and grades of gelatin are used in a wide range of food and non-food products: Gelling agents are food additives used to thicken and stabilize various foods, like jellies, desserts and candies. ...


Common examples of foods that contain gelatin are gelatin desserts, jelly, trifles, aspic, marshmallows, and confectioneries such as Peeps and gummy bears. Gelatin may be used as a stabilizer, thickener, or texturizer in foods such as ice cream, jams, yogurt, cream cheese, and margarine; it is used, as well, in fat-reduced foods to simulate the mouth feel of fat and to create volume without adding calories. A variety of pre-packaged gelatin dessert products Jelly, as sold in UK The most common culinary use for gelatin is as a main ingredient in varieties of gelatin desserts. ... A variety of pre-packaged gelatin dessert products Jelly, as sold in UK The most common culinary use for gelatin is as a main ingredient in varieties of gelatin desserts. ... Trifle A trifle is a British dessert dish made from thick (or often solidified) custard, fruit, sponge cake, fruit juice or, more recently, jelly (American term: gelatin) and whipped cream, usually arranged in layers with fruit and sponge on the bottom, custard and cream on top. ... ASPIC can refer to: Advanced SCSI Programmable Interrupt Controller Application Service Provider Industry Consortium Armed Services Personnel Interrogation Center Association for Strategic Planning in Internal Communications Authors Standard Prepress Interfacing Cod This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... For the plant, see Althaea (genus). ... Look up Peeps in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the show based on the candy, see Disneys Adventures of the Gummi Bears. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... Cream cheese is a sweet, soft, mild-tasting, white cheese, defined by the US Department of Agriculture as containing at least 33% milkfat (as marketed) with a moisture content of not more than 55%, and a pH range of 4. ... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ...


Gelatin is used for the clarification of juices, such as apple juice, and of vinegar. Isinglass, from the swim bladders of fish, is still in use as a fining agent for wine and beer. [5] Beside hartshorn jelly, from deer antlers (hence the name "hartshorn"), isinglass was one of the oldest sources of gelatin. Isinglass is a substance obtained from the swimbladders of fish (especially Beluga sturgeon), used mainly for the clarification of wine and beer. ...


Technical uses

Capsules made of gelatin.
Capsules made of gelatin.
  • Gelatin typically constitutes the shells of pharmaceutical capsules in order to make them easier to swallow. Hypromellose is the vegetarian counterpart to gelatin, but is more expensive to produce.
  • Animal glues such as hide glue are essentially unrefined gelatin.
  • It is used to hold silver halide crystals in an emulsion in virtually all photographic films and photographic papers. Despite some efforts, no suitable substitutes with the stability and low cost of gelatin have been found.
  • Used as a carrier, coating or separating agent for other substances, it, for example, makes beta-carotene water-soluble, thus imparting a yellow colour to any soft drinks containing beta-carotene.
  • Gelatin is closely related to bone glue and is used as a binder in match heads and sandpaper.
  • Cosmetics may contain a non-gelling variant of gelatin under the name hydrolyzed collagen.
  • As a surface sizing, it smooths glossy printing papers or playing cards and maintains the wrinkles in crêpe paper.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hypromellose, short for hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), is a semisynthetic, inert, viscoelastic polymer used as an ophthalmic lubricant found in a variety of commercial products. ... An animal glue is an adhesive that is created by prolonged boiling of animal connective tissue. ... A silver halide is one of the compounds formed between silver and one of the halogens, usually silver bromide (AgBr), silver chloride (AgCl) and silver iodide (AgI). ... A. Two immiscible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase II dispersed in Phase I; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Until the advent of digital photographic processes, the sole meaning of photographic paper was paper coated with light-sensitive chemicals. ... Beta-carotene is a form of carotene with β-rings at both ends. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... For other uses, see Match (disambiguation). ... sheets of sandpaper Sandpaper is a form of paper where an abrasive material has been fixed to its surface; it is part of the coated abrasives family of abrasive products. ... Make-up redirects here. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Russian group of artists, see Jack of Diamonds (artists). ... Crêpe paper is a kind of thin paper resembling crape. ...

Other uses

  • Blocks of ballistic gelatin simulate muscle tissue as a standardized medium for testing firearms ammunition.
  • Gelatin is used by synchronized swimmers to hold their hair in place during their routines as it will not dissolve in the cold water of the pool. It is frequently referred to as "knoxing", a reference to Knox brand gelatin.[citation needed] Though commonly used, the owners of the trademark object to the genericized use of the term.[citation needed]
  • When added to boiling water and cooled, unflavored gelatin can make a home-made hair styling gel that is cheaper than many commercial hair styling products, but by comparison has a shorter shelf life (about a week) when stored in this form (usually in a refrigerator). After being applied to scalp hair, it can be removed with rinsing and some shampoo.
  • It is commonly used as a biological substrate to culture adherent cells.
  • Also used by those who are sensitive to tannins (which can irritate the stomach) in teas, soups or brews.
  • It may be used as a medium with which to consume LSD. LSD in gelatin form is known as "windowpane".

Ballistic gelatin is a solution of gelatin powder in water. ... Firearms redirects here. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... Russian synchronized swimming team, May 2007 Synchronized swimming is a hybrid of swimming, gymnastics, and dance, consisting of swimmers (either individuals, duets, trios, teams or combos) performing a synchronized routine of elaborate and dramatic moves in the water, accompanied by music. ... A genericized trademark (also known as a generic trade mark or proprietary eponym) is a trademark or brand name that has become the colloquial or generic description for (or synonymous with) a particular class of product or service. ... Hair gel Hair gel is a hairstyling product that is used to stiffen hair into a particular hairstyle. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ...

Medicinal and nutritional properties

Although gelatin is 98-99% protein by dry weight, it has less nutritional value than many other protein sources. Gelatin is unusually high in the non-essential amino acids glycine and proline, (i.e., those produced by the human body), while lacking certain essential amino acids (i.e., those not produced by the human body). It contains no tryptophan and is deficient in isoleucine, threonine, and methionine. The approximate amino acid composition of gelatin is: glycine 21%, proline 12%, hydroxyproline 12%, glutamic acid 10%, alanine 9%, arginine 8%, aspartic acid 6%, lysine 4%, serine 4%, leucine 3%, valine 2%, phenylalanine 2%, threonine 2%, isoleucine 1%,hydroxylysine 1%, methionine and histidine <1% and tyrosine <0.5%. These values vary, especially the minor constituents, depending on the source of the raw material and processing technique.[6] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the plant, see Glycine (plant). ... Proline is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH[CH2)3]. L-Proline is one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. ... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W)[1] is one of the 20 standard amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, and an essential amino acid in the human diet. ... Isoleucine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(CH3)CH2CH3. ... Threonine is one of the 20 natural amino acids. ... Methionine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3. ... For the plant, see Glycine (plant). ... Proline is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH[CH2)3]. L-Proline is one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. ... Structure of hydroxyproline 4-Hydroxyproline, or hydroxyproline (C5H9O3N), is an uncommon amino acid, abbreviated as HYP, e. ... Glutamic acid (Glu, E), is the protonated form of glutamate (the anion). ... Alanine (Ala, A) also 2-aminopropanoic acid is a non-essential α-amino acid. ... Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R)[1] is an α-amino acid. ... Aspartic acid (abbreviated as Asp or D; Asx or B represent either aspartic acid or asparagine[1] ) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CO2H. The L-isomer is a protonated varient of one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids, i. ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... Serine (IPA ), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. ... Leucine is one of the 20 most common amino acids and coded for by DNA. It is isomeric with isoleucine. ... Valine is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by humans, so it is considered an essential amino acid for human life. ... Phenyl alanine is an α-amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2C6H5. ... Threonine is one of the 20 natural amino acids. ... Isoleucine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(CH3)CH2CH3. ... Hydroxylysine is an amino acid, C6H14N2O3. ... Methionine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3. ... Histidine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids present in proteins. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells...

Gelatin is one of the few foods that cause a net loss of protein if eaten exclusively. In the 1970s, several people died of malnutrition while on popular liquid protein diets. [7] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,560 × 1,920 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,560 × 1,920 pixels, file size: 1. ...


For decades, gelatin has been touted as a good source of protein. It has also been said to strengthen nails and hair. [1] [2] However, there is little scientific evidence to support such an assertion, one which may be traced back to Knox's revolutionary marketing techniques of the 1890s, when it was advertised that gelatin contains protein and that lack of protein causes dry, deformed nails. In fact, the human body itself produces abundant amounts of the proteins found in gelatin. Furthermore, dry nails are usually due to a lack of moisture, not protein.


Several Russian researchers offer the following opinion regarding certain peptides found in gelatin: "gelatin peptides reinforce resistance of the stomach mucous tunic to ethanol and stress action, decreasing the ulcer area by twice."[8]


Gelatin has also been claimed to promote general joint health. A study at Ball State University, sponsored by Nabisco (the former parent company of Knox gelatin[3]), found that gelatin supplementation relieved knee joint pain and stiffness in athletes. [9] These results have not yet been replicated by other researchers. Ball State University is a state-run research university located in Muncie, Indiana, USA. Located on the northwest side of the city, Ball States campus spans more than 1,000 acres (4 km²). The student body consists of more than 20,000 students, of which over 18,000 are... Nabisco logo Nabisco is an American manufacturer of cookies and snacks, including brands such as Chips Ahoy!, Fig Newtons, Mallomars, Oreos, Premium Crackers, Ritz Crackers, Teddy Grahams, Triscuits, Wheat Thins, and Chicken in a Biskit. ...


Safety concerns

Due to Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as "mad cow disease", and its link to new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), there has been much concern about using gelatin derived from possibly infected animal parts.[10] One study released in 2004, however, demonstrated that the gelatin production process destroys most of the BSE prions that may be present in the raw material.[11] However, more detailed recent studies regarding the safety of gelatin in respect to mad cow disease have prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to re-issue a warning and stricter guidelines for the sourcing and processing of gelatin to reduce the potential risk posed by Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy from 1997. Classic image of a cow with BSE. A notable feature of such disease is the inability (of the infected animal) to stand. ... Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is a lethal brain disorder characterized by memory loss, personality changes, hallucinations, speech impairment, jerky movements, changes in gait, rigid posture, and seizures due to a rapid loss of neural cells caused by transmissible proteins called prions. ... For the bird, see Prion (bird). ... Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or commonly mad cow disease) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease of cattle, which infects by a mechanism that shocked biologists on its discovery in late 20th century and appears transmissible to humans. ... FDA redirects here. ...


References

  1. ^ a b Ward, A.G.; Courts, A. (1977). The Science and Technology of Gelatin. New York: Academic Press. 
  2. ^ Gelatine.org Market Data 2005. Gelatine Manufacturers of Europe. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  3. ^ What is Halal?. Islamic Services of America. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  4. ^ Gelita.com. GELITA Group. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  5. ^ National Organic Standards Board Technical Advisory Panel Review: Gelatin processing.
  6. ^ Stevens, P.V. (1992). "Unknown". Food Australia 44 (7): 320-324. Retrieved on 2005-08-11. 
  7. ^ "Modified fast: A sometime solution to a weighty problem" (April 1990). FDA Consumer magazine: 10-17. 
  8. ^ Gelatin Treats Ulcer (August 22, 2006).
  9. ^ Pearson, David. Gelatin found to reduce joint pain in athletes.
  10. ^ Heynke, Dr. Roland. Gelatin Production and Prion Theory. -- General Information about Gelatin and Mad Cow Disease including references to various studies
  11. ^ Grobben, A. H.; Steele, P. J.; Somerville, R. A.; Taylor, D. M. (2004). "Inactivation of the bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy (BSE) agent by the acid and alkali processes used in the manufacture of bone gelatine.". Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry (39): 329-338. 

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External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Gelatin

Gelatin Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gelatin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1233 words)
Gelatin may be used as a stabilizer, thickener, or texturizer in foods such as ice cream, jams, yogurt, cream cheese, margarine; it is used, as well, in fat-reduced foods to simulate the mouth feel of fat and to create volume without adding calories.
Gelatin is used by synchronized swimmers to hold their hair in place during their routines as it will not dissolve in the cold water of the pool.
Gelatin is unusually high in the non-essential amino acids glycine and proline, (i.e., those produced by the human body), while lacking certain essential amino acids (i.e., those not produced by the human body).
Gelatin Food Science (4659 words)
Gelatin is a substantially pure protein food ingredient, obtained by the thermal denaturation of collagen (1), which is the structural mainstay and most common protein in the animal kingdom.
The disadvantage of gelatin is that it is derived from animal hide and bone (not from trotters as is a common perception), hence there are problems with regard to kosher and Halal status and vegetarians also have objections to its use.
As stated earlier, gelatin is not a complete protein source because it is deficient in tryptophan and low in methionine content, however the digestibility is excellent and it is often used in feeding invalids and the high level of lysine (4 %) is noteworthy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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