FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Ge'ez language
Note: This article contains special characters. Can't See the fonts
Ge'ez
ግዕዝ Giʿiz
Spoken in: Ethiopia, Eritrea and Israel
Language extinction: Extinct[1] by the 13th century[citation needed], remains in use as a liturgical language[2]
Language family: Afro-Asiatic
 Semitic
  South Semitic
   Ethiopic
    North Ethiopic
     Ge'ez 
Writing system: Ge'ez alphabet 
Official status
Official language of: Liturgical language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church, Ethiopic Catholic Church,[3] and Beta Israel[4]
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: gez
ISO 639-3: gez

Ge'ez (also transliterated Gi'iz, Gəʿəz, and pronounced IPA: [ɡɨʕɨz]; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient South Semitic language that had developed in the current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa, as the language of the peasantry. It later became the official language of the Kingdom of Aksum and Ethiopian imperial court. An extinct language (also called a dead language) is a language which no longer has any native speakers. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... 14th century BCE diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The Semitic languages are the northeastern subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic languages, and the only family of this group spoken in Asia. ... Ethiopic languages is a language group which belongs to the Western branch of the Southern Semitic languages. ... Ethiopian Semitic languages (sometimes Ethiopic) is a language group which together with Old South Arabian forms the Western branch of the South Semitic languages. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋሕዶ ቤተክርስትያን Yäityopya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All... The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church. ... The Ethiopic Catholic Church is a Metropolitan sui iuris Eastern Rite particular Church within the Roman Catholic Church and uses the Ethiopic liturgical rite. ... The Beta Israel (Geez ቤተ፡ እስራኤል BÄ“ta Isrāēl, modern BÄ“te Isrāēl; Hebrew: ), also known by the term Falasha (Amharic for Exiles or Strangers, as they were called by non-Jewish Ethiopians — a term that is considered pejorative) are Jews of Ethiopian origin. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... South Semitic is one of the three macro-classifications in Semitic linguistics, the other two being North Semitic (e. ... The Horn of Africa. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from ca. ... The Emperor of Ethiopia (Amharic negus negust, King of Kings) was the hereditary ruler of Ethiopia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. ...


Today Ge'ez or Ethiopic remains only as the main language used in the liturgy of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church, the Ethiopic Catholic Church, and also the Beta Israel Jewish community. However, in Ethiopia Amharic (the main lingua franca of modern Ethiopia) or other local languages, and in Eritrea and Tigray Region in Ethiopia Tigrinya may be used for sermons. The word leitourgia is derived from the two Greek words, leos and ergon. Leos, meaning the people of God and Ergon meaning the work. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋሕዶ ቤተክርስትያን Yäityopya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All... The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church. ... The Ethiopic Catholic Church is a Metropolitan sui iuris Eastern Rite particular Church within the Roman Catholic Church and uses the Ethiopic liturgical rite. ... The Beta Israel (Geez ቤተ፡ እስራኤል BÄ“ta Isrāēl, modern BÄ“te Isrāēl; Hebrew: ), also known by the term Falasha (Amharic for Exiles or Strangers, as they were called by non-Jewish Ethiopians — a term that is considered pejorative) are Jews of Ethiopian origin. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Tigray region. ... Tigrinya (Geez ትግርኛ tigriññā, also spelled Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray-Tigrinya people in central Eritrea (there referred to as the Tigrinya people), where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia (whose... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ...

Contents

Phonology

Vowels

  • a [æ], later *e < Proto-Semitic *a
  • u [u:] < Proto-Semitic *ū
  • i [i:] < Proto-Semitic *ī
  • ā [a:], later *a < Proto-Semitic *ā
  • e [e:] < Proto-Semitic *ay
  • i [i] < Proto-Semitic *i, *u
  • o [o:] < Proto-Semitic *aw

also transliterated as ǎ, û, î, â, ê, ě, ô.


Consonants

Ge'ez consonants have a triple opposition voiceless:voiced:glottalized (emphatic). The Proto-Semitic "emphasis" in Ge'ez has been generalized to include emphatic . Ge'ez is a Semitic language to make a phonological distinction between [p] and [f]. Ge'ez has phonologized labiovelars, descending from Proto-Semitic biphonemes. Ge'ez ś Sawt (in Amharic, also called śe-nigūś, i.e. the se letter used for spelling the word nigūś "king") is reconstructed as descended from a Proto-Semitic voiceless lateral fricative [ɬ], kept as a distinct phoneme in no other Semitic daughter language. Like Arabic, Ge'ez merged Proto-Semitic š and s in (also called se-isat: the se letter used for spelling the word isāt "fire"). Apart from this, Ge'ez phonology is remarkably conservative; the only other Proto-Semitic phonological contrasts lost may be the interdental fricatives and ghayin. Emphatic consonant is a somewhat imprecise term commonly used in Semitic linguistics to describe pharyngealized or velarized, and ejective consonants, or consonants that historically had one of these properties. ... Proto-Semitic is the hypothetical proto-language of the Semitic languages. ... A labiovelar sound is one produced with the lips and velum simultaneously. ... The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Shin (also spelled Sin or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Samekh is the fifteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiced velar fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ...


In the chart below, IPA values are shown in square brackets. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

Consonants
Bilabial/
Labiodental
Dental Lateral Palato-alveolar/
Palatal
Velar Labialized velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosives Voiceless p t k [ʔ]
Voiced b d g [ɡ] [ɡʷ]
Emphatic (i.e. ejective) [pʼ] [tʼ] [q, kʼ] ḳʷ [qʷ, kʷʼ]
Affricates Voiceless
Voiced
Emphatic (i.e. ejective) [ʦʼ] ṣ́ [ɬʼ]
Fricatives Voiceless f s ś [ɬ] š [ʃ] [χ] [ħ] h
Voiced z [ʕ]
Nasals m n
Liquids & Glides w r l y [j]

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Labialisation is secondary articulatory feature of sounds in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Emphatic consonant is a somewhat imprecise term commonly used in Semitic linguistics to describe pharyngealized or velarized, and ejective consonants, or consonants that historically had one of these properties. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or unaspirated consonants in a language. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Emphatic consonant is a somewhat imprecise term commonly used in Semitic linguistics to describe pharyngealized or velarized, and ejective consonants, or consonants that historically had one of these properties. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or unaspirated consonants in a language. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial in English yes corresponds to ). The class of liquids can be divided into lateral liquids and rhotics. ... Semivowels (also glides, more rarely: semiconsonants) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. ...

Writing system

Genesis 29.11–16 in Ge'ez
Genesis 29.11–16 in Ge'ez
Main article: Ge'ez alphabet

Ge'ez is written with Ethiopic or the Ge'ez abugida, a script which was originally developed specifically for this language. In languages which use it, eg Amharic and Tigrinya, the script is called Fidäl, which means script or alphabet. Download high resolution version (519x768, 138 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (519x768, 138 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Genesis (Hebrew: , Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... An abugida or alphasyllabary is a writing system composed of signs (graphemes) denoting consonants with an inherent following vowel, which are consistently modified to indicate other vowels (or, in some cases, the lack of a vowel). ...


The Ge'ez script has been adapted to write other languages, usually Semitic ones. The most widespread use is for Amharic in Ethiopia and Tigrinya in Eritrea and Ethiopia. It is also used for Sebatbeit, Me'en, Agew and most other languages of Ethiopia. In Eritrea it is used for Tigre, and it is often used for Blin, a Cushitic language. Some other languages in the Horn of Africa, such as Oromo, used to be written using Ge'ez but have switched to Latin-based orthographies. Note: This article contains special characters. ... Tigrinya (Geez ትግርኛ tigriññā, also spelled Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray-Tigrinya people in central Eritrea (there referred to as the Tigrinya people), where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia (whose... Sebat Bet Gurage (also called Central West Gurage, West Gurage, Chaha, Ezha, Gumer, Gura, Gyeto, Muher) is a South Semitic language of Ethiopia (ISO/DIS 639-3: sgw). ... Meen (also Mekan, Mieen, Mieken, Meqan, Men; ISO/DIS 639-3: mym) is a Nilo-Saharan language (Eastern Sudanic, Surmic) spoken in Ethiopia. ... Tigre (Geez ትግረ tigre or ትግሬ tigrē; sometimes written as Tigré, also known as Xasa in Sudan; Arabic ألخاصية ) is a Semitic language that closely speaks the Geez in its purest form and it is also closely related to Tigrinya. ... Note: Blin is the English spelling which is prefered by native speakers, but Bilin and Bilen are also commonly used. ... The Cushitic languages are a subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic languages, named after the Biblical figure Cush by analogy with Semitic. ... The Horn of Africa. ... Oromo, also known as Afaan Oromoo, Oromiffa(a), and sometimes in other languages as variant spellings of these names (Oromigna, Afan Oromo, etc. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


The script has 26 basic consonant signs used to write Ge'ez:

translit. h l m ś r s b t n ʾ
Ge'ez
translit. k w ʿ z y d g ṣ́ f p
Ge'ez

It also uses 4 symbols for labialized velar consonants, which are variants of the non-labialized velar consonants: A labiovelar consonant is a consonant made with two blockages, one at the lips (labial) and the other at the soft palate (velar). ...

Basic sign k g
Labialized variant w w kw gw

History and literature

Ge'ez literature is dominated by the Bible including the Deuterocanon. Most of its important works are also the literature of the Ethiopian Church, which include Christian liturgy (service books, prayers, hymns), Lives of Saints, and Patristic literature. This religious orientation of Ge'ez literature was a result of traditional education being the responsibility of priests and monks. "The Church thus constituted the custodian of the nation's culture", notes Richard Pankhurst, and describes the traditional education as follows: This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... The deuterocanonical books are the books that Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Oriental Orthodoxy include in the Old Testament that were not part of the Jewish Tanakh. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ... LiVES (LiVES is a Video Editing System) is a video editing program and VJ tool, released under GNU General Public License. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ...

Traditional education was largely biblical. It began with the learning of the alphabet, or more properly, syllabary.... The student's second grade comprised the memorization of the first chapter of the first Epistle General of St. John in Geez. The study of writing would probably also begin at this time, and particularly in more modern times some arithmetic might be added. In the third stage the Acts of the Apostles were studied, while certain prayers were also learnt, and writing and arithmetic continued. ... The fourth stage began with the study of the Psalms of David and was considered an important landmark in a child's education, being celebrated by the parents with a feast to which the teacher, father confessor, relatives and neighbours were invited. A boy who had reached this stage would moreover usually be able to write, and might act as a letter writer.[5]

However works of history and chronography, ecclesiastical and civil law, philology, medicine, and letters were also written in Ge'ez. The First Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament, the fourth of the catholic or general epistles. ... The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi (songs sung to a harp, originally from psallein play on a stringed instrument), Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ...


The Ethiopian collection in the British Library comprises some 800 manuscripts dating from the 15th to the 20th centuries, notably including magical and divinatory scrolls, and illuminated manuscripts of the 16th to 17th centuries. It was initiated by a donation of 74 codices by the Church of England Missionary Society in the 1830s and 1840s, and substantially expanded by 349 codices, taken by the British from the Tewodros II's capital at Magdala in the 1868 Expedition to Abyssinia. British Library Ossulston St entrance, with distinctive red logo. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901&#8211;2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900&#8211;1999... The Church Mission Society, known as the Church Missionary Society in Australia and New Zealand, is an evangelistic society working with the Anglican Church and other Protestant Christians around the world. ... The most famous picture of Emperor Tewodros II with his trademark hair style. ... Magdala (tower) was a small village in Galilee, which seems to have been the birthplace of Mary Magdalene, or Mary of Magdala, in the Christian New Testament. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


Origins

The Ge'ez language is classified as a South Semitic language. It evolved from an earlier proto-Ethio-Semitic ancestor used to write royal inscriptions of the kingdom of Dʿmt in Epigraphic South Arabian. As a member of South Semitic, it is closely related to Sabaean, and the Ge'ez alphabet later replaced Epigraphic South Arabian in the Kingdom of Aksum (although Epigraphic South Arabian was used for a few inscriptions into the 8th century, though not any South Arabian language since Dʿmt). Early inscriptions in Ge'ez and Ge'ez alphabet have been dated[6] to as early as the 5th century BC, and in a sort of proto-Ge'ez written in ESA since the 8th century BC. Ge'ez literature properly begins with the Christianization of Ethiopia (and the civilization of Axum) in the 4th century, during the reign of Ezana of Axum.[citation needed] South Semitic is one of the three macro-classifications in Semitic linguistics, the other two being East Semitic (e. ... Ethiopian Semitic languages (sometimes Ethiopic) is a language group which together with Old South Arabian forms the Western branch of the South Semitic languages. ... A royal family is the extended family of a monarch. ... Dmt is the Sabaean name for a kingdom on the northern Ethiopian plateau that existed from around 800 BC until it was united in the Aksum kingdom around the birth of Jesus. ... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... The Sabey language was a language and alphabet used in Ethiopia up until the 8th Century AD. The Sabay language was replaced by the Geez language and writing system. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from ca. ... (7th century &#8212; 8th century &#8212; 9th century &#8212; other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Ezana of Axum was ruler of the Axumite Kingdom from about 320 to 350 AD. Ezana succeeded his father Ella Amida while still a youth and his mother, Sofya served as regent. ...


5th to 7th centuries

Almost all texts from this early "Aksumite" period are religious (Christian) in nature, many of them translations from Greek, Syriac, Coptic, and later also Arabic. The translation of the Christian Bible was undertaken by Syrian monks known as the Nine Saints, who had come to Ethiopia in the 5th century fleeing the Byzantine persecution of the Monophysites. The Ethiopic Bible contains 81 Books; 46 of the Old Testament and 35 of the New. A number of these Books are apocryphal (or deuterocanonical), such as the Ascension of Isaiah, Jubilees, Enoch, the Paralipomena of Baruch, Noah, Ezra, Nehemiah, Maccabees, Moses and Tobit. The Book of Enoch in particular is notable since its complete text has survived in no other language. The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from ca. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Nine Saints were a group of missionaries who were important in the spread of Christianity in what is now Eritrea and Ethiopia during the late 5th century. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... The Ascension of Isaiah is an apocryphal pseudepigraphal book dating from some time in the 2nd century and compiled by an unknown Christian. ... The Book of Jubilees (ספר היובלים), sometimes called the Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 4 Baruch, also known as the Paraleipomena of Jeremiah when combined with the Epistle of Jeremy, is a text regarded as apocryphal by all Christian denominations except for the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. ... The Book of Noah is currently thought to be an non-extant Old Testament pseudepigraphal work, attributed to Noah. ... Site traditionally described as the tomb of Ezra at Al Uzayr near Basra. ... Nehemiah or Nechemya (נְחֶמְיָה Comforted of/is the LORD (YHWH), Standard Hebrew Nəḥemya, Tiberian Hebrew Nəḥemyāh, ) is a major figure in the post-exile history of the Jews as recorded in the Bible, and is believed to be the primary author of the Book of Nehemiah. ... Wojciech Stattlers Machabeusze (Maccabees), 1844 The Maccabees (Hebrew: מכבים or מקבים, Makabim) were Jewish rebels who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The Book of Tobit is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics by the Council of Trent (1546). ...


Also to this early period dates Qerlos, a collection of Christological writings beginning with the treatise of Saint Cyril known as Haimanot Rete’et, or De Recta Fide, the theological foundation of the Ethiopic Church. Another work is Sher'ata Paknemis, a translation of the monastic Rules of Pachomius. Non-religious works translated in this period include Physiologus, a work of natural history also very popular in Europe.[7] Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... Coptic icon of St Pachomius Saint Pachomius (ca. ... The Physiologus was a predecessor of bestiaries (books of beasts). ...


13th to 14th centuries

After the decline of the Aksumites, a lengthy gap follows; no works have survived that can be dated to the years of the 8th through 12th centuries. Only with the rise of the Solomonic dynasty around 1270 can we find evidence of authors committing their works to writings. Some writers consider the period beginning from the 14th century an actual "Golden Age" of Ge'ez literature -- although by this time Ge'ez was no longer a living language. While there is ample evidence that it had been replaced by the Amharic language in the south and by the Tigrigna and Tigre languages in the north, Ge'ez remained in use as the official written language until the 19th century, its status comparable to that of Medieval Latin in Europe. The Solomonid dynasty is the traditional royal house of Ethiopia, claiming descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, who is said to have given birth to the traditional first king Menelik I after her Biblically-described visit to Solomon in Jerusalem. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Tigrigna (or &#4725;&#4877;&#4650;&#4763;) is a Semitic language spoken in Eritrea, where it is the official language, and in parts of Ethiopia and Israel. ... Tigre (Geez ትግረ tigre or ትግሬ tigrē; sometimes written as Tigré, also known as Xasa in Sudan; Arabic ألخاصية ) is a Semitic language that closely speaks the Geez in its purest form and it is also closely related to Tigrinya. ... Medieval Latin refers to the Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church. ...


Important hagiographies from this period include: Hagiography is the study of saints. ...

Also at this time the Apostolic Constitutions was translated in Ge'ez, which provided another set of instructions and laws for the Ethiopian Church. Another translation from this period is Zena 'Ayhud, a translation (probably from an Arabic translation) of Joseph ben Gurion's "History of the Jews" ("Sefer Yosephon") written in Hebrew in the 10th century, which covers the period from the Captivity to the capture of Jerusalem by Titus. Synaxarium, Synaxarion, Synexarium, Synexarion, pl. ... Saint Anthony the Great (251 - 356), also known as Saint Anthony Abbot, Saint Anthony of Egypt, Saint Anthony of the Desert, Saint Anthony the Anchorite, and The Father of All Monks, was an Egyptian Christian saint and the outstanding leader among the Desert Fathers, who were Christian monks in the... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... Saint Takla Haymanot the Ethiopian Tekle Haymanot or Takla Haymanot (Geez ተክለ፡ ሃይማኖት takla hāymānōt, modern tekle hāymānōt, Plant of Faith; known in the Coptic Church as Saint Takla Haymanot of Ethiopia) (c. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Apostolic Constitutions is a late 4th century collection, in 8 books, of independent, though closely related, treatises on Early Christian discipline, worship, and doctrine, intended to serve as a manual of guidance for the clergy, and to some extent for the laity. ...


Apart from theological works, the earliest contemporary Royal Chronicles of Ethiopia are date to the reign of Amda Seyon I (1314-44). With the appearance of the "Victory Songs" of Amda Seyon, this period also marks the beginning of Amharic literature. Seyon one of the great swimmers to emerge from Sri Lanka. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


The 14th century Kəbrä Nägäst or "Glory of the Kings" by the Nebura’ed Yeshaq of Aksum is among the most significant works of Ethiopian literature, combining history, allegory and symbolism in a retelling of the story of Queen Sheba, King Solomon, and their son Menelik I of Ethiopia. Another work that began to take shape in this period is the Mashafa Aksum or "Book of Axum".[8] Modern book cover of Kebra Nagast: The Glory of the Kings The Kebra Nagast (var. ... The Queen of Sheba, referred to in the Bible books of 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles, the Quran, and Ethiopian history, was the ruler of Sheba, an ancient kingdom which modern archeology speculates was located in present-day Ethiopia or Yemen . ... It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ... Menelik I first Emperor of Ethiopia, traditionally believed to be the son of King Solomon of ancient Israel and Makeda, Queen of Sheba. ... The Book of Aksum (Geez መጽሓፈ ፡ አክሱም maṣḥāfa aksÅ«m, Amh. ...


15th to 16th centuries

The early 15th century Fekkare Iyasus "The Explication of Jesus" contains a prophecy of a king called Tewodros, which rose to importance in 19th century Ethiopia as Tewodros II chose this throne name. The most famous picture of Emperor Tewodros II with his trademark hair style. ...


Literature flourished especially during the reign of Emperor Zara Yaqob. Written by the Emperor himself were Matshafa Berhan ("The Book of Light") and Matshafa Milad ("The Book of Nativity"). Numerous homilies were written in this period, notably Retu’a Haimanot ("True Orthodoxy") ascribed to John Chrysostom. Also of monumental importance was the appearance of the Geez translation of the Fetha Negest ("Laws of the Kings"), thought to have been around 1450, and ascribed to one Petros Abda Sayd — that was later to function as the supreme Law for Ethiopia, until it was replaced by a modern Constitution in 1930. Zara Yaqob (throne name Kuestantinos I or Constantine I) (1399 - 1468) was negus (1434 - 1468) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonid dynasty. ... John Chrysostom (349–407, Greek: , Ioannes Chrysostomos) was the archbishop of Constantinople. ... The Fetha Negest (Laws of the Kings) is a legal code compiled by Coptic Christian ecclesiastics for the use of Ethiopian kings. ...


By the beginning of the 16th century, the Islamic invasions put an end to the flourishing of Ethiopian literature. A letter of Abba 'Enbaqom (or "Habakkuk") to Imam Ahmad Ibn Ibrahim, entitled Anqasa Amin ("Gate of the Faith"), giving his reasons for abandoning Islam, although probably first written in Arabic and later rewritten in an expanded Ge'ez version around 1532, is considered one of the classics of later Ge'ez literature.[9] During this period, Ethiopian writers begin to address differences between the Ethiopian and the Roman Catholic Church in such works as the Confession of Emperor Gelawdewos, Sawana Nafs ("Refuge of the Soul"), Fekkare Malakot ("Exposition of the Godhead") and Haymanote Abaw ("Faith of the Fathers"). Around the year 1600, a number of works were translated from Arabic into Ge'ez for the first time, including the Chronicle of John of Nikiu and the Universal History of Jirjis ibn al'Amid Abi'l-Wasir (also known as al-Makin). Ahmed Gurey statue in Mogadishu. ... Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Decades: 1480s 1490s 1500s 1510s 1520s - 1530s - 1540s 1550s 1560s 1570s 1580s Years: 1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 Events and Trends Spanish conquest of Peru Beginning of colonization of Brazil Categories: 1530s ... Gelawdewos or Claudius (1522 - March 23, 1559) was negus (throne name Asnaf Sagad I) (1540 - 1559) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonid dynasty. ... John of Nikiû was a Coptic bishop of Nikiû/Pashati in the Egyptian Delta and appointed general adminstrator of the monsteries of Upper Egypt in 696. ...


Sample

The first sentence of the Book of Enoch: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

ቃለ፡ በረከት፡ ዘሄኖክ፡ ዘከመ፡ ባረከ፡ ኅሩያነ፡ ወጻድቃነ፡ እለ፡ ሀለው፡ ይኩኑ፡
በዕለተ፡ ምንዳቤ፡ ለአሰስሎ፡ ኲሉ፡ እኩያን፡ ወረሲዓን።
Ḳāla barakat za-Hēnok zakama bārraka ḫirūyāna waṣādiḳāna ʾila halaw yikūnū
baʿilata mindābē laʾasaslō kʷīlū ʾikūyān warasīʿān
"Word of blessing of Henok, wherewith he blessed the chosen and righteous who would be alive in the day of tribulation for the removal of all wrongdoers and backsliders."

Notes

  1. ^ [GEE]
  2. ^ "No longer in popular use, Gheez has always remained the language of the Church", [CHA]
  3. ^
  4. ^ "They read the Bible in Geez" (Leaders and Religion of the Falashas); "after each passage, recited in Geez, the translation is read in Kailina" (Festivals). [PER]. Note the publication date of this source.
  5. ^ [PAN], pp. 666f.
  6. ^ [MAT]
  7. ^ [BUD], pp. 566f.
  8. ^ [BUD], p. 574
  9. ^ [PAN03]

References

  • [BUD] Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1928. A History of Ethiopia: Nubia and Abyssinia, Oosterhout, the Netherlands: Anthropological Publications, 1970.
  • CHA Chain, M. Ethiopia transcribed by: Donahue M. in The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Remy Lafort, Censor. Imprimatur. + John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York
  • [DIR] Diringer, David. 1968. The Alphabet, A Key To The History of Mankind.
  • GEE The Ge'ez language info card at Ethnologue
  • [KOB] Kobishchanov, Yuri M. 1979. Axum in SomeCollectionOfWritings[citation needed], edited by Joseph W. Michels; translated by: Lorraine T. Kapitanoff. University Park, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. ISBN 0-271-00531-9.
  • MAT Matara Aksumite & Pre-Aksumite City Webpage
  • [MUN] Munro-Hay Stuart. 1991. Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press. ISBN 0-7486-0106-6.
  • [PAN68] Pankhurst, Richard P. K. 1968.An Economic History of Ethiopia, 1800-1935, Addis Ababa: Haile Selassie I University Press.
  • PAN03 Pankhurst, Richard P. K. A Glimpse into 16th. Century Ethiopian History Abba 'Enbaqom, Imam Ahmad Ibn Ibrahim, and the "Conquest of Abyssinia". Addis Tribune. November 14, 2003.
  • PER Perruchon, J. D. and Gottheil, Richard. Falashas in The Jewish Encyclopidia. 1901-1906.

Further reading

Grammar

  • Aläqa Tayyä, Maṣḥafa sawāsəw. Monkullo: Swedish Mission 1896/7 (= E.C. 1889).
  • Chaîne, Marius, Grammaire éthiopienne, Nouvelle édition, Beyrouth: Imprimerie catholique 1938.
  • Cohen, Marcel, "la pronunciation traditionelle du Guèze (éthiopien classique)", in: Journal asiatique (1921) Sér. 11 / T. 18 (electronic version in Gallica digital library of the Bibliothèque nationale de France PDF).
  • Dillmann, August; Bezold, Carl, Ethiopic Grammar, 2nd edition translated from German by James Crichton, London 1907. ISBN 1-59244-145-9 (2003 reprint). (Published in German: ¹1857, ²1899).
  • Gäbrä-Yohannəs Gäbrä-Maryam, Gəss - Mäzgäbä-ḳalat - Gə'əz-ənna Amarəñña; yä-Gə'əz ḳʷanḳʷa mämmariya (A Grammar of Classical Ethiopic). Addis Ababa 2001/2002 (= E.C. 1994)[1]
  • Gene Gragg "Ge`ez Phonology," in: Phonologies of Asia and Africa (Vol 1), ed. A. S. Kaye & P. T. Daniels, Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, Indiana (1997).
  • Kidanä Wäld Kəfle, Maṣḥafa sawāsəw wagəss wamazgaba ḳālāt ḥaddis ("A new grammar and dictionary"), Dire Dawa: Artistik Matämiya Bet 1955/6 (E.C. 1948).
  • Lambdin, Thomas O., Introduction to Classical Ethiopic, Harvard Semitic Studies 24, Missoula, Mont.: Scholars Press 1978. ISBN 0-89130-263-8.
  • Praetorius, Franz, Äthiopische Grammatik, Karlsruhe: Reuther 1886.
  • Stefan Weninger, Ge‘ez grammar, Munich, ISBN 3-929075-04-0 (1st edition), ISBN 3-89586-604-0 (2nd revised edition).
  • Tropper, Josef, Altäthiopisch: Grammatik der Ge'ez mit Übungstexten und Glossar, Elementa Linguarum Orientis (ELO) 2, Münster: Ugarit-Verlag 2002. ISBN 3-934628-29-X

The Ethiopian calendar (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር yeĪtyōṗṗyā zemen āḳoṭaṭer) or Ethiopic calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia, as well as in Eritrea before it became independent. ... Gallica is the digital library of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France for distant users. ... The new buildings of the library. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Christian Friedrich August Dillmann (April 25, 1823 - 1894), was a German orientalist and biblical scholar. ... Carl Bezold (1859-1922) was a German orientalist. ... The Ethiopian calendar (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር yeĪtyōṗṗyā zemen āḳoṭaṭer) or Ethiopic calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia, as well as in Eritrea before it became independent. ...

Literature

  • Taddesse Adera, Ali Jimale Ahmed (eds.), Silence Is Not Golden: A Critical Anthology of Ethiopian Literature, Red Sea Press (1995), ISBN 0-932415-47-4.
  • Jon Bonk, Annotated and Classified Bibliography of English Literature Pertaining to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, Atla Bibliography Series, Scarecrow Pr (1984), ISBN 0-8108-1710-1.
  • Dillmann, August, Chrestomathia Aethiopica. Leipzig 1866.

Christian Friedrich August Dillmann (April 25, 1823 - 1894), was a German orientalist and biblical scholar. ...

Dictionaries

  • Dillmann, August, Lexicon linguæ Æthiopicæ cum indice Latino, Lipsiae 1865.
  • Leslau, Wolf, Comparative Dictionary of Geez (Classical Ethiopic): Geez-English, English-Geez, with an Index of the Semitic Roots, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz 1987. ISBN 3-447-02592-1.
  • Leslau, Wolf, Concise Dictionary of Ge‘ez (Classical Ethiopic), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz 1989. ISBN 3-447-02873-4.
  • Ludolf, Hiob, Lexicon Aethiopico-Latinum, Ed. by J. M. Wansleben, London 1661.
  • Wemmers, J., Lexicon Aethiopicum, Rome 1638.

Christian Friedrich August Dillmann (April 25, 1823 - 1894), was a German orientalist and biblical scholar. ... Wolf Leslau (November 14, 1906 - November 18, 2006) was a scholar of Semitic languages and one of the foremost authorities on Semitic languages of Ethiopia. ... Hiob Ludolf (or Job Leutholf) (June 15, 1624 - April 8, 1704) was a German orientalist, and born at Erfurt. ...

External links

British Library Ossulston St entrance, with distinctive red logo. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Semitic languages: Information from Answers.com (2474 words)
Semitic languages were among the earliest to attain a written form, with Akkadian writing beginning in the middle of the third millennium BC.
Modern Ethiopian Semitic languages are SOV, possessor — possessed, and adjective — noun, probably due to Cushitic influence; however, the oldest attested Ethiopian Semitic language, Geez, was VSO, possessed — possessor, and noun — adjective[4].
All Semitic languages exhibit a unique pattern of stems consisting of "triliteral" or consonantal roots (normally consisting of three consonants), from which nouns, adjectives, and verbs are formed by inserting vowels with, potentially, prefixes, suffixes, or infixes (consonants inserted within the original root).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m