FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Ge'ez alphabet
Ge'ez alphabet
Type: Abugida
Languages: Ethiopian Semitic languages (e.g. Ge'ez, Amharic, Tigrinya, Tigre, Harari, etc.), Bilin, Me'en, formerly Oromo
Time period: 5th-6th c. BC to the present (abjad until ca. 330 AD)
Parent writing systems: Proto-Sinaitic
 South Arabian
  Ge'ez alphabet
ISO 15924 code: Ethi
History of the Alphabet

Middle Bronze Age 19–15th c. BC
An abugida or alphasyllabary is a writing system composed of signs (graphemes) denoting consonants with an inherent following vowel, which are consistently modified to indicate other vowels (or, in some cases, the lack of a vowel). ... Ethiopian Semitic languages (sometimes Ethiopic) is a language group which together with Old South Arabian forms the Western branch of the South Semitic languages. ... Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA: ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient South Semitic language that had developed in the current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa, as the language of the peasantry. ... Amharic (አማርኛ āmariññā) is a Semitic language spoken in North Central Ethiopia by the Amhara. ... Tigrinya (also spelt Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray people in central Eritrea, where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia, where it also has official status, and among groups of emigrants from... Tigre is a Semitic language descended from Geez and is closely related to Tigrinya and Amharic. ... aman be dejqho ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Meen (also Mekan, Mieen, Mieken, Meqan, Men; ISO/DIS 639-3: mym) is a Nilo-Saharan language (Eastern Sudanic, Surmic) spoken in Ethiopia. ... The Oromo language, also known as Afaan Oromo or Oromifaa, is an Afro-Asiatic language, and the most widely spoken of the Cushitic sub-phylum. ... An abjad is a type of writing system where there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme, sometimes also called a consonantary. ... The Middle Bronze Age alphabets are two similar but undeciphered scripts, dated to be from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BCE), and believed to be ancestral to nearly all modern alphabets: the Proto-Sinaitic script discovered in the winter of 1904-1905 by William Flinders Petrie, and dated to... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of sounds and the human voice. ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The history of the alphabet begins in Ancient Egypt, more than a millennium into the history of writing. ... The Middle Bronze Age alphabets are two similar but undeciphered scripts, dated to be from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BCE), and believed to be ancestral to nearly all modern alphabets: the Proto-Sinaitic script discovered in the winter of 1904-1905 by William Flinders Petrie, and dated to...

Meroitic 3rd c. BC
Complete genealogy
This article is about the alphabet. For the language, see Ge'ez language.
Note: This article contains special characters. Can't See the font?

Ge'ez (ግዕዝ Gəʿəz) is an abugida script which was originally developed to write Ge'ez, a Semitic language. In languages which use it, e.g. Amharic and Tigrinya, the script is called Fidäl (ፊደል), which means script or alphabet.   The Proto-Canaanite alphabet is an abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs, which is found in Levantine texts of the Late Bronze Age (from ca. ... The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1400 BC and is related to the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ... The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet is an offshoot of the Phoenician alphabet used to write the Hebrew language from about the 10th century BCE until it began to fall out of use in the 5th century BCE with the adoption of the Aramaic alphabet as a writing system for Hebrew and... The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...   This article or section uses Khmer characters which may be rendered as boxes or other nonsensical symbols. ... Javanese script is the script that Javanese is originally written in (not to be confused with Javascript, which is a programming language). ... This article is mainly about Hebrew letters. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... The Nabatean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabateans in the 2nd century BC. Important inscriptions are found in Petra. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing Arabic and various other languages, together with various closely related scripts that typically differ in the presence or absence of a few letters. ... The Avestan alphabet was created in the 3rd century AD for writing the hymns of Zarathustra (a. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Younger Futhark inscription on the Vaksala Runestone The Runic alphabets are a set of related alphabets using letters known as runes, formerly used to write Germanic languages, mainly in Scandinavia and the British Isles, but before Christianization also on the European Continent. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...   The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed by Philostorgius to Wulfila, used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ... Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced , also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages—Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... The Samaritan alphabet is a direct descendant of the paleo-Hebrew variety of the Phoenician alphabet, the more commonly known Hebrew alphabet having been adapted from the Aramaic alphabet under the Persian Empire. ... Photograph of Botorrita 1 (both sides), 1st century BC. The Iberian scripts (or Iberian alphabet) are two scripts (or two styles of the same script) found on the Iberian peninsula, the Northeast and South Iberian script. ... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... The Meroitic script is an alphabet of Egyptian (Hieroglyphic) origin used in Kingdom of Meroë. Some scholars, e. ... Nearly all the segmental scripts (alphabets, but see below for more precise terminology) used around the globe were apparently derived from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet. ... Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA: ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient South Semitic language that had developed in the current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa, as the language of the peasantry. ... An abugida or alphasyllabary is a writing system composed of signs (graphemes) denoting consonants with an inherent following vowel, which are consistently modified to indicate other vowels (or, in some cases, the lack of a vowel). ... Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA: ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient South Semitic language that had developed in the current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa, as the language of the peasantry. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ...


The Ge'ez script has been adapted to write other languages, usually Semitic ones. The most widespread use is for Amharic in Ethiopia and Tigrinya in Eritrea and Ethiopia. It is also used for Sebatbeit, Me'en, and most other languages of Ethiopia. In Eritrea it is used for Tigre, and it is traditionally used for Blin, a Cushitic language. Some other languages in the Horn of Africa, such as Oromo, used to be written using Ge'ez but have migrated to Latin-based orthographies. Amharic (አማርኛ āmariññā) is a Semitic language spoken in North Central Ethiopia by the Amhara. ... Tigrinya (also spelt Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray people in central Eritrea, where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia, where it also has official status, and among groups of emigrants from... Sebat Bet Gurage (also called Central West Gurage, West Gurage, Chaha, Ezha, Gumer, Gura, Gyeto, Muher) is a South Semitic language of Ethiopia (ISO/DIS 639-3: sgw). ... Meen (also Mekan, Mieen, Mieken, Meqan, Men; ISO/DIS 639-3: mym) is a Nilo-Saharan language (Eastern Sudanic, Surmic) spoken in Ethiopia. ... Tigre is a Semitic language descended from Geez and is closely related to Tigrinya and Amharic. ... Note: Blin is the English spelling which is prefered by native speakers, but Bilin and Bilen are also commonly used. ... The Cushitic languages are a subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic languages, named after the Biblical figure Cush by analogy with Semitic. ... Nations of the Horn of Africa. ... The Oromo language, also known as Afaan Oromo or Oromifaa, is an Afro-Asiatic language, and the most widely spoken of the Cushitic sub-phylum. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...

  • For the representation of sounds, this article uses a system that is common (though not universal) among linguists who work on Ethiopian Semitic languages. This differs somewhat from the conventions of the International Phonetic Alphabet. See the articles on the individual languages for information on the pronuncation.
  • In order to view the Ge'ez characters, you will need a Unicode Ge'ez font, such as GF Zemen Unicode.

Contents

Ethiopian Semitic languages (sometimes Ethiopic) is a language group which together with Old South Arabian forms the Western branch of the South Semitic languages. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ...

History and origins

Ge'ez is descended from the South Arabian alphabet. The details of the process of derivation, however, are controversial. As Stuart Munro Hay notes, "the arguments advanced for the origins of the Ge'ez script would fill a small book." The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ...


Ge'ez has 26 basic consonant signs. Compared to the inventory of 29 consonants in the South Arabian alphabet, continuants of ġ, and the interdental fricatives (ḏ, ṯ) are missing, as well as South Arabian s s (Ge'ez Saut ሠ being derived from South Arabian š š). On the other hand, emphatic P̣ait ጰ, a Ge'ez innovation, is a modification of Ṣädai ጸ, while Pesa ፐ is based on Tawe ተ. () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiced velar fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents a = pharyngealized voiced dental or alveolar fricative (IPA or ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiced dental fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiceless dental fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... Samekh is the fifteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Image File history File links Himjar_za. ... Shin (also spelled Sin or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Image File history File links Himjar_shin. ...


Thus, there are 24 correspondences of Ge'ez and the South Arabian alphabet:

translit. h l m ś (SA s) r s b t n
Ge'ez
South Arabian h l ḥ m š r ś ḳ b t ḫ n
translit. ʾ k w ʿ z (SA d) y d g f
Ge'ez
South Arabian ʾ k w ʿ z y d g ṭ ṣ ḍ f

Many of the letter names are cognate with those of Proto-Canaanite, and may thus be assumed for Proto-Sinaitic. The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... Image File history File links Himjar_ha. ... Image File history File links Himjar_lam. ... Image File history File links Himjar_ha2. ... Image File history File links Himjar_mim. ... Image File history File links Himjar_shin. ... Image File history File links Himjar_ra. ... Image File history File links Himjar_sin. ... Image File history File links Himjar_qaf. ... Image File history File links Himjar_ba. ... Image File history File links Himjar_ta2. ... Image File history File links Himjar_kha. ... Image File history File links Himjar_nun. ... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... Image File history File links Himjar_alif. ... Image File history File links Himjar_kaf. ... Image File history File links Himjar_wa. ... Image File history File links Himjar_ajin. ... Image File history File links Himjar_dhal. ... Image File history File links Himjar_ja. ... Image File history File links Himjar_dal. ... Image File history File links Himjar_djim. ... Image File history File links Himjar_ta1. ... Image File history File links Himjar_sad. ... Image File history File links Himjar_za2. ... Image File history File links Himjar_fa. ... The Proto-Canaanite alphabet is the linear (, non-Cuneiform) abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with History of alphabets. ...


The earliest known inscriptions in Ge'ez are dated to the 5th to 6th centuries BCE in the city of Matara (Mäṭära), located in present day Eritrea. The Ge'ez abugida was devised in the early first millennium, and the first vocalized texts (i.e. including vowel forms of the letters) appear about the time of king Ezana (4th century), and some writers credit him with this change. However, Roger Schneider has pointed to anomalies in the known inscriptions which suggest that this vocalization occurred at an earlier time, and that Ezana was consciously employing an archaic style during his reign. (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were... Matara (or Metera), is an archeological site in Eritrea (a few kilometers south of Senafe), it was a major Aksumite & Pre-Aksumite City. ... An abugida or alphasyllabary is a writing system composed of signs (graphemes) denoting consonants with an inherent following vowel, which are consistently modified to indicate other vowels (or, in some cases, the lack of a vowel). ... Ezana of Axum was ruler of the Axumite Kingdom from about 320 to 350 AD. Ezana succeeded his father Ella Amida while still a youth and his mother, Sofya served as regent. ...


Likewise, the origins for the method of vocalizing the Ge'ez script is unclear. Some writers assume that the Greek alphabet served as the model. Yuri Kobishchanov has embraced the theories of W. Jones and Karl Richard Lepsius, who believed that the vocalization was patterned after Indian models. Kobishchanov cites a 1915 paper by A. Grohmann, which emphasized the similarities between Ge'ez and the ancient Indian Brahmi and Kharoshti alphabets. Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Karl Richard Lepsius 1810 – 1884 Karl (or Carl) Richard Lepsius (December 23, 1810 – July 10, 1884) was a pioneering Prussian Egyptologist and linguist and pioneer of modern archaeology. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border...


Signs for the Ge'ez language

Basic signs

There are 26 basic consonant signs:

h, l, ḥ, m, ś, r, s, ḳ, b, t, ḫ, n, ʾ, k, w, ʿ, z, y, d, g, ṭ, p̣, ṣ, ṣ́, f, p
translit. h l m ś r s b t n ʾ
Ge'ez
translit. k w ʿ z y d g ṣ́ f p
Ge'ez

Syllable signs

Genesis 29.11–16 in Ge’ez
Genesis 29.11–16 in Ge’ez

The Ge'ez script is an abugida: each symbol represents a consonant+vowel combination, and the symbols are organized in groups of similar symbols on the basis of both the consonant and the vowel. Download high resolution version (519x768, 138 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (519x768, 138 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Genesis (Hebrew: , Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah, the first book of the Tanakh and also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... An abugida or alphasyllabary is a writing system composed of signs (graphemes) denoting consonants with an inherent following vowel, which are consistently modified to indicate other vowels (or, in some cases, the lack of a vowel). ...


Ge'ez is written from left to right across the page.


In Ge'ez, each consonant can be combined with seven vowels:

ä, u, i, a, e, ə, o

For each consonant in an abugida, there is a basic or unmarked symbol which represents that consonant followed by a default vowel, called the inherent vowel. For the Ge'ez script, the inherent vowel is /ä/, the first column in the table. For the other vowels, the basic consonant symbol is modified in consistent ways. An inherent vowel is part of an abugida script. ...


In the table below, the rows of the table show the consonants in the traditional order. The columns show the seven vowels, also in the traditional order. A consonant can be described, for example, as being "in the fifth order", meaning that it is of the form which is fifth in this traditional order of vowels. For some letters, there is an eighth modification expressing a diphthong -wa or -oa, and a ninth expressing -yä. In phonetics, a diphthong (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a vowel combination in a single syllable involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...


To represent a consonant with no following vowel, for example at the end of a syllable or in a consonant cluster, the consonant+ə form is used (the symbol in the sixth column). In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. ...

  ä u i a e ə o wa
Hoy h  
Läwe l  
Ḥäwṭ  
May m
Śäwt ś  
Reʾs r
Śat s  
Ḳaf  
Bet b  
Täwe t  
Ḫarm  
Nähas n  
ʾÄlf ʾ  
  ä u i a e ə o wa
Kaf k  
Wäwe w  
ʿÄyn ʿ  
Zäy z  
Yämän y  
Dänt d  
Gäml g  
Ṭäyt  
P̣ait  
Ṣädäy  
Ṣ́äppä ṣ́  
Äf f
Psa p  

He is the fifth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ...   Kheth or Het is the eighth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Mem is the thirteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Shin (also spelled Sin or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Åšat is a letter of the Geez abugida, descended from South Arabian . ...   Qoph is the nineteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Beth or Bet is the second letter of many Semetic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Taw or Tav is the twenty-second and last letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its original value is an voiceless alveolar plosive, IPA , The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Tau (Τ), Latin T, and the equivalent in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... ( , transliterated as either (DIN-31635) or (ISO 233)) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiceless velar fricative (IPA: ). In name and shape, it is a variant of (see also there). ... Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... is the reconstructed name of the first letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew , , and Arabic . Aleph originally expressed the glottal stop (IPA ), usually transliterated as , a symbol based on the Greek spiritus lenis , for example in the transliteration of the letter... Kaph (also spelled Kap or Kaf) is the eleventh letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its value is IPA . ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ... Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Zayin or Zain is the seventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Yodh (also spelled Yud or Yod) is the tenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ...   Dalet or Daleth is the fourth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Gimel is a commune in Switzerland of the canton of Vaud, located in the district of Aubonne. ... (also Teth, Tet) is the ninth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 16th in modern order). ... Tsade or Tsadi is the 18th letter in the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents a pharyngealized voiced alveolar plosive (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... This is about the Hebrew letter: for the Cyrillic letter, see Pe (Cyrillic). ...

Labiovelar letter variants

The symbols for the labialized velar consonants are variants of the non-labialized velar consonants: A labiovelar consonant is a consonant made with two blockages, one at the lips (labial) and the other at the soft palate (velar). ...

Basic sign k g
Labialized variant w w kw gw

Unlike the other consonants, these labiovelar ones can only be combined with 5 different vowels:

  ä i a e ə
w
w
  ä i a e ə
kw
gw

Modifications for other languages

Additional letters

Some letters have variants for use in languages other than Ge'ez. Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA: ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient South Semitic language that had developed in the current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa, as the language of the peasantry. ...

Basic sign b t z d
Affricated variant v [v] č [ʧ] ž [ʒ] ǧ [ʤ] č̣ [ʧʼ]
Basic sign k
Affricated variant h [q] x [x]
Labialized variant hw [qʷ] xw [xʷ]
Basic sign s n
Palatalized variant š [ʃ] ñ [ɲ]
Basic sign g w
Nasal variant [ŋ] [ŋʷ]

The syllable symbols are shown below. Like the other labiovelars, these labiovelars can only be combined with 5 vowels.

  ä u i a e ə o wa
š
h  
hw      
v
č
[ŋʷ]        
  ä u i a e ə o wa
ñ
x  
xw      
ž
ǧ
[ŋ]
č̣

Symbols used in modern languages

Amharic uses all the basic consonants, plus the ones indicated below. Some of the Ge'ez labiovelar letter variants are also used. Amharic (አማርኛ āmariññā) is a Semitic language spoken in North Central Ethiopia by the Amhara. ...


Tigrinya has all the basic consonants, the Ge'ez labiovelar letter variants except for w (ኈ) plus the ones indicated below. A few of the basic consonants are falling into disuse in Eritrea. See Tigrinya language#Writing system for details. Tigrinya (also spelt Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray people in central Eritrea, where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia, where it also has official status, and among groups of emigrants from... Tigrinya (also spelt Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray people in central Eritrea, where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia, where it also has official status, and among groups of emigrants from...


Tigre uses the basic consonants except for ś (ሠ), (ኀ) and (ፀ). It also uses the ones indicated below. It does not use the Ge'ez labiovelar letter variants. Tigre is a Semitic language descended from Geez and is closely related to Tigrinya and Amharic. ...


Blin uses the basic consonants except for ś (ሠ), (ኀ) and (ፀ). It also uses the ones indicated below and the Ge'ez labiovelar letter variants. Note: Blin is the English spelling which is prefered by native speakers, but Bilin and Bilen are also commonly used. ...

  š h hw v č [ŋʷ] ñ x xw ž ǧ [ŋ] č̣
 
Amharic        
Tigrinya    
Tigre                  
Blin    

Note: "v" is used for words of foreign origin except for in some Gurage languages (e.g. cravat, 'tie' from French), and "x" is pronounced "h" in Amharic. Gurage is an ethnic group in Ethiopia. ...


List order

For Ge'ez, Amharic, Tigrinya and Tigre, the usual list order is called Halehame. For the basic signs it is as given elsewhere on this page. Where the labiovelar variants are used, these come immediately after the basic signs, followed by other variants. In Tigrinya, for example, the signs based on ከ come in this order: ከ, ኰ, ኸ, ዀ.


In Blin, the order of the signs is slightly different.


Diaspora usage

Many Rastafarians learn to write Ge'ez because in their religion it is the original and a sacred language. Various roots reggae musicians have used the script in album art. Rasta hairstyle Rastafarianism is a religious movement that believes in the divinity of former emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia. ... Roots reggae is the name given to Rastafarian reggae music from Jamaica which evolved from Ska and Rocksteady and was made famous outside the Caribbean by the legendary singer/songwriter Bob Marley. ... { Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Music is a form of art that involves organized and audible sounds and silence. ...


The African Code official recognizes Ge'ez as a pan-African script to replace all forms of Latin which are currently used to write most African languages.


The film 500 Years Later (፭፻-ዓመታት በጓላ) was the first mainstream Western documentary to use Ge'ez characters for the film title 500 Years Later. The script also appears in the trailer and promotional material of the film. 500 Years Later (፭፻-ዓመታት በጓላ) is an independent documentary film directed by Owen Alik Shahadah, written by M.K. Asante, Jr. ... The term Western World or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ...


Numerals

Numeral systems by culture
Hindu-Arabic numerals
Western Arabic
Eastern Arabic
Khmer
Indian family
Brahmi
Thai
East Asian numerals
Chinese
Japanese
Korean
 
Alphabetic numerals
Abjad
Armenian
Cyrillic
Ge'ez
Hebrew
Ionian/Greek
Sanskrit
 
Other systems
Attic
Etruscan
Roman
Babylonian
Egyptian
Mayan
List of numeral system topics
Positional systems by base
Decimal (10)
2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64
3, 9, 12, 24, 30, 36, 60, more…
v  d  e

Ge'ez uses a systems of ones and tens comparable to the Hebrew, Arabic Abjad and Greek numerals, but unlike these systems, rather than giving numeric values to letters, it has separate numeral symbols that are derived from the Greek letter-numbers: A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols, or a word in a natural language that represents a number. ... The Hindu-Arabic numeral system (also called Algorism) is a positional decimal numeral system documented from the 9th century. ... Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also known as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ... India has produced many numeral systems. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. ... Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ... The Sanskrit alphabetic numerals were created in about A.D. 510 by Āryabhaa. ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodianus. ... The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ... The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... Mayan numerals. ... This is a list of numeral system topics, by Wikipedia page. ... Positional notation is a system in which each position has a value represented by a unique symbol or character. ... The radix (Latin for root), also called base, is the number of various unique symbols (or digits or numerals) a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers. ... The decimal (base ten or occasionally denary) numeral system has ten as its base. ... The binary numeral system (base 2 numerals) represents numeric values using two symbols, typically 0 and 1. ... Quaternary is the base four numeral system. ... The octal numeral system is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... In mathematics and computer science, base-16, hexadecimal, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix or base of 16 usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F or a–f. ... Base32 is a derivation of Base64 with the following additional properties: The resulting character set is all uppercase, which can often be beneficial when using a case-sensitive filesystem. ... Base 64 is a positional numeral system using a base of 64. ... Ternary or trinary is the base-3 numeral system. ... Nonary is a base 9 numeral system, typically using the digits 0-8, but not the digit 9. ... A duodecimal multiplication table The duodecimal (also known as base-12 or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ... Base 30 or trigesimal is a positional numeral system using 30 as the radix. ... Base 36 refers to a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. ...

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
× 1
× 10
× 100  
× 10.000  

Unicode

Ge'ez (or "Ethiopic") has been assigned Unicode 3.0 codepoints between U+1200 and U+137F (decimal 4608–4991), containing the basic syllable signs for Ge'ez, Amharic, and Tigrinya, punctuation and numerals. Additionally, in Unicode 4.1, there is the "Supplement" range from U+1380 to U+139F (decimal 4992–5023) containing syllables for Sebatbeit and tonal marks, and the "Extended" range between U+2D80 and U+2DDF (decimal 11648–11743) containing syllable signs needed for writing Sebatbeit, Me'en and Blin. Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA: ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient South Semitic language that had developed in the current region of Eritrea and northern Ethiopia in the Horn of Africa, as the language of the peasantry. ... Amharic (አማርኛ āmariññā) is a Semitic language spoken in North Central Ethiopia by the Amhara. ... Tigrinya (also spelt Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray people in central Eritrea, where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia, where it also has official status, and among groups of emigrants from... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Sebat Bet Gurage (also called Central West Gurage, West Gurage, Chaha, Ezha, Gumer, Gura, Gyeto, Muher) is a South Semitic language of Ethiopia (ISO/DIS 639-3: sgw). ... Meen (also Mekan, Mieen, Mieken, Meqan, Men; ISO/DIS 639-3: mym) is a Nilo-Saharan language (Eastern Sudanic, Surmic) spoken in Ethiopia. ... Note: Blin is the English spelling which is prefered by native speakers, but Bilin and Bilen are also commonly used. ...

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
1200  
1210
1220
1230
1240    
1250      
1260
1270
1280    
1290
12A0
12B0      
12C0      
12D0  
12E0  
12F0
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
1300
1310    
1320
1330
1340  
1350  
1360
1370  
1380
1390  
2D80
2D90  
2DA0    
2DB0    
2DC0    
2DD0    
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

Literature

External links

For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ...

Special characters


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ethiopic Entity Names (1624 words)
Ge'ez language, the first Abyssinian language to adopt writing, with its original 26 member alphabet is often compared with other Semitic languages and scripts from the same period.
Ge'ez is utilized in the same way by the sciences for the derivation of new terms in a way that is neutral to national and cultural boundaries.
Ge'ez names were not available for the punctuation marks ፥, ፦, ፧, ፨ and so had to be derived.
Geez - definition of Geez - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (380 words)
The Ge'ez language (or Gi'iz language) is an ancient language that developed in the Ethiopian Highlands of the Horn of Africa as the language of the peasantry.
The Ge'ez alphabet and the language itself is considered to have evolved under the influence of southern-Arabic colonies from first millennium B.C. The first inscriptions in Ge'ez are dated to the 4th century A.D, although some scientists assume that this language was invented around the 1st or 2nd century.
Ge'ez was in turn replaced around 13th century A.D. by the Amharic language in the south and the Tigre language in the north.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m