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Encyclopedia > Ge'ez abugida
History of the Alphabet

Middle Bronze Age 19–15th c. BC
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Middle Bronze Age alphabets. ... Two similar but undeciphered scripts believed to be ancestral to all modern alphabets are attested from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BCE): the Proto-Sinaitic script discovered in the winter of 1904-1905 by William Flinders Petrie, and dated to 1500 BCE, and the Wadi el-Ħôl (or Wadi...

Meroitic 3rd c. BC
Complete genealogy
Note: This article contains special characters.

Ge'ez (ግዕዝ Gəʾəz; ፊደል Fidäl), the abugida script used to write the Ge'ez language, is descended from the South Arabian alphabet. The details of the process of derivation, however, are controversial. As Stuart Munro-Hays notes, "the arguments advanced for the origins of the Ge'ez script would fill a small book." The earliest known inscriptions in Ge'ez are dated to the 5th to 6th centuries BCE in the city of Matara (Mät.ära), located in present day Eritrea. The Ge'ez alphabet was devised in the early first millennium, and the first vocalized texts (ie, including vowel forms of the letters) appear about the time of king Ezana (4th century), and some writers credit him with this change. However, Roger Schneider has pointed to anomalies in the known inscriptions which suggest that this vocalization occurred at an earlier time, and that Ezana was consciously employing an archaic style during his reign. Drawing of the 16 and 12 characters Wadi el-Hol inscriptions The Proto-Canaanite (also Proto-Sinaitic) alphabet is identified as the prototype of the Semitic alphabets that, mostly via the successful Phoenician alphabet became the ancestor of most scripts in use today. ... The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1400 BC and is related to the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ... The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia, Tibet and Southeast Asia. ... Om Mani Padme Hum, the primary mantra of Tibetan Buddhism written in the Tibetan script, on a rock outside the Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet. ... This article or section uses Khmer characters which may be rendered as boxes or other nonsensical symbols. ... Javanese script is the script that Javanese is originally written in (not to be confused with Javascript, which is a programming language). ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... The Avestan alphabet was created in the 3rd century AD for writing the hymns of Zarathustra (a. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing in the Arabic language. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Representation of the Gothic alphabet surrounding its inventor Ulfilas The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed to Wulfila used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ... Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... The Samaritan alphabet is a direct descendant of the paleo-Hebrew variety of the Phoenician alphabet, the more commonly known Hebrew alphabet having been adapted from the Aramaic alphabet under the Persian Empire. ... photograph of Botorrita 1 (both sides), 1st century BC. The Iberian scripts (or Iberian alphabet) are two scripts (or two styles of the same script) found on the Iberian peninsula, the Northeast and South Iberian script. ... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... The Meroitic script is an alphabet of Egyptian (Hieroglyphic) origin used in Kingdom of Meroë. Some scholars, e. ... Nearly all the segmental scripts used around the globe were apparently derived from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet. ... An abugida or alphasyllabary is a writing system composed of signs (graphemes) denoting consonants with an inherent following vowel, which are consistently modified to indicate other vowels (or, in some cases, the lack of a vowel). ... Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient language that developed in the Ethiopian Highlands of the Horn of Africa as the language of the peasantry. ... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were... Matara (or Metera), is an archeological site in Eritrea (a few kilometers south of Senafe), it was a major Aksumite & Pre-Aksumite City. ... Ezana of Axum was ruler of the Axumite Kingdom from about 320 to 350 AD. Ezana succeeded his father Ella Amida while still a youth and his mother, Sofya served as regent. ...


Likewise, the origins for the method of vocalizing the Ge'ez script is unclear. Some writers assume that the Greek alphabet served as the model. Yuri Kobishchanov has embraced the theories of W. Jones and Karl Richard Lepsius, who believed that the vocalization was patterned after Indian models. Kobishchanov cites a 1915 paper by A. Grohmann, which emphasized the similarities between Ge'ez and the ancient Indian Brahmi and Kharoshti alphabets. Note: This article contains special characters. ... Carl Richard Lepsius (December 23, 1810 - July 10, 1884) was a German professor of Egyptology and linguist. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border between Afghanistan and Pakistan between the Indus River and the...


Amharic in Ethiopia and Tigrigna in Eritrea and Ethiopia use modified forms of the Ge'ez abugida. Other languages in the Horn of Africa were also historically written using Ge'ez, such as Oromo language and Somali, but these have generally migrated to Latin-based orthographies. Amharic (አማርኛ ’amarəñña) is a Semitic language spoken in North Central Ethiopia. ... Tigrigna (or ትግሪኛ) is a Semitic language spoken in Eritrea, where it is the official language, and in parts of Ethiopia and Israel. ... Nations of the Horn of Africa. ... The Oromo, sometimes called Galla (this usage has now become pejorative, but was widely used into the 20th century) are an African ethnic group found in Ethiopia and to a lesser extent Kenya. ...

Contents


Basic signs

There are 26 basic consonant signs,

h, l, ḥ, m, ś, r, s, ḳ, b, t, ḫ, n, ʾ, k, w, ʿ, z, y, g, d, ṭ, p̣, ṣ, ḍ, f, p.

Compared to the inventory of 29 consonants in the South Arabian alphabet, continuants of ġ, and the interdental fricatives (ḏ, ṯ) are missing, as well as South Arabian s s (Ge'ez Saut ሠ being derived from South Arabian š š). On the other hand, emphatic P̣ait ጰ, a Ge'ez innovation, is a modification of Ṣädai ጸ, while Pesa ፐ is based on Tawe ተ. The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiced velar fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents a = pharyngealized voiced dental or alveolar fricative (IPA or ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiced dental fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents the voiceless dental fricative (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... Samekh is the fifteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Image File history File links Himjar_za. ... Shin or Sin is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Image File history File links Himjar_shin. ...


Thus, there are 24 correspondences of Ge'ez and the South Arabian alphabet (corresponding glyphs of the Phoenician alphabet are shown where extant):: The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1400 BC and is related to the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ...

h l m ś r s b t n ʾ k w ʿ z y g d f
Ge'ez
South Arabian h l ḥ m š r ś ḳ t ḫ n ʾ k w ʿ z y g d ṭ ṣ ḍ f
Phoenician l s r q t n ʿ z y g

Image File history File links Himjar_ha. ... Image File history File links Himjar_lam. ... Image File history File links Himjar_ha2. ... Image File history File links Himjar_mim. ... Image File history File links Himjar_shin. ... Image File history File links Himjar_ra. ... Image File history File links Himjar_sin. ... Image File history File links Himjar_qaf. ... Image File history File links Himjar_ta2. ... Image File history File links Himjar_kha. ... Image File history File links Himjar_nun. ... Image File history File links Himjar_alif. ... Image File history File links Himjar_kaf. ... Image File history File links Himjar_wa. ... Image File history File links Himjar_ajin. ... Image File history File links Himjar_dhal. ... Image File history File links Himjar_ja. ... Image File history File links Himjar_djim. ... Image File history File links Himjar_dal. ... Image File history File links Himjar_ta1. ... Image File history File links Himjar_sad. ... Image File history File links Himjar_za2. ... Image File history File links Himjar_fa. ... Phoenician He. ... Phoenician Lamedh. ... Phoenician Heth. ... Phoenician Mem. ... Phoenician Sin. ... Phoenician Res. ... Phoenician Samekh. ... Phoenician Qoph. ... Phoenician Beth. ... Phoenician Taw. ... Phoenician Nun. ... Phoenician Aleph. ... Phoenician Kaph. ... Phoenician Waw. ... Phoenician Ayin. ... Phoenician Zayin. ... Phoenician Yodh. ... Phoenician Gimel. ... Phoenician Daleth. ... Phoenician Teth. ... Phoenician Sade. ... Phoenician Pe. ...

Simple syllables

Genesis 29.11–16 in Ge'ez
Genesis 29.11–16 in Ge'ez

The consonants can be combined with seven vowels, Download high resolution version (519x768, 138 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (519x768, 138 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin), also called The First Book of Moses, is the first book of Torah (five books of Moses), and is the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of...

ä, u, i, a,e, ə, o,

the inherent vowel being ä (Proto-Semitic *a). The ə-signs are also used to write closed syllables (compare virama). For some letters, there is an eighth modification expressing diphtongs -wa or -oa, and a ninth expressing . Many of the letter names are cognate with those of Proto-Canaanite, and may thus be assumed for Proto-Sinaitic. Proto-Semitic is the hypothetical proto-language of the Semitic languages. ... A syllable (ancient Greek: συλλαβή) is a unit of speech that is made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with one or more optional phones (single sounds or phonetic segments). Syllables are often considered the phonological building blocks of words. ... Virama is a generic term for the diacritic character in many Brahmic scripts that is used to suppress an inherent vowel sound that occurs with every consonant character. ... The Proto-Canaanite alphabet is the linear (, non-Cuneiform) abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with History of alphabets. ...

  ä u i a e ə o wa
Hoy h
Läwe l
Ḥäwṭ
May m
Säwt ś
Reʾs r
Śat s
Ḳaf
Bet b
Täwe t
Ḫarm
Nähas n
ʾÄlf ʾ
Kaf k
Wäwe w
ʿÄyn ʿ  
Zäy z
Yämän y
Dänt d
Gäml g
Ṭäyt
P̣ait
Ṣädäy
Ḍäppä
Äf f
Psa p

He is the fifth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ...   Kheth or Het is the eighth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Mem is the thirteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Shin or Sin is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Resh is the twentieth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... Åšat is a letter of the Geez abugida, descended from South Arabian . ...   Qoph is the nineteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Beth or Bet is the second letter of many Semetic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Taw or Tav is the twenty-second and last letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic alphabet . Its original value is an voiceless alveolar plosive, IPA , The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Tau (Τ), Latin T, and the equivalent in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... is the reconstructed name of the first letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew , , and Arabic . Aleph originally expressed the glottal stop (IPA ), usually transliterated as , a symbol based on the Greek spiritus lenis , for example in the transliteration of the letter... Kaph or Kaf is the eleventh letter of the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ...   Vav or waw is the sixth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic in abjadi order; it is the twenty-seventh in modern Arabic order. ... Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Zayin or Zain is the seventh letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Yud or Yodh is the tenth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ...   Dalet or Daleth is the fourth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... Gimel is a commune in Switzerland of the canton of Vaud, located in the district of Aubonne. ... (also Teth, Tet) is the ninth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 16th in modern order). ... Tsade or Tsadi is the 18th letter in the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabets. ... () is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents a pharyngealized voiced alveolar plosive (IPA ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... This is about the Hebrew letter: for the Cyrillic letter, see Pe (Cyrillic). ...

Letter variants

The labiovelars w ቈ, hw ቘ, w ኈ, kw ኰ and gw ጐ are variants of ቀ, h ቐ, ኀ, k ከ and g ገ.

  ä i a e ə
w
hw
w
kw
gw

Some letters have variants for use in Amharic and Tigrinya. Note that the emphatic consonants ḥ, ḳ, ṭ, č̣, p̣, ṣ, ḍ are realized as ejectives in Amharic, and for this reason commonly transliterated as h', k', t', č', p', s', d'. Amharic (አማርኛ) is a Semitic language spoken in Northern Central Ethiopia, where it is the official language. ... Tigrigna (or ትግሪኛ) is a Semitic language spoken in Eritrea, where it is the official language, and in parts of Ethiopia and Israel. ... Emphatic consonant is a somewhat imprecise term commonly used in Semitic linguistics to describe pharyngealized or velarized, and ejective consonants, or consonants that historically had one of these properties. ...

  • v[v], č[ʧ] ž[ʒ], ǧ[ʤ] and č̣ ጨ [ʧʼ] are affricated variants of b በ, t ተ, z ዘ, d ደ and ጠ;
  • š [ʃ] is a variant of s ሰ.
  • ñ ኘ is palatalized n ነ;
  • q ቐ [q][citation needed] and x ኸ [x][citation needed] are uvular variants of ቀ and k ከ;
  • [ɗ][citation needed] and ጘ [ŋ] are variants of d ደ and g ገ.
  ä u i a e ə o wa
q  
š
v
č
ñ
x
ž
[ɗ]
ǧ
[ŋ]
č̣

Numerals

Numeral systems

List of numeral system topics A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ... This is a list of numeral system topics, by Wikipedia page. ...

Hindu-Arabic system Abjad
Armenian
Babylonian
Brahmi
Chinese
Cyrillic
Egyptian
Etruscan
Ge'ez
Greek Hebrew
Japanese
Khmer
Korean
Mayan
Roman
D'ni (fictitious)
Positional systems
with various bases:

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 20, 24, 26, 27, 30, 32, 36, 60, 64 The system of Hindu-Arabic numerals is a positional decimal numeral system that evolved from the Brahmi numeral system in ancient India, from the 9th century documented to have used a positional notation including a zero symbol. ... // Origins The Hindu-Arabic numeral system originated from the Hindu numeral system, which is a pure place value system, that requires a zero. ... Various symbol sets are used to represent numbers in the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, all of which evolved from the Brahmi numerals. ... Numerals sans serif Arabic numerals, also known as Hindu-Arabic numerals, Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... India has produced many numeral systems. ... The Abjad numerals are a numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Arabic numerals (which are actually of Indian origin). ... Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ... The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodianus. ... Ionian numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly before the 7th century BC. They are also known by the names Milesian numerals or Alexandrian numerals. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ... Mayan numerals. ... The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Myst franchise Games Myst Riven Myst III: Exile Myst IV: Revelation Myst V: End of Ages Uru: Ages Beyond Myst Ages of: Myst Riven Myst III: Exile Myst IV: Revelation Uru Novels Myst: The Book of Atrus   Tiana   Dni Comic Books #0   #1 Miscellaneous Dni Ages   The... Positional notation is a system in which each position has a value represented by a unique symbol or character. ... In mathematics, the base or radix is the number of various unique symbols (digits), including zero, that a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers in a given counting system. ... The binary numeral system (base 2 numerals) represents numeric values using two symbols, typically 0 and 1. ... Ternary or trinary is the base-3 numeral system. ... Quaternary is the base four numeral system. ... Quinary (base-5) is a numeral system with five as the base. ... A senary numeral system is a base-six numeral system. ... The septenary numeral system is the base seven number system, and uses the digits 0-6. ... The octal numeral system is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... Nonary is a base 9 numeral system, typically using the digits 0-8, but not the digit 9. ... The decimal (base ten or occasionally denary) numeral system has ten as its base. ... The undecimal (base-11) positional notation system is based on the number eleven, rather than ten as in decimal or eight in octal and so on. ... A duodecimal multiplication table The duodecimal (also known as base-twelve or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... Base-13, tridecimal, or tredecimal is a nonstandard positional numeral system with thirteen as its base. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix or base of 16 usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F or a–f. ... The vigesimal or base-20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten). ... As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ... A Hexavigesimal numeral system has a base of twenty-six. ... A Septemvigesimal numeral system has a base of twenty-seven. ... Base 30 or trigesimal is a positional numeral system using 30 as the radix. ... Base32 is a derivation of Base64 with the following additional properties: The resulting character set is all uppercase, which can often be beneficial when using a case-sensitive filesystem. ... Base 36 refers to a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... Base 64 literally means a positional numeral system using a base of 64. ...

Non-standard systems:

1, -2, -3, Balanced ternary, mixed, Factoradic, Fibonacci coding, bijective, 2i, φ Non-standard positional numeral systems are numeral systems that may be denoted positional systems, but that deviate in one way or another from the following description of standard positional system: In a standard positional numeral system, the base b is a positive integer, and b different glyphs are used to... The unary numeral system is the simplest numeral system to represent natural numbers: in order to represent a number N, an arbitrarily chosen symbol is repeated N times. ... Negabinary (radix -2) is a fairly obscure numeral system used in the experimental Polish computers SKRZAT 1 and BINEG in 1950. ... Negaternary is a numeral system in which numbers are written as sums of successive powers of -3. ... Balanced Ternary (aka Signary) is a method of numeric representation which expands on binary and is similar to trinary. ... Mixed radix numeral systems are more general than the usual ones in that the numerical base may vary from position to position. ... The factorial based radix or factoradic is a factorial based mixed radix numeral scheme: radix: 5! 4! 3! 2! 1! decimal: 120 24 6 2 1 In this numbering system, the rightmost digit may be 0 or 1, the next 0, 1, or 2, and so on. ... The Fibonacci code is a universal code which encodes positive integers into binary code words. ... Bijective numeration is any numeral system that establishes a bijection between the set of non-negative integers and the set of finite strings over a finite set of digits. ... The quater-imaginary numeral system was first proposed by Donald Knuth in 1955, in a submission to a high-school science talent search. ... Golden ratio base refers to the use of the golden ratio, the irrational number ≈1. ...

edit

Ge'ez uses a systems of ones and tens comparable to the Hebrew, Arabic Abjad and Greek numerals, but unlike these systems, rather than giving numeric values to letters, it has separate numeral symbols: The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... The Abjad numerals are a numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Arabic numerals (which are actually of Indian origin). ...

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1
10
100
10000

Unicode

Ge'ez (or "Ethiopic") has been assigned Unicode 3.0 codepoints between U+1200 and U+137F (decimal 4608–4991), containing the basic syllable signs for Ge'ez and Amharic and Tigrinya, punctuation and numerals; additionally, in Unicode 4.1, there is the "Supplement" range from U+1380 to U+139F (decimal 4992–5023 ), containing syllables for Sebatbeit and tonal marks, and the "Extended" range between U+2D80 and U+2DDF (decimal 11648–11743), containing syllable signs needed for writing Sebatbeit Me'en and Bilin. Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Geez (also transliterated Giiz, , and pronounced IPA ; ISO 639-2 gez) is an ancient language that developed in the Ethiopian Highlands of the Horn of Africa as the language of the peasantry. ... Amharic (አማርኛ) is a Semitic language spoken in Northern Central Ethiopia, where it is the official language. ... Tigrigna (or ትግሪኛ) is a Semitic language spoken in Eritrea, where it is the official language, and in parts of Ethiopia and Israel. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
1200
1210
1220
1230
1240  
1250    
1260
1270
1280  
1290
12A0
12B0      
12C0      
12D0  
12E0
12F0
1300
1310      
1320
1330
1340
1350        
1360
1370
1380
1390
2D80
2D90        
2DA0  
2DB0  
2DC0  
2DD0  
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

Literature

  • Gabriella F. Scelta, The Comparative Origin and Usage of the Ge’ez writing system of Ethiopia (2001) [1]

External links

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ...

Special characters


 
 

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