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Encyclopedia > Gaza
Gaza
غزة
Gaza City
Crowded beach in Gaza City
Nickname: Gaza City
Map of the Gaza Strip from The World Factbook
Map of the Gaza Strip from The World Factbook
Country Palestinian territories
Territory Gaza Strip
First occupied 15th century BCE
Government
 - Mayor Majid Abu Ramadan[1]
Area
 - City 45 km²  (17.4 sq mi)
Population
 - City 400,000
Website: http://www.mogaza.org/

Gaza (Arabic: غزة transliteration: Ġazzah; Hebrew: עזה Azzah) is the largest city within the Gaza Strip, part of the Palestinian territories. The city, which has a population of approximately 400,000, was inhabited since 3000BC and is frequently termed "Gaza City" in order to distinguish it from the larger Gaza Strip. Garza is a Basque surname and the Spanish language equivalent of heron. ... Pyramids of Giza in 1960s Egypt: Site of Giza or Al Jizah (top center). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (2996 × 2000 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The World Factbook 2007 (government edtion) cover. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... A territory (from the word terra, meaning land) is a defined area (including land and waters), usually considered to be a possession of an animal, person, organization, or institution. ... (Redirected from 15th century BCE) (16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC - other centuries) (1500s BC - 1490s BC - 1480s BC - 1470s BC - 1460s BC - 1450s BC - 1440s BC - 1430s BC - 1420s BC - 1410s BC - 1400s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ...

Contents

History

Strategically located on the Mediterranean coastal route, ancient Gaza was a prosperous trade center and a stop on the caravan route between Egypt and Syria. The city was occupied by Egypt around the 15th century BCE. Philistines settled the area several hundred years later, and Gaza became one of their chief cities. Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... A Pentapolis, from the Greek words penta five and polis city(-state) is geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities. ...


In 145 BCE Gaza was conquered by Jonathan the Hasmonean (Brother of Judah the Maccabee). There was a prospering Jewish presence in Gaza until the Roman ruler Gavinius expelled them in 61 CE as part of the First Jewish-Roman War. In the times of the Mishnah and the Talmud there was a large Jewish community in Gaza, and on one of the pillars of the Great Mosque of Gaza there was a Greek inscription which read "Hananiah bar Yaakov" (a Hebrew name) with a menorah carved above it. This column was originally part of a Byzantine-era synagogue, destroyed at an unknown date and reused (recycled) as part of a grand Church of St. John Baptist, built by Crusaders. When the Crusaders were driven out, the church was commandeered for use as a mosque. At an undetermined date between between 1987 and 1993, during the intifada a very tall ladder or scaffolding were erected and the carving was chisled off.[2] The remains of the ancient Gaza synagogue, built around 500 CE, were found near the city wharf. Jonathan Maccabaeus was leader of the Hasmonean Dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BC. He is called also Apphus (Ἀπφοῦς [Syriac, (image) ] = the dissembler or the diplomat, in allusion to a trait prominent in him; 1 Maccabees ii. ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ... Judas Maccabeus (or Judah the Maccabee from the Hebrew יהודה המכבי transliteration: Yehudah HaMakabi) translation: Judah the Hammer was the third son of the Jewish priest Mattathias. ... Wojciech Stattlers Machabeusze (Maccabees), 1844 The Maccabees (Hebrew: מכבים or מקבים, Makabim) were Jewish rebels who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) The first Jewish-Roman War (years 66–73 CE), sometimes called The... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. ... A coin issued by Mattathias Antigonus, c. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ...


Gaza was occupied by Arabs in the 630s after a siege during which the Jewish population of the city defended it alongside the Byzantine garrison.[3] Believed to be the site where Muhammad's great grandfather was buried, the city became an important Islamic center. In the 12th century, Gaza was taken by Christian Crusaders; it returned to Muslim control in 1187. The city fell to the Ottomans in the 16th century and was taken by the British in the Third Battle of Gaza on 7 November 1917 during the First World War.[citation needed] The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... Third Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 31 October–7 November 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Allied victory The Third Battle of Gaza was fought in 1917 in southern Palestine during World War I. The British forces under the command of General Edmund Allenby successfully broke... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Following World War I, Gaza became part of the British mandate for Palestine. In 1929, following deadly Arab rioting, the last Jewish residents of Gaza City were forced to leave. After the Israeli War of Independence in 1948, Egypt occupied Gaza and its surrounding area. The city's growing population was augmented by an influx of Arab refugees fleeing Israel. The Egyptians never accepted the inhabitants as citizens of Egypt and prohibited them from leaving Gaza Strip. Israel captured the city and the Gaza Strip during the 1967 Six Day War, and Gaza remained occupied by Israel for the next 27 years. With the onset of the Palestinian uprising known as the intifada in 1987, Gaza became a center of political unrest and confrontation between Israelis and Palestinians, and economic conditions in the city worsened.[citation needed] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Flag Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the British Mandate of Palestine, issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923 Capital Not specified Organizational structure League of Nations Mandate High Commissioner  - 1920 — 1925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel  - 1945 — 1948... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... The First Intifada, or Palestinian uprising refers to a series of violent incidents between Palestinians and Israelis between 1987 and approximately 1990. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ...


In September 1993, leaders of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) signed the Oslo Accords calling for Palestinian administration of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank town of Jericho, which was implemented in May 1994. The Israeli forces left Gaza, leaving a new Palestinian Authority to administer and police the city, along with the most of the Gaza Strip. The Palestinian Authority, led by Yasser Arafat, chose Gaza as its first provincial headquarters. In September 1995, Israel and the PLO signed a second peace agreement extending the Palestinian Authority to most West Bank towns. The agreement also established an elected 88-member Palestinian Council, which held its inaugural session in Gaza in March 1996.[citation needed] The process of gradual Palestinian control did not lead to anticipated Palestinian statehood or assuage Israeli security concerns. In the summer of 2006, in desire to reduce Israeli military commitments after the Second Intifada and under the sudden dovish leadership of Israeli Premier Ariel Sharon, Israel approved the hotly debated Disengagement Plan and unilaterally withdrew all Jewish communities from Gaza. Israel still maintains and insists on Israeli oversight of Gaza's borders and transport, even with international staffing, citing security concerns. Within the Gaza Strip, Hamas has acquired status as the most powerful political faction. The Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary organization regarded by the Arab League since October 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... Anthem: Biladi Capital Ramallah and Gaza de facto, as the current location of government institutions. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... The Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip or Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement, or simply the Interim Agreement, also known as Oslo 2 (or Oslo II), and alternately known as Taba, was a key and complex agreement about the future of the Gaza Strip and the West... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... The al-Aqsa Intifada is the wave of violence and political conflict that began in September 2000 between Palestinian Arabs and Israelis; it is also called the Second Intifada (see also First Intifada). ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... The Gaza Disengagement Plan describes the move to withdraw all Jewish Israeli settlers from the Gaza Strip unilaterally as soon as possible, lead by Ariel Sharon. ...


The current mayor of Gaza is Majid Abu Ramadan.[1]


Jewish communities in Gaza

The Jewish community in Gaza was destroyed during the Crusades, but returned and was rebuilt with the return of the Mamluk occupation. In February 1799, when the French forces led by Napoleon entered the city, it was struck by a terrible plague which caused the Jews to move to other areas in Palestine. By the year 1886, thirty Jewish families had returned to Gaza, but they were deported by the Ottomans during World War I. Jews returned to Gaza after the war ended but they were forced to leave once again after the 1929 Palestine riots and the subsequent massacre of Jews in Safed and Hebron by Arabs. Following these riots, in which over 130 Jews were killed, the British prohibited Jews from living in Gaza to quell tension. Jews didn't return to Gaza, though in 1946 they established kibbutz Kfar Darom nearby in the central Gaza Strip.[4] This article is about the medieval crusades. ... A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), owned; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who was converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (İstanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish (official); spoken languages include Abkhazian, Adyghe, Albanian, Arabic, Aramaic, Armenian, Azerbaijani... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Famous Gazan Jews have included the medieval liturgical poet Israel Najara, who is buried in Gaza's local cemetery, and the Sabbatean prophet Nathan of Gaza. Rabbi Abraham Azulai lived in Gaza in 1619, and it was there that he wrote the book for which he is remembered, his cabalistic work "Hesed le-Avraham".[5] Israel ben Moses Najara (1530? - 1599?) was a Jewish liturgical poet. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nathan of Gaza (1643–1680) - Nathan became famous as a prophet for the false messiah, Shabbetai Tzvi. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


People and Culture

Gold Market, Gaza City
Gold Market, Gaza City

Gaza's population is composed almost entirely of Muslims, though it also has a small Christian community. A massive influx of Palestinian refugees swelled Gaza's population after the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. By 1967, the population had grown to about six times its 1948 size. The city's population has continued to increase since that time, and poverty, unemployment, and poor living conditions are widespread. Gaza has serious deficiencies in housing, educational facilities, health facilities, infrastructure, and an inadequate sewage system, all of which have contributed to serious hygiene and public health problems. As in the rest of the Palestinian territories, the birth rate is extremely high. The vast majority of Palestinians in Gaza live in poverty (less than 2$ per day), and rely on United Nations food aid to survive. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (817x1280, 131 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gaza ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (817x1280, 131 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gaza ... In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinians call the Nakba (Arabic: ‎, meaning disaster or catastrophe). The United Nations definition of a Palestinian refugee is a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine between June 1946 and... Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Economy

Backyard Industry
Backyard Industry

Gaza is the economic center for a region in which citrus fruits and other crops are grown. Many Gazans work in Israeli service and industry when the border is open. The city contains some small industry, including textiles and food processing. A variety of wares are sold in Gaza's street bazaars, including carpets, pottery, wicker furniture, and cotton clothing; commercial development in the city is minimal. Gaza serves as a transportation hub for the Gaza Strip, and contains a small port that serves a local fishing fleet. Overall economic development has been slow and hampered by frequent political unrest. Image File history File links GazaTextiles. ... Image File history File links GazaTextiles. ...


Attractions

Places of interest to the visitor are the Great Omari Mosque, the Mosque of Al Sayed Hashem, the Mosque of Ibn Othman, the Mosque of Ibn Marwan, The Sheikh Abul Azm sanctuary, the Sheikh Ajlin sanctuary, Tell al Mintar, Napoleon's fort (Al Radwan Castle), and the Church of St. Porphyrius. The city also has many new resorts where tourists and local people can swim and relax by the beach or swimming pools. The Mosque of Al Ssayyed Hashem is one of the largest and most notable ancient mosques in Gaza, located in Al-Daraj Quarter. ...

  • The Great Mosque (Al-Omari Mosque)

Located in downtown Gaza, Al-Omari Mosque with its splendid minaret, reputedly occupying the site of the first ancient temple of Marnas and then a Greek Orthodox Church. The mosque was also the site of a Norman church built by the Crusaders in the 12th century.

  • Napoleon's Fort (Qasr El-Basha)

Also located in downtown Gaza, this imposing stone building dates back to the Mamluk period. It is known as Qasr El-Basha because Napoleon spent a few nights here on his way through the town in 1799.

  • St. Porphyrus Church

This 4th century church is where St. Porphyrus died and was buried (420 CE) It is located in the Gaza's old city and still in use today by the Greek Orthodox Community.

  • Al-Sayed Hashem Mosque

Located in Al-Daraj Quarter, the mosque is one of the largest and most beautiful ancient mosques in Gaza. The tomb of Hashem bin Abd-Manaf, Mohammad's grandfather who died in Gaza during a trading voyage, is believed to be under the dome of the mosque.


Transport

Gaza shared Yasser Arafat International Airport with the rest of the Gaza Strip. It was opened in 1998, but is currently inoperational, its runways and support facilities having been largely destroyed by Israeli armed forces during the Al-Aqsa Intifada. Following the Israeli withdrawal from the Gaza Strip in autumn 2005, discussions took place between the Palestinian and Israeli sides on its reopening. So far, Israeli negotiators have not agreed to allow the airport be reopened. Yasser Arafat International Airport (Arabic: ‎; transliterated: Matar Yasir Arafat ad-Dowaly) (IATA: GZA, ICAO: LVGZ), formerly Gaza International Airport and Dahaniya International Airport, is located in the Gaza Strip, in Rafah close to the Egyptian border. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ...


Arriving to Gaza:

  • By air:

Gaza International Airport, 40 km south of Gaza. Ben Gurion International Airport, Tel Aviv, 75 km north of Gaza. Gaza International Airport is located in the Gaza Strip, close to the Egyptian border. ... Ben Gurion International Airport or Ben Gurion Airport (Hebrew: ‎) (IATA: TLV, ICAO: LLBG), once widely known as Lod Airport, is located near Lod, 15 km southeast of Tel Aviv, and is the largest international airport in Israel. ...

  • By car:

Northern access: Erez Crossing point (border with Israel). Southern access: Rafah crossing point (border with Egypt).[6] The Erez Crossing (Hebrew: מעבר ארז) is a pedestrian/cargo terminal on the Israeli Gaza Strip barrier. ... The Rafah Border Crossing (Arabic: , Hebrew: ) is an international border that connects Rafah, Egypt and Rafah, Palestinian Authority. ...


Mayors of Gaza

  • Maged Awni Abu Ramadan (current)
  • Sa’ed Kharma[citation needed]
  • Aown S. Shawa (1994-2001)

Town twinning

Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... District or region Lisbon Mayor   - Party António Capucho PSD/CDS-PP Area 97. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (Catalan) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Saint Porphyry (347–420), bishop of Gaza 395 - 420, was canonized for Christianizing the recalcitrant pagan city of Gaza. ... Al-Azhar University - Gaza Logo Al-Azhar University - Gaza is a secular Palestinian university established in 1992 in Gaza City (Palestine) Bowen, Donna Lee and Early, Evelyn A. (2002). ... First Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 26 March 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Turkish victory The First Battle of Gaza was a World War I battle on the southern border of Palestine. ... Second Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 19 April 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Turkish victory The Second Battle of Gaza, fought in southern Palestine during World War I, was the second attempt mounted by the British to break the Turkish defences along the Gaza-Beersheba line. ... Brookhurst Street between La Palma and Ball, Anaheim, Calif. ...

References

  1. ^ a b "Sewage flood brings more misery to Gaza", The Australian, March 29, 2007. 
  2. ^ Shanks, Hershel. Peace, Politics and Archaeology. Biblical Archaeology Society.
  3. ^ Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, p. 24. ISBN 1590454936. 
  4. ^ A Brief History of the Gaza Settlements. Jewish Virtual Library.
  5. ^ , "Azulai, Azulay"Jewish Encyclopedia
  6. ^ "Palestinians take over key border", BBC News, November 25, 2005. 

March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (89th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... November 25 is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikinews has news related to:

Coordinates: 31°30′N, 34°27′E Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gaza - definition of Gaza in Encyclopedia (365 words)
The city of Gaza is the principal city in the Gaza Strip.
Gaza became a Muslim city in 635, when it was captured by the Arabs.
Gaza served as the administrative headquarters for the Israeli military forces that militarily administered the Gaza Strip from 1967 to 1994.
Gaza - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1323 words)
In 145 BC Gaza was conquered by Jonathan the Hasmonean (Brother of Judah the Maccabee).
Gaza was captured by Arabs in the 630s after a siege during which the Jewish population of the city defended it alongside the Byzantine garrison.
With the onset of the Palestinian uprising known as the intifada in 1987, Gaza became a center of political unrest and confrontation between Israelis and Palestinians, and economic conditions in the city worsened.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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