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Encyclopedia > Gaya confederacy
Gaya confederacy
Duck-shaped pottery from Gaya, 5th or 6th century.
Duck-shaped pottery from Gaya, 5th or 6th century.
Korean name
Hangul 가야
Hanja 加耶 or 伽倻
Revised Romanization Gaya
McCune-Reischauer Kaya

Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period. It was ultimately absorbed into Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 417 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gaya confederacy JeonJoseon ... Jamo redirects here. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... The Nakdong River (Rakdong in North Korean) is the longest river in South Korea, and passes through major cities such as Daegu and Busan. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Byeonhan, also known as Byeonjin (변진, 弁辰), was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the beginning of the Common Era to the 4th century CE in the southern Korean peninsula, in the south and west of the Nakdong River valley. ... During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until...

Contents

Names

Although most commonly referred to as Gaya (가야; 加耶, 伽耶, 伽倻), due to the imprecision of transcribing Korean words into hanja, historical sources use a variety of names, including Kaya, Garak (가락; 駕洛, 迦落), Gara (가라; 加羅, 伽羅, 迦羅, 柯羅), Garyang (가량;加良), and Guya (구야; 狗耶). Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ...


History

History of Korea

Jeulmun Period
Mumun Period
Gojoseon, Jin
Proto-Three Kingdoms:
 Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye
 Samhan
  Ma, Byeon, Jin
Three Kingdoms:
 Goguryeo
  Sui wars
 Baekje
 Silla, Gaya
North-South States:
 Unified Silla
 Balhae
 Later Three Kingdoms
Goryeo
 Khitan wars
 Mongol invasions
Joseon
 Japanese invasions
 Manchu invasions
Korean Empire
Japanese occupation
 Provisional Gov't
Division of Korea
 Korean War
North, South Korea Image File history File links Korea_unified_vertical. ... This article is about the history of Korea, up to the division of Korea in the 1940s. ... The Jeulmun pottery period is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 8000-1500 B.C. (Bale 2001; Choe and Bale 2002; Crawford and Lee 2003; Lee 2001, 2006). ... The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ... Jin was an early Iron Age state which occupied some portion of the southern Korean peninsula during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE, bordering the Korean kingdom Gojoseon to the north. ... Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea (원삼국시대, 原三國時代) refers to the period after the fall of Gojoseon and before the maturation of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla into full-fledged kingdoms. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Okjeo was a small tribal state which arose in the northern Korean peninsula from perhaps 2nd century BC to 5th century AD. Dong-okjeo (East Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and Buk-okjeo (North Okjeo) occupied the Duman River region. ... Dongye was a state which occupied portions of the northeastern Korean peninsula from roughly 150 BCE to around 400 CE. It bordered Goguryeo and Okjeo to the north, Jinhan to the south, and Chinas Lelang Commandery to the west. ... During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... Mahan was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the 1st century BC to the 3rd century CE in the southern Korean peninsula in the Chungcheong Province. ... Byeonhan, also known as Byeonjin (변진, 弁辰), was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the beginning of the Common Era to the 4th century CE in the southern Korean peninsula, in the south and west of the Nakdong River valley. ... Jinhan was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the 1st century BC to the 4th century CE in the southern Korean peninsula, to the east of the Nakdong River valley, Gyeongsang Province. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... Goguryeo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria (present-day Northeast China), southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... North South States Period(남북국시대, 南北國時代) refers to the period from the 7th century to the 10th century when Unified Silla and Balhae coexited at the south and the north[1], [2]. Hitherto, this period had been called the period of Unified Silla. ... Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient Korean kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892-936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje (later Baekje), and Taebong (also known as Hugoguryeo, or Later Goguryeo). ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... The Goryeo-Khitan Wars were a series of 10th- and 11th-century conflicts between the kingdom of Goryeo and Khitan forces near what is now the border between China and North Korea. ... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Koryo, from 1231 to 1259. ... Territory of Joseon after Jurchen conquest of King Sejong Capital Hanseong Language(s) Korean Religion Neo-Confucianism Government Monarchy Wang  - 1392 - 1398 Taejo (first)  - 1863 - 1897 Gojong (last)1 Yeong-uijeong  - 1431 - 1449 Hwang Hui  - 1466 - 1472 Han Myeonghoe  - 1592 - 1598 Ryu Seongryong  - 1894 Kim Hongjip History  - Coup of 1388... Combatants Korea under the Joseon Dynasty, China under the Ming Dynasty, Jianzhou Jurchens Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea: King Seonjo Crown Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Si-min... The First Manchu invasion of Korea occurred in 1627, when Hong Taiji led the Manchu army against Koreas Joseon dynasty. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1919–1931 Makoto... The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a government in exile based in Shanghai, China and later in Chongqing, during the Japanese occupation of Korea. ... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line The division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea stems from the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending Japans 35-year occupation of Korea. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... For the history of Korea before its division, see History of Korea. ...

Korea Portal
This iron helmet illustrates the skill of iron-working and importance of iron from the Nakdong River valley.

According to a legend recorded in the Samguk Yusa, in the year 42 CE, six eggs descended from the heaven with message that they would be kings. Six boys were born, and within 12 days they grew mature. One of them, named Suro, became the king of Geumgwan Gaya, and the other five founded the other five Gayas, namely Daegaya, Seongsan Gaya, Ara Gaya, Goryeong Gaya, and Sogaya. Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their ruling era. ... Korea has a long military history going back several thousand years, with an extensive series of wars that involved invasions, civil discord, counter-piracy actions against medieval Japan, the first use of armoured battleships in seabattles, and the devastation of rebellions against the Joseon era Japanese invasions, the forced peace... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a timeline of Korean history. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 465 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 465 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Samguk Yusa, or Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms, is a collection of legends, folktales, and historical accounts relating to the Three Kingdoms of Korea (Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla), as well as to other periods and states before, during, and after the Three Kingdoms period. ... King Suro of Gaya (r. ... Geumgwan Gaya [Kumgwan Kaya](43 - 532), also known as Bon-gaya [Pon-Kaya](본가야, 本伽倻, original Kaya) or Karakguk (가락국, Karak State), was a major chiefdom of the Kaya confederacy during the Three Kingdoms Period in Korea. ... Daegaya was a major chiefdom of the Gaya confederacy during the Korean Three Kingdoms period. ... Ara Gaya, also known as Asiryangguk (아시량국, 阿尸良國), Ana Gaya (아나가야, 阿羅伽倻), and Alla (안라, 安羅) was a kingdom of the Gaya confederacy, in modern day South Korea. ... Goryeong Gaya was one of the lesser chiefdoms of the Gaya confederation during the Korean Three Kingdoms period. ...


Gaya arose from the twelve tribes of the ancient Byeonhan, one of the Samhan confederacies. The loosely organized chiefdoms resolved into six Gaya groups, centered around Geumgwan Gaya. On the basis of archeological sources as well as limited written records, scholars such as Cheol (2000) have identified the late 3rd century as a period of transition from Byeonhan to Gaya, with increasing military activity and changing funerary customs. Cheol (2000) further argues that this was associated with the replacement of the previous elite in some principalities (including Daegaya) by elements from Buyeo, who brought a more militaristic style of rule. Byeonhan, also known as Byeonjin (변진, 弁辰), was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the beginning of the Common Era to the 4th century CE in the southern Korean peninsula, in the south and west of the Nakdong River valley. ... During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Economy

Horn-shaped cup from Gaya that may illustrate connection of Persian culture through the Silk Road to Korea.

Situated around the mouth of the Nakdong River, an area with fertile plains, access to the sea, and rich iron deposits, Gaya had an economy based on agriculture and fishing as well as trade. It was particularly known for its ironworking, as Byeonhan had been before it. Gaya exported abundant quantities of iron armor and weaponry to Baekje and the Kingdom of Wa in Yamato period Japan. In contrast to the largely commercial and non-political ties of Byeonhan, Gaya seems to have attempted to maintain strong political ties with these kingdoms as well. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 354 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 354 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... The Nakdong River (Rakdong in North Korean) is the longest river in South Korea, and passes through major cities such as Daegu and Busan. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Ideogram for Wa, formed by the radical for person (on the left), and the phonetic element Wei on the right (itself represented by a rice plant in the upper part and a woman in the lower part). ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ...


Politics

Different records list different chiefdoms of Gaya. Goryeo Saryak (고려사략; 高麗史略) lists five: Geumgwan Gaya, Goryeong Gaya, Bihwa Gaya, Ara Gaya, and Seongsan Gaya. Geumgwan Gaya [Kumgwan Kaya](43 - 532), also known as Bon-gaya [Pon-Kaya](본가야, 本伽倻, original Kaya) or Karakguk (가락국, Karak State), was a major chiefdom of the Kaya confederacy during the Three Kingdoms Period in Korea. ... Goryeong Gaya was one of the lesser chiefdoms of the Gaya confederation during the Korean Three Kingdoms period. ... Bihwa Gaya, also known as Bijabal, was one of the kingdoms of the Gaya confederacy. ... Ara Gaya, also known as Asiryangguk (아시량국, 阿尸良國), Ana Gaya (아나가야, 阿羅伽倻), and Alla (안라, 安羅) was a kingdom of the Gaya confederacy, in modern day South Korea. ...


The various Gaya mini-states formed a confederacy in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, centered around Geumgwan Gaya in modern Gimhae. Ong Gwang Gobuon, which are estimated to have been build in the 2nd century,were found near Naju, Muan, Hampyeong, and Yeon-an. in After a period of decline, the confederacy was revived around the turn of the 5th and 6th centuries, this time centred around Daegaya of modern Goryeong, but it was unable to defend itself for long against Silla and Baekje. Daegaya was the last to fall, conquered by Silla in 562. [1] Geumgwan Gaya [Kumgwan Kaya](43 - 532), also known as Bon-gaya [Pon-Kaya](본가야, 本伽倻, original Kaya) or Karakguk (가락국, Karak State), was a major chiefdom of the Kaya confederacy during the Three Kingdoms Period in Korea. ... Gimhae, also commonly referred to as Kimhae, is a city in South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. ... Daegaya was a major chiefdom of the Gaya confederacy during the Korean Three Kingdoms period. ... Goryeong County (Goryeong-gun) is a county in North Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Daegaya was a major chiefdom of the Gaya confederacy during the Korean Three Kingdoms period. ...


Gaya had close relations with the Wa of northern Kyushu in Japan, during that nation's formative years. The nature of the relationship between the Wa and Gaya has been a matter of extensive controversy, mostly fueled by Japanese revisionist historians. The Nihonshoki claims that Gaya (named "Mimana" also "Kara" in Japanese) was a colony or tributary of Wa. In World War II, the Japanese used this supposed historic link between Kyushu and Gaya as justification for colonization. Ideogram for Wa, formed by the radical for person (on the left), and the phonetic element Wei on the right (itself represented by a rice plant in the upper part and a woman in the lower part). ... Nihonshoki (Japanese: 日本書紀), sometimes translated as Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Some Korean scholars believe that Wa may have been a colony or tributary of Baekje. Archaeological evidence suggests that Gaya was the main exporter of technology and culture to Kyushu at this time.[2]


Today, most scholars regardless of nationality believe that the relationship between Gaya and Wa was close, but not colonial. The argument that "Japan conquered the southern tip of the peninsula where it established a 'colony' called Mimana have since been largely discounted by historians in both Japan and Korea."[3]


but,the spreading of keyhole kofun is generally assumed to be an evidence of Yamato court's expansion in this age..[4]


Gallery

See also

This is a list of Wikipedia articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts. ... This article is about the history of Korea, up to the division of Korea in the 1940s. ... Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their fall. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... A Gaya crown on display at the National Museum of Korea. ... The Gaya-Silla Wars were a series of conflicts between the ancient Korean Kingdom of Silla and the Gaya confederacy. ...

References

Cheol, S.K. (2000). Relations between Kaya and Wa in the third to fourth centuries AD. Journal of East Asian Archeology 2(3-4), 112-122.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gayageum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (460 words)
A gayageum is a traditional Korean zitherlike string instrument, with 12 strings, although more recently variants have been constructed with 21 or other numbers of strings.
It draws its name from the ancient Korean confederacy of Gaya, where it is said to have been invented.
The gayageum is supposed to have been made by King Gashil, of the Gaya confederacy, around the 6th century.
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