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Encyclopedia > Gay rights
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LGBT social movements bisexual and transgender people, and their movements include the Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement, Gay Liberation, lesbian feminism, the queer movement and transgender activism. A commonly stated goal is social equality for LGBT people; some currents within these movements have also focused on building LGBT communities, or worked towards liberation for the broader society from sexual oppression. LGBT movements today are made up of a wide range of political activism and cultural activity, such as lobbying and street marches; social groups, support groups and community events; magazines, films and literature; academic research and writing; and even business activity. LGBT (or GLBT) is an abbreviation used as a collective term to refer to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... Queer studies is the study of issues relating to sexual orientation and gender identity. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ... The word gender describes the state of being male, female, or neither. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual and romantic attraction between two individuals of the same sex. ... The bisexual pride flag Bisexuality is the sexual orientation which refers to the aesthetic, romantic, or sexual desire for individuals of either gender or of either sex. ... Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is an overarching term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth, as well as the role traditionally held by society. ... The History of Sexuality is also the title of a book, by Michel Foucault. ... This timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) history details notable events in the Common Era West. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Christopher Street Parade Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures concern the culture, knowledge, and references shared by members of sexual minorities or transgendered people by virtue of their membership in those minorities or their state of being transgendered. ... The idea of a gay community is complex and can be very controversial. ... Drag in its broadest sense means a costume or outfit that carries symbolic significance, but usually refers to the clothing associated with one gender role when worn by a person of the other gender. ... Gay slang (sometimes gayspeak) in linguistics refers to a form of English slang used predominantly among gay men, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered people. ... Torontos Church and Wellesley district, one of the largest gay villages in North America Rainbow flags are displayed in The Castro area of San Francisco as a symbol of gay pride The entrance to Chueca metro station in the Plaza de Chueca (Chueca square) in Madrid, during gay pride... Six color rainbow gay pride flag flying over Castro Street, San Francisco, June 2005 The gay pride or simply pride campaign of the gay rights movement has three main premises: that people should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity, that sexual diversity is a gift, and that... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Separatist feminism is a form of feminism that does not support heterosexual relationships due to a belief that sexual disparities between men and women are unresolvable. ... World laws on homosexuality Status of same-sex union laws in North America. ... Same-sex marriage is the union of two people who are of the same biological sex, or gender. ... Adoption by same-sex couples refers to the adoption of children by gay or lesbian couples. ... A sodomy law is a law which defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ... World laws on homosexuality Status of same-sex union laws in North America. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Death of Orpheus In Albrecht Dürers 1494 drawing, the banner hung in the tree reads: Orfeus der erst puseran (Orpheus, the first sodomite). The word puseran(t) derives from the Latin bulgarus from which come also the terms bugger in English and bougre in French. ... The bisexual pride flag Bisexuality is the sexual orientation which refers to the aesthetic, romantic, or sexual desire for individuals of either gender or of either sex. ... Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is an overarching term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth, as well as the role traditionally held by society. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe) that questions the position of women and homosexuals in society. ... The word queer has traditionally meant strange or unusual. ... Transgender rights organizations. ... Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect, minimally at least in voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, and property rights. ... LGBT (or GLBT) is an abbreviation used as a collective term to refer to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... Look up Liberation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sexual norm can be an individual norm or a social norm. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as involvement in action to bring about change, be it social, political, environmental, or other change. ... It has been suggested that Interest representation: Academic overview be merged into this article or section. ... A man carries a sign at the September 24, 2005 anti-war protest, a demonstration in Washington, D.C. American Civil Rights March on Washington, leaders marching from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial, August 28, 1963. ...

Contents

Goals and strategies

The goals of various LGBT movements include both political and cultural change. Sociologist Mary Bernstein writes: "For the lesbian and gay movement, then, cultural goals include (but are not limited to) challenging dominant constructions of masculinity and femininity, homophobia, and the primacy of the gendered heterosexual nuclear family (heteronormativity). Political goals include changing laws and policies in order to gain new rights, benefits, and protections from harm."[1] Bernstein emphasises that activists seek both types of goals in both the civil and political spheres. Goals of transgender and bisexual activism cover similar ground.[citation needed] The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Femininity comprises the physical and mental attributes associated with the female sex and is partly culturally determined. ... Homophobia is the fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals. ... The term nuclear family was developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents and their children, usually a father, mother, and children, from what is known as an extended family. ... Heteronormativity is a term used in the discussion of sexual behavior, gender, and society, primarily within the fields of queer theory and gender theory. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ...


As with other social movements, there is also conflict within and between LGBT movements, especially about strategies for change and debates over exactly who comprises the constituency that these movements represent. There is debate over to what extent lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgendered people, intersexed people and others share common interests and a need to work together. Leaders of the lesbian and gay movement of the 1970s, 80s and 90s often attempted to hide butch lesbians, feminine gay men, transgendered people, and bisexuals from the public eye, creating internal divisions within LGBT communities.[2]


LGBT movements have often adopted a kind of identity politics that sees lesbians, gay men, bisexuals and/or transgender people as a fixed class of people; a minority group or groups. Those using this approach aspire to liberal political goals of freedom and equal opportunity, and aim to join the political mainstream on the same level as other groups in society.[3] In arguing that sexual orientation and gender identity are innate and cannot be consciously changed, attempts to change gay, lesbian and bisexual people into heterosexuals ("reparative therapy") are generally opposed. Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ... A minority or subordinate group is a sociological group that does not constitute a politically dominant plurality of the total population of a given society. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Equal opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to give equal access to a certain social environment, or to ensure people are not specifically excluded from participating in activities such as education, employment, or health care on the basis of immutable traits. ... Sexual orientation describes the direction of an individuals sexuality, often in relation to their own sex or gender. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Reparative therapy (also known as conversion, reorientation or differentiation therapy), is any of several techniques that are aimed at changing the sexual orientation of a person with same gender attractions to heterosexuality. ...


However, others within LGBT movements have criticised identity politics as limited and flawed,[4] and have instead aimed to transform fundamental institutions of society (such as lesbian feminism) or have argued that all members of society have the potential for same-sex sexuality (such as Adolf Brand or Gay Liberation) or a broader range of gender expression (such as the transgender writing of Kate Bornstein). Some elements of the queer movement have argued that the categories of gay and lesbian are restrictive, and attempted to deconstruct those categories, which are seen to "reinforce rather than challenge a cultural system that will always mark the nonheterosexual as inferior."[5] Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe) that questions the position of women and homosexuals in society. ... Adolf Brand (1874-1945) was a German journalist and school teacher who began publishing the first German homosexual periodical, Der Eigene (The Special), in 1896. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is an overarching term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth, as well as the role traditionally held by society. ... Kate Bornstein is a transgender author, playwright, performance artist and gender theorist. ... The word queer has traditionally meant strange or unusual. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


Gains

Significant social, legal and political gains have been made by LGBT communities, especially in the Western world since the 1960s. However, homosexual sex is still illegal in about 80 out of the 192 countries of the world; in 42 of these, only male-male sex is outlawed.[6] Some countries impose the death penalty for such acts. Some countries have anti-discrimination legislation in place, and in recent years, a few states have begun to recognise same sex relationships. Many prominent medical authorities no longer treat homosexuality as a mental illness,The American Psychological Association supports the action taken on December 15, 1973, by the American Psychiatric Association, removing homosexuality from that Association's official list of mental disorders. The American Psychological Association therefore adopts the following resolution: Christopher Street Parade Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures concern the culture, knowledge, and references shared by members of sexual minorities or transgendered people by virtue of their membership in those minorities or their state of being transgendered. ... The term Western World or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... A sodomy law is a law which defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... A same-sex couple is a pair of people of the same sex, who pursue a relationship similar to that of a heterosexual married couple. ...


Homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgement, stability, reliability, or general social and vocational capabilities; Further, the American Psychological Association urges all mental health professionals to take the lead in removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated with homosexual orientations. (Adopted by the APA Council of Representatives on January 24-26, 1975.)[1], although transsexuality is still often viewed as such. Opponents of gay rights (such as NARTH), however, say that these mainstream institutions have succumbed to political pressure rather than relying on a rational examination of the facts. An example that is often cited is the controversy over the removal of homosexuality from the DSM. In 1973, homosexuality was removed and replaced with "Sexual Orientation Disturbance" in the DSM-II; this was changed to "Ego-Dystonic Homosexuality" in the DSM-III and was removed entirely from the DSM-IV. On 17 May 1990 the United Nations' WHO removed homosexuality from its list of diseases and this day is now recognised as IDAHO: The International Day Against Homophobia. The National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH) is a non-profit organization dedicated to affirming a complementary, male-female model of gender and sexuality. It was founded in 1992 by Charles Socarides, Benjamin Kaufman, and Joseph Nicolosi and is part of the ex-gay movement that advocates... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States. ... For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... IDAHO (International Day Against Homophobia) is an event taking place on May 17 aimed at decreasing homophobia worldwide. ...


Opposition

Main article: LGBT rights opposition Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


LGBT movements are opposed by a variety of individuals and organizations. They may have a personal, moral or religious objection to homosexuality.[citation needed] Studies have consistently shown that people with negative attitudes towards lesbians and gays are more likely to be male, older, religious, less well educated, politically conservative, and have little close personal contact with out gay men and lesbians.[7] They are also more likely to have negative attitudes towards other minority groups[8] and support traditional gender roles.[9] Societal attitudes towards homosexuality vary greatly in different cultures and different historical periods, as do attitudes toward sexual desire, activity and relationships in general. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Coming out of the closet (very often shortened to coming out in winking reference to the public introduction of debutantes) describes the voluntary public announcement of ones (often homosexual or bisexual) sexual orientation, sexual attractions, gender identity, or paraphilia. ...


History

Before 1860

In eighteenth and nineteenth century Europe, same-sex sexual behavior and cross-dressing were widely considered to be socially unacceptable, and were serious crimes under sodomy and sumptuary laws. Any organized community or social life was underground and secret. Social reformer Jeremy Bentham wrote the first known argument for homosexual law reform in England around 1785, at a time when the legal penalty for "buggery" was death by hanging.[10] However, he feared reprisal, and his powerful essay was not published until 1978. The emerging currents of secular humanist thought which had inspired Bentham also informed the French Revolution, and when the newly-formed National Constituent Assembly began drafting the policies and laws of the new republic in 1790, groups of militant 'sodomite-citizens' in Paris petitioned the Assemblée nationale, the governing body of the French Revolution, for freedom and recognition.[11] In 1791 France became the first nation to decriminalize homosexuality, probably thanks in part to the homosexual Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès who was one of the authors of the Napoleonic code. The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, that spans the time between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution that has created modern society. ... This article discusses the history of the continent of Europe. ... This articles is about cross-dressing in general, that is the act of wearing the clothing of another gender for any reason. ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... Sumptuary laws (from the Latin sumtuariae leges) are laws which dictated, amongst other things, what color and type of clothing individuals were allowed to own and wear. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: or ) (February 15, 1748 O.S. (February 26, 1749 N.S.) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice and specifically rejects rituals and ceremonies as a means to affirm a life stance. ... The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. ... The National Constituent Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on July 9, 1789, during the first stages of the French Revolution. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. ... Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, Duke of Parma, (18 October 1753 - 8 March 1824), French lawyer and statesman, is best remembered as the author of the Code Napoléon, which still forms the basis of French law. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It entered into force on March 21, 1804. ...


In 1833, an anonymous English-language writer wrote a poetic defense of Captain Nicholas Nicholls, who had been sentenced to death in London for sodomy: François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ...

Whence spring these inclinations, rank and strong?
And harming no one, wherefore call them wrong?[12]

Three years later in Switzerland, Heinrich Hoessli published the first volume of Eros: Die Mannerliebe der Griechen ("Eros: The Male-love of the Greeks"), another defense of same-sex love.[13]


1860 - 1944

Modern historians usually look to German activist Karl Heinrich Ulrichs as the pioneer of the LGBT rights movement. Ulrichs came out publicly and began publishing books about same-sex love and gender variance in the 1860s, a few years before the term "homosexual" was first published in 1869. Ulrichs' Uranians were people with a range of gender expressions and same-sex desires; he considered himself "a female psyche in a male body". Karl-Heinrich Ulrichs File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Karl-Heinrich Ulrichs File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... -1... -1... Coming out of the closet (very often shortened to coming out in winking reference to the public introduction of debutantes) describes the voluntary public announcement of ones (often homosexual or bisexual) sexual orientation, sexual attractions, gender identity, or paraphilia. ... // Events and trends Technology The First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States is built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... From John Addington Symonds 1891 book A Problem in Modern Ethics. ...


From the 1870s, social reformers in other countries had began to take up the Uranian cause, but their identities were kept secret for fear of reprisal. A secret British society called the "Order of Chaeronea" campaigned for the legalisation of homosexuality, and counted playwright Oscar Wilde among its members in the last decades of the 19th century.[14] In the 1890s, English socialist poet Edward Carpenter and Scottish anarchist John Henry Mackay wrote in defense of same-sex love and androgyny; Carpenter and British homosexual rights advocate John Addington Symonds contributed to the development of Havelock Ellis's groundbreaking book Sexual Inversion, which called for tolerance towards "inverts" and was suppressed when first published in England. The Order of Chaeronea was a secret society for the cultivation of a homosexual and pederastic ethos. ... It has been suggested that Wildes Manuscripts be merged into this article or section. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Edward Carpenter (29 August 1844 – 28 June 1929) was a socialist poet, anthologist, and an early homosexual activist. ... Anarchism is the name of a political philosophy or a group of doctrines and attitudes that are centered on rejection of any form of compulsory government (such as the state)[1] and support its elimination. ... John Henry Mackay (Greenock, Scotland, 1864 - Stahnsdorf 1933). ... Androgyny is a term derived from the Greek words andras (άνδρας) (meaning man) and gyne (γυνή) (meaning woman) that can refer to two concepts regarding the mixing of both male and female genders or having a lack of gender identification. ... John Addington Symonds was the name of a father and son, both English writers. ... Henry Havelock Ellis (February 2, 1859 - July 8, 1939), known as Havelock Ellis, was a British doctor, sexual psychologist and social reformer. ...

Magnus Hirschfeld was a prominent German physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate.
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Magnus Hirschfeld was a prominent German physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate.

In Europe and America, a broader movement of "free love" was also emerging from the 1860s among first-wave feminists and radicals of the libertarian Left. They critiqued Victorian sexual morality and the traditional institutions of family and marriage that were seen to enslave women. Some advocates of free love in the early 20th century also spoke in defence of same-sex love and challenged repressive legislation, such as the Russian anarchist and feminist Emma Goldman. Magnus Hirschfeld, taken from the Connection website. ... Magnus Hirschfeld, taken from the Connection website. ... Magnus Hirschfeld Magnus Hirschfeld (Kolberg, May 14, 1868 - Nice, May 14, 1935) was a prominent German physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate. ... Sexology is the systematic study of human sexuality. ... The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage, especially for women. ... First-wave feminism was the feminist movement in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century, which primarily focused on gaining the right of womens suffrage. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Emma Goldman Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) aka Red Emma, was a Kaunas, Lithuania-born anarchist known for her writings and speeches. ...


In 1898, German doctor and writer Magnus Hirschfeld formed the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee to campaign publicly against the notorious law "Paragraph 175", which made sex between men illegal. Adolf Brand later broke away from the group, disagreeing with Hirschfeld's medical view of the "intermediate sex", seeing male-male sex as merely an aspect of manly virility and male social bonding. Brand was the first to use "outing" as a political strategy, claiming that German Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow engaged in homosexual activity. 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Magnus Hirschfeld Magnus Hirschfeld (Kolberg, May 14, 1868 - Nice, May 14, 1935) was a prominent German physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate. ... The Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee, WhK) was founded in Berlin in 1897 to campaign for social recognition of homosexual and transgender men and women, and against their legal persecution. ... Paragraph 175 (known formally as §175 StGB; also known as Section 175 in English) was a provision of the German Criminal Code from 15 May 1871 to 10 March 1994. ... Adolf Brand (1874-1945) was a German journalist and school teacher who began publishing the first German homosexual periodical, Der Eigene (The Special), in 1896. ... Third gender was used from the late 19th century to describe people who did not fit into the then existing gender categories: female genitalia = female identity = female behavior = desire male partner male genitalia = male identity = male behavior = desires female partner Today this scheme is also known as binary gender system... // While outing often refers to an outdoor excursion, in the late twentieth century, the term acquired an additional meaning, taking someone out of the closet, that is, publicising that someone is secretly homosexual. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler or Bundeskanzler meaning federal chancellor). ... Prince Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow (May 3, 1849 – October 28, 1929) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909. ...

May 14, 1928 issue of German lesbian periodical Die Freundin (Girlfriend).
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May 14, 1928 issue of German lesbian periodical Die Freundin (Girlfriend).

The 1901 book Sind es Frauen? Roman über das dritte Geschlecht (Are These Women? Novel about the Third Sex) by Aimée Duc was as much a political treatise as a novel, criticising pathological theories of homosexuality and gender inversion in women.[15] Anna Rüling, delivering a public speech in 1904 at the request of Hirschfeld, became the first female Uranian activist. Rüling, who also saw "men, women, and homosexuals" as three distinct genders, called for an alliance between the women's and sexual reform movements, but this speech is her only known contribution to the cause. Women only began to join the previously male-dominated sexual reform movement around 1910 when the German government tried to expand Paragraph 175 to outlaw sex between women. Heterosexual feminist leader Helene Stöcker became a prominent figure in the movement. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1268x1356, 105 KB) An issue of German lesbian periodical Die freundin, 1928. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1268x1356, 105 KB) An issue of German lesbian periodical Die freundin, 1928. ... A treatise is a formal, systematic written analysis of a certain subject, more lengthy than an essay. ... Helene Stöcker (* 13. ...


Hirschfeld, whose life was dedicated to social progress for homosexual and transgender people, formed the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (Institute for Sexology) in 1919. The institute conducted an enormous amount of research, saw thousands of transgender and homosexual clients at consultations, and championed a broad range of sexual reforms including sex education, contraception and women's rights. However, the gains made in Germany would soon be drastically reversed with the rise of Nazism, and the institute and its library were destoyed in 1933. The Swiss journal Der Kreis was the only part of the movement to continue through the Nazi era. The Institut für Sexualwissenschaft was an early sexology research institute in Germany, 1919-1933. ... Prior to the Third Reich, Berlin was considered a liberal city, with many gay bars, nightclubs and cabarets. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In the United States, several secret or semi-secret groups were formed explicitly to advance the rights of homosexuals as early as the turn of the twentieth century, but little is known about them[16]. A better documented group is Henry Gerber’s Society for Human Rights formed in Chicago in 1924, which was quickly suppressed.[17]

Cover of U.S. lesbian publication 'The Ladder' from October 1957. The motif of masks and unmasking was prevalent in the homophile era, prefiguring the political strategy of coming out and giving the Mattachine Society its name.

Image File history File links The_Ladder,_October_1957. ... Image File history File links The_Ladder,_October_1957. ... The Ladder. ... Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ... Coming out of the closet (very often shortened to coming out in winking reference to the public introduction of debutantes) describes the voluntary public announcement of ones (often homosexual or bisexual) sexual orientation, sexual attractions, gender identity, or paraphilia. ... The Mattachine Society was the earliest homophile organization in the United States. ...

1945 - 1968

Main article: Homophile

Immediately following World War II, a number of homosexual rights groups came into being or were revived across the Western world, in Britain, France, Germany, Holland, the Scandinavian countries and the United States. These groups usually preferred the term homophile to "homosexual", emphasising love over sex. The homophile movement began in the late 1940s with groups in the Netherlands and Denmark, and continued throughout the 1950s and 1960s with groups in Sweden, Norway, the United States, France, Britiain and elsewhere. ONE, Inc., the first public homosexual organization in the U.S,[18] was bankrolled by the wealthy transsexual man Reed Erickson. A U.S. transgender-rights journal, Transvestia: The Journal of the American Society for Equality in Dress, also published two issues in 1952. Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The term Western World or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ... // Homophile Movement The Homophile Movement is a complex group of lesbian, Gay and Transgender organizations whose roots predate Stonewall by decades. ... ONE, Inc. ...


The homophile movement lobbied within established political systems for social acceptability; radicals of the 1970s would later disparage the homophile groups for being assimilationist. Any demonstrations were orderly and polite [19]. By 1969, there were dozens of homophile organizations and publications in the U.S,[20] and a national organization had been formed, but they were largely ignored by the media. A 1965 gay march held in front of Independence Hall in Philadelphia, according to some historians, marked the beginning of the modern gay rights movement. Meanwhile in San Francisco in 1966, transgender street prostitutes in the poor neighborhood of Tenderloin rioted against police harassment at a popular all-night restaurant, Gene Compton's Cafeteria. ... The Tenderloin is a neighborhood in San Francisco. ... Three years before the famous rioting at New Yorks Stonewall Inn, there was a riot in San Francisco at Gene Comptons Cafeteria. ...


1969 - 1974

Main article: Gay Liberation
This 1970 poster from New York shows the spirit of pride, openness and celebration. Gay Liberation's links with the counterculture are also evident.
This 1970 poster from New York shows the spirit of pride, openness and celebration. Gay Liberation's links with the counterculture are also evident.

The new social movements of the sixties, such as the Black Power and anti-Vietnam war movements in the U.S, the May 1968 insurrection in France, and Women's Liberation throughout the Western world, inspired some LGBT activists to become militant,[21] and the Gay Liberation Movement emerged towards the end of the decade. This new radicalism is often attributed to the Stonewall riots of 1969, when a group of transgender, lesbian and gay male patrons at a bar in New York resisted a police raid.[22] Although Gay Liberation was already underway, Stonewall certainly provided a rallying point for the fledgling movement. The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Image File history File links Gay Liberation, New York, 1970. ... Image File history File links Gay Liberation, New York, 1970. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... The term new social movements (NSM) refers to a plethora of social movements that have come up in various western societies roughly since the mid-1960s (i. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States. ... A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with the stereotypical silhouette of the General de Gaulle. ... The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement and Womens Liberation) campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... The Stonewall riots, which as a whole is often called the Stonewall Rebellion, were a series of violent conflicts between lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, transgender, and queer persons and police officers in New York City. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ...


Immediately after Stonewall, such groups as the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) and the Gay Activists' Alliance (GAA) were formed. Their use of the word "gay" represented a new unapologetic defiance — as an antonym for "straight" ('respectable sexual behaviour'), it encompassed a range of non-normative sexualities and gender expressions, such as transgender street prostitutes, and sought ultimately to free the bisexual potential in everyone, rendering obsolete the categories of homosexual and heterosexual.[23][24] According to Gay Lib writer Toby Marotta, "their Gay political outlooks were not homophile but liberationist."[25] "Out, loud and proud", they engaged in colorful street theater[26]. The GLF’s ‘A Gay Manifesto’ set out the aims for the fledgling gay liberation movement, and influential intellectual Paul Goodman published “The Politics of Being Queer” (1969). Chapters of the GLF were established across the US and in other parts of the Western world. The Front Homosexuel d'Action Révolutionnaire was formed in 1971 by lesbians who split from the Mouvement Homophile de France in 1971. One of the values of the movement was gay pride. Organized by an early GLF leader Brenda Howard, the Stonewall riots were commemorated by annual marches that became known as Pride parades. Gay Liberation Front Poster, New York 1970 Gay Liberation Front (GLF) was the name of a number of Gay Liberation groups, the first of which was formed in New York City in 1969, immediately after the Stonewall riots. ... The Gay Communists Alliance was founded in New York Cremlin in December 1969 after the Stonewall riots, by dissident members of the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) who wanted to form a non-violent single issue, politically neutral, militant organizaiton whose goal was to secure basic human rights, dignity and freedom... For other articles with similar names, see Gay (disambiguation). ... Street theatre is a form of theatrical presentation and performance in outdoor public spaces without a specific paying audience. ... Paul Goodman (1911–1972) was a poet, writer, public intellectual. ... Gay Liberation (or Gay Lib) is the name used to describe the radical lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. ... Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ... Six color rainbow gay pride flag flying over Castro Street, San Francisco, June 2005 The gay pride or simply pride campaign of the gay rights movement has three main premises: that people should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity, that sexual diversity is a gift, and that... Gay Liberation Front Poster, New York 1970 Gay Liberation Front (GLF) was the name of a number of Gay Liberation groups, the first of which was formed in New York City in 1969, immediately after the Stonewall riots. ... Brenda Howard (December 24, 1946 – June 28, 2005) a bisexual activist and sex-positive feminist who is an important figure in the modern LGBT rights movement. ... Baton twirlers perform in the 2002 Divers/Cité pride parade in downtown Montreal A pride parade is part of a festival or ceremony held by the LGBT community of a city to commemorate the struggle for gay liberation, gay rights, and gay pride. ...

The Rainbow flag, represents Lesbians & Gay men. It is the most recognised symbol of the LGBT rights movement.
Enlarge
The Rainbow flag, represents Lesbians & Gay men. It is the most recognised symbol of the LGBT rights movement.

Image File history File links Gay_flag. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ... Six color rainbow gay pride flag flying over the Castro gay village in San Francisco, June 2005 Rainbow flags at Bucharests annual GayFest LGBT pride parade, 2005 A rainbow flag is a multi-colored flag consisting of stripes in the colors of the rainbow. ...

1975 - 1986

From the anarchistic Gay Liberation Movement of the early 1970s arose a more reformist and single-issue "Gay Rights Movement", which portrayed gays and lesbians as a minority group and used the language of civil rights — in many respects continuing the work of the homophile period.[27] In Berlin, for example, the radical Homosexuelle Aktion Westberlin was eclipsed by the Allgemeine Homosexuelle Arbeitsgemeinschaft.[28] This period also saw a shift away from transgender issues, and butch bar dykes and flamboyant street queens came to be seen as negative stereotypes of lesbians and gays. Veteran activists such as Sylvia Rivera and Beth Elliot were sidelined or expelled because they were transsexual. During this period, the International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) was formed (1978), and it continues to campaign for lesbian and gay human rights with the United Nations and individual national governments. Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... A minority or subordinate group is a sociological group that does not constitute a politically dominant plurality of the total population of a given society. ... Sylvia Rae Rivera (1951-2002) was a transgender activist and vetran of the Stonewall Riots - the protest against homophobic abuse that, in the minds of many, birthed the modern LGBT rights movement. ... The International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) is an international organization bringing together more than 400 lesbian and gay groups from around the world. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ...


Lesbian feminism, which was most influential from the mid 1970s to the mid 1980s, encouraged women to direct their energies toward other women rather than men, and advocated lesbianism as the logical result of feminism.[29] As with Gay Liberation, this understanding of the lesbian potential in all women was at odds with the minority-rights framework of the Gay Rights movement. Many women of the Gay Liberation movement felt frustated at the domination of the movement by men and formed separate organisations; some who felt gender differences between men and women could not be resolved developed "lesbian separatism", influenced by writings such as Jill Johnston's 1973 book "Lesbian Nation". Disagreements between different political philosophies were, at times, extremely heated, and became known as the lesbian sex wars,[30] clashing in particular over views on sadomasochism and transsexuality. The term "gay" came to be more strongly associated with homosexual males. Lesbian feminism is a cultural movement and critical perspective, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s (primarily in North America and Western Europe) that questions the position of women and homosexuals in society. ... Lesbian separatism refers to a range of extreme positions within the feminist and gay liberation movements. ... Feminist Author Wrote Lesbian Nation in 1973. ... The Feminist Sex Wars, Lesbian Sex Wars, or simply the Sex Wars or Porn Wars, refers to the acrimonious debates within the feminist movement and lesbian community in the late 1970s through the 1980s around the issues of pornography, sex work, sadomasochism, gender identity, sex roles, and other sexual issues. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... Look up Transsexuality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


1987 - present

Some historians consider that a new era of the gay rights movement began in the 1980s with the advent of AIDS, which decimated the leadership and shifted the focus for many.[31] This era saw a resurgence of militancy with direct action groups like ACT UP (formed in 1987), and its offshoots Queer Nation (1990) and the Lesbian Avengers (1992). Some younger activists, seeing "gay and lesbian" as increasingly normative and politically conservative, began using the word queer as a defiant statement of all sexual minorities and gender variant people — just as the earlier liberationists had done with the word "gay". Less confrontational terms that attempt to reunite the interests of lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transpeople also became prominent, including various acronyms like LGBT, LGBTQ, and LGBTI. As of 2006, these acronyms have become commonplace descriptors used by organisations that once described themselves as "gay rights" groups. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections in humans resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... Direct action is a form of political activism which seeks immediate remedy for perceived ills, as opposed to indirect actions such as electing representatives who promise to provide remedy at some later date. ... ACT UP, or the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, is a diverse, non-partisan group of individuals . ... Queer Nation was founded in March 1990 in New York City, USA by activists from ACT-UP. The four founders were outraged at the escalation of anti-gay and lesbian violence on the streets and prejudice in the arts and media. ... The Lesbian Avengers was originally founded in New York in June 1992 by a group of lesbian activists from ACT-UP. The purpose of the group is to identify and promote lesbian issues and perspectives while empowering lesbians to become experienced organizers who can participate in political rebellion. ... The word queer has traditionally meant strange or unusual. ... A sexual minority—the term is most commonly used in the plural, sexual minorities— is a group whose sexual orientation or practices differ from the majority of the surrounding society. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... LGBT (or GLBT) is an abbreviation used as a collective term to refer to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the 1990s, organizations began to spring up in non-western countries, such as Progay Philippines, which was founded in 1993 and organized the first Gay Pride march in Asia on June 26, 1994. In many countries, LGBT organizations remain illegal (as of 2006) and transgender and homosexual activists face extreme opposition from the state. Also, many activists attempted to turn the attention of the West to the situation of queers in non-western countries. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The West can refer to : The U.S. West or the American West The Western world, or Western Civilization. ...


The 1990s also saw a rapid expansion of transgender rights movements across the globe. Hijra activists campaigned for recognition as a third sex in India and Travesti groups began to organize against police brutality across Latin America, while activists in the United States formed militant groups such as Transexual Menace. An important text was Leslie Feinberg's, "Transgender Liberation: A Movement Whose Time Has Come", published in 1992. 1993 is considered to mark the beginning of a new movement of intersexuals, with the founding of the Intersex Society of North America by Cheryl Chase. In the culture of the Indian subcontinent a hijra (also known by a number of different names and romanised spellings) is usually considered a member of the third sex — neither man nor woman. ... Third gender was used from the late 19th century to describe people who did not fit into the then existing gender categories: female genitalia = female identity = female behavior = desire male partner male genitalia = male identity = male behavior = desires female partner Today this scheme is also known as binary gender system... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Leslie Feinberg (born 1949 in Kansas City, Missouri, USA) is a transgender activist, speaker, and author. ... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... The Intersex Society of North America is an organisation formed to represent the interest of intersexuals: people whose bodies do not fit the accepted conventional ideas of male or female. External links Intersex Society of North America Categories: Intersexual ... Cheryl Chase is the founder of the movement to protect the human rights of people born with intersex conditions. ...


In many cases, LGBTI rights movements came to focus on questions of intersectionality, the interplay of oppressions arising from being both queer and underclass, a person of color, disabled, etc. Intersectionality is a paradigmatic approach to sociology, cultural studies, and other social sciences, especially as applied to activism and social work. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Colored and person of color (or people of color in the plural sense) are terms that were commonly used to describe people who do not have white skin or a Caucasian appearance. ... The term disability, as it is applied to humans, refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. ...


See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term inalienable rights (or unalienable rights) refers to a set of human rights that are absolute, not awarded by human power, not transferable to another power, and incapable of repudiation. ... Moral universalism is a moral view, often related to humanist philosophy, which claims that the fundamental basis for a universalist ethic—universally applicable to all humanity—can be derived or inferred from what is common among existing moral codes. ...

Articles

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Homophobia is the fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... World laws on homosexuality Status of same-sex union laws in North America. ... LGBT movements in the United States comprise an interwoven history of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender social and political movements in the United States of America, beginning in the early 20th century. ... Here is a list of gay-rights organizations around the world. ... This article is new. ... Pro-gay slogans and symbols are catchphrases, slogans or symbolic images which express support for members of the LGBTQ community, LGBTQ lifestyles and/or LGBTQ rights. ... Queer Nationalism is a phenomenon which is related both to nationalism and to gay and lesbian liberation movement. ... Special rights is a political term originally used by libertarians to refer to laws granting rights to one or more groups which are not extended to other groups, such as affirmative action or hate crime legislation with regard to ethnic or religious minorities. ... This timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) history details notable events in the Common Era West. ...

Categories

  • Bisexual community
  • LGBT civil rights
  • Marriage, unions and partnerships by country
  • Same-sex marriage

References

  1. ^ Bernstein, Mary (2002). Identities and Politics: Toward a Historical Understanding of the Lesbian and Gay Movement. Social Science History 26:3 (fall 2002).
  2. ^ Bull, C., and J. Gallagher (1996) Perfect Enemies: The Religious Right, the Gay Movement, and the Politics of the 1990s. New York: Crown.
  3. ^ One example of this approach is: Sullivan, Andrew. (1997) Same-Sex Marriage: Pro and Con. New York: Vintage.
  4. ^ e.g. Altman, Dennis. (1982) ‘‘The gay movement ten years later.’’ Nation, 13 November: 494–96.
    Vaid, Urvashi. (1995) Virtual Equality: The Mainstreaming of Gay and Lesbian Liberation. New York: Anchor.
  5. ^ Bernstein (2002)
  6. ^ ILGA World Legal Survey (Last updated: 31 July 2000, accessed 19 April 2006); updates from Homosexuality laws of the world
  7. ^ Studies finding that heterosexual men usually exhibit more hostile attitudes toward gay men and lesbians than do heterosexual women:
    :*Herek, G. M. (1994). Assessing heterosexuals’ attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In "B. Greene and G.M. Herek (Eds.) Psychological perspectives on lesbian and gay issues: Vol. 1 Lesbian and gay psychology: Theory, research, and clinical applications." Thousands Oaks, Ca: Sage.
    :*Kite, M.E. (1984). Sex differences in attitudes toward homosexuals: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Homosexuality, 10 (1-2), 69-81.
    :*Morin, S., & Garfinkle, E. (1978). Male homophobia. Journal of Social Issues, 34 (1), 29-47.
    :*Thompson, E., Grisanti, C., & Pleck, J. (1985). Attitudes toward the male role and their correlates. Sex Roles, 13 (7/8), 413-427.
    For other correlates, see:
    :*Larson et al. (1980) Heterosexuals' Attitudes Toward Homosexuality, The Journal of Sex Research, 16, 245-257
    :*Herek, G. (1988), Heterosexuals' Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men, The Journal of Sex Research, 25, 451-477
    :*Kite, M.E., & Deaux, K., 1986. Attitudes toward homosexuality: Assessment and behavioral consequences. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 7, 137-162
    :*Haddock, G., Zanna, M. P., & Esses, V. M. (1993). Assessing the structure of prejudicial attitudes: The case of attitudes toward homosexuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1105-1118.
    :See also: Lewis, Gregory B., Black-White Differences in Attitudes toward Homosexuality and Gay Rights, Public Opinion Quarterly, Volume 67, Number 1, Pp. 59-78
  8. ^ Herek, G.M. (1991). Stigma, prejudice, and violence against lesbians and gay men. In: J. Gonsiorek & J. Weinrich (Eds.), "Homosexuality: Research implications for public policy" (pp. 60-80). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  9. ^ Kyes, K.B. & Tumbelaka, L. (1994). Comparison of Indonesian and American college students' attitudes toward homosexuality. Psychological Reports, 74, 227-237.
  10. ^ Bentham, Jeremy, Offences Against One's Self, c1785 (full text online).
  11. ^ Blasius, Mark and Phelan, Shane (eds.), 1997. "We Are Everywhere: A Historical Sourcebook of Gay and Lesbian Politics", New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-90859-0
  12. ^ ibid.
  13. ^ ibid.
  14. ^ McKenna, Neil (2003), "The Secret Life of Oscar Wilde: An Intimate Biography". (London: Century) ISBN 0-7126-6986-8
  15. ^ Breger, Claudia. 2005. Feminine Masculinities: Scientific and Literary Representations of "Female Inversion" at the Turn of the Twentieth Century. Journal of the History of Sexuality 14.1/2 (2005) 76-106
  16. ^ Norton 2005
  17. ^ Bullough 2005
  18. ^ Percy & Glover 2005
  19. ^ Matzner 2004
  20. ^ Percy 2005
  21. ^ Matzner, Andrew, “Stonewall Riots”, glbtq: An Enclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, & Queer Culture, Claude J. Summers, ed. 2004. Accessed on December 30, 2005. http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/stonewall_riots.html
  22. ^ Bullough, Vern, “When did the Gay Right Movement Begin?”, April 18, 2005. Accessed on December 30, 2005. http://hnn.us/articles/11316.html
  23. ^ Altman, D. (1971). Homosexual: Oppression and Liberation. New York: Outerbridge & Dienstfrey.
  24. ^ Adam, B. D. (1987). The rise of a gay and lesbian movement. Boston: Twayne Publishers.
  25. ^ Marotta, Toby, The Politics of Homosexuality, Boston, p. 68
  26. ^ Gallagher & Bull 1996
  27. ^ Epstein, S. (1999). Gay and lesbian movements in the United States: Dilemmas of identity, diversity, and political strategy. in B. D. Adam, J. Duyvendak, & A. Krouwel (Eds.), "The global emergence of gay and lesbian politics" (pp. 30-90). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
  28. ^ Hekman, Gert; Oosterhuis, Harry; Steakley, James (1995). Leftist Sexual Politics and Homosexuality: A Historical Overview, Journal of Homosexuality. New York: Sep 30, 1995. Vol.29, Iss. 2/3
  29. ^ Rich, A. (1980). Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence. Signs, 5, 631-660.
  30. ^ Lesbian Sex Wars article by Elise Chenier from GLBTQ encyclopedia.
  31. ^ Percy, William A. & William Edward Glover, “Before Stonewall by Glover & Percy”, November 5, 2005. Accessed on December 30, 2005. http://williamapercy.com/pub-Comments-PercyGlover.htm

Andrew Sullivan Andrew Michael Sullivan (born August 10, 1963) is a journalist and political commentator, known for his popular and provocative style of political journalism. ... Dennis Altman (1943-) was a Fullbright scholar at Cornell University in the 1960s when he met and began working with leading gay activists in the United States. ... Urvashi Vaid is known for her 25 years dedicated to promoting civil rights issues for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender persons. ... World laws on homosexuality Status of same-sex union laws in North America. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: or ) (February 15, 1748 O.S. (February 26, 1749 N.S.) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Ibid (Latin, short for ibidem, the same place) is the term used to provide an endnote or footnote citation or reference for a source that was cited in the last endnote or footnote. ... Ibid (Latin, short for ibidem, the same place) is the term used to provide an endnote or footnote citation or reference for a source that was cited in the last endnote or footnote. ... Dennis Altman (1943-) was a Fullbright scholar at Cornell University in the 1960s when he met and began working with leading gay activists in the United States. ... Image:AdrienneRich. ... Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence written in 1980, was published in Adrienne Richs 1986 book Blood, Bread, and Poetry. ...

External links

  • 12 Injured as Gay Pride Marchers Attacked in Estonia
  • Gallagher, John & Chris Bull, , Perfect Enemies, 1996, Crown, 300 pp.
  • Norton, Rick, “The Suppression of Lesbian and Gay History”, February 12, 2005, updated April 5, 2005.
  • Percy, William A., Review of “Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights”, November 22, 2005. Accessed on 18 June, 2006.
  • Gerald Schoenewolf, "Gay Rights and Political Correctness: A Brief History"
  • Spitzer, RL, "The diagnostic status of homosexuality in DSM-III: a reformulation of the issues." Am J Psychiatry. 1981 Feb;138(2):210-5.
  • Antidiscrimination Legislation, April 1999, a worldwide summary IGLHRC PDF
  • International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC)
  • International Lesbian and Gay Association World Legal Survey (2000)
  • Good As You "Gay & Lesbian Activism With A Sense of Humor"

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Further reading

  • Bullough, Vern L. (ed.) Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context, New York, London, Oxford: Harrington Park Press, 2002
  • Johansson, Warren and Percy, William A. Outing: Shattering the Conspiracy of Silence. New York and London: Haworth Press, 1994.
  • Aldrich, Robert (ed.) Gay Life and Culture: A World History. London: Thames & Hudson, 2006
  • Carter, David [MA] Stonewall: the riots that sparked the Gay revolution; New York, NY; St Martin’s Press; 2004 (0-312-20025-0)
  • Miller, Neil; Out of the Past: Gay and Lesbian history from 1869 to the present; New York, NY; Alyson Books; 2006 (0-7394-6463-9)

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