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Encyclopedia > Gay marriage
[edit]
Entering into marriage
Prenuptial agreement  · Marriage
Common-law marriage  · Same-sex marriage
Legal states similar to marriage
Civil union  · Registered partnership
Domestic partnership
Dissolution of marriage
Annulment  · Divorce  · Alimony
Relations with children
Paternity  · Adoption  · Legal guardian
Emancipation of minors
Custody  · Child support  · Visitation
Crimes against the family
Spousal abuse  · Adultery
Bigamy  · Incest
Same-sex marriage
Performed nationwide in
Belgium (2003)
Canada (2005)
Netherlands (2001)
Spain (2005)
Performed in some regions in
United States: MA (2004)
Debate in other countries and regions
Aruba
Australia
China
France
Ireland
Romania
South Africa
United Kingdom
United States: CA NY OR
See also
Civil union
Registered partnership
Domestic partnership
Same-sex marriage timeline
Listings by country

Same-sex marriage is marriage between individuals who are of the same legal or biological sex. It is also called same-gender marriage, gay marriage, marriage equality (favored by proponents, along with just marriage), and homosexual marriage (sometimes favored by opponents). These terms are considered variously ambiguous, confusing, inappropriate, controversial, offensive, or loaded, depending on the audience. Image File history File links Legal portal image File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Family law is an area of the law that deals with family-related issues and domestic relations including, but not limited to marriage, civil unions, divorce, spousal abuse, child custody and visitation, property, alimony, and child support awards, as well as child abuse issues, and adoption. ... A prenuptial agreement, sometimes referred to as an antenuptial agreement, but commonly abbreviated to prenup, is a contract entered into by two people prior to marriage or civil union. ... Marriage is a legal, social, and religious relationship between individuals which has formed the foundation of the family for most societies. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A civil union is one of several terms for a civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing same-sex couples access to the benefits enjoyed by married opposite-sex couples (see also same-sex marriage); it can also be used by opposite-sex couples who... See also: Civil Union Volker Beck, a member of the Green party caucus of the Bundestag, is the father of the German law. ... Domestic partner or domestic partnership identifies the personal relationship between individuals who are living together and sharing a common domestic life together but are not joined in any type of legal partnership, marriage or civil union. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage, which can be contrasted with an annulment which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody and distribution of property. ... In many countries alimony, maintenance or spousal support is an obligation established by law that is based on the premise that both spouses have an absolute obligation to support each other during the marriage (or civil union) unless they are legally separated, though in some instances the obligation to support... Paternity is the social and legal acknowledgment of the parental relationship between a father and his child. ... Adoption is the legal act of permanently placing a child with a parent or parents other than the birth parents. ... A legal guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty) to care for the personal and property interests of another person, called a ward. ... Emancipation of minors is a process that occurs when a court (or another body given that authority) declares that someone who is still a minor is nevertheless to have the legal rights of an adult, and to be free of any authority from their parent or other legal guardian. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In many countries, child support is the ongoing obligation for a periodic payment made by a non-custodial parent to a custodial parent, caregiver or guardian, for the care and support of children of a relationship or marriage that has broken down. ... In family law, visitation is an American term for what is called access in Canada and in at least several European countries. ... Spousal abuse is the term applied to the specific form of domestic violence, where physical or sexual abuse is perpetuated by one spouse upon another. ... Adultery is generally defined as consensual sexual intercourse by a married person with someone other than their lawful spouse. ... Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ... Incest is the sexual activity or marriage between very close family members (and sometimes friends in some societies). ... Same-sex marriage in the U.S. state of Massachusetts became legal on May 17, 2004. ... Same-sex marriage in California: On March 14, 2005 San Francisco Superior Court Judge Richard Kramer ruled that gay and lesbian couples in California have a constitutional right to marry. ... Same-sex marriage has yet to become firmly established in New York state; to date, Jason West of New Paltz has officiated at a number of same-sex weddings in February 2004 whose legal status is uncertain, and more recently (February 2005), a New York state court has struck down... In 2004 and 2005 there has been controversy and political disagreement concerning the status of same-sex unions in Oregon. ... A civil union is one of several terms for a civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing same-sex couples access to the benefits enjoyed by married opposite-sex couples (see also same-sex marriage); it can also be used by opposite-sex couples who... See also: Civil Union Volker Beck, a member of the Green party caucus of the Bundestag, is the father of the German law. ... Domestic partner or domestic partnership identifies the personal relationship between individuals who are living together and sharing a common domestic life together but are not joined in any type of legal partnership, marriage or civil union. ... A timeline of significant steps towards legal recognition of same-sex couples worldwide, following by a timeline of notable same-sex marriages. ... Marriage is a legal, social, and religious relationship between individuals which has formed the foundation of the family for most societies. ... Look up Sex on Wiktionary, the free dictionary A sex is one of two specimen categories of species that recombine their genetic material in order to reproduce, a process called genetic recombination. ... A language construct, such as a word or a question, is said to be loaded if it carries meaning or implications beyond its strict definition (its denotation). ...


For discussion of other forms of civil and religious same-sex unions distinct from marriage, see the articles linked in the pertinent section below. Same-sex union can refer to: same-sex marriage -- the civil or religious rites of marriage that make it equivalent to opposite-sex marriages in all aspects. ...


In the 2000s, Same-sex marriage became a topic of substantial controversy. The article below defines same-sex marriage but also presents the arguments for and against the institution. Look up Controversy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A controversy is a contentious dispute, a disagreement in opinions over which parties are actively arguing. ...

Contents


Terminology

Some consider the terms "Gay marriage" and "homosexual marriage" to be inaccurate in referring to same-sex marriage since non-homosexuals may seek a same-sex marriage. The term gay is variously used to refer to only gay men, to gay men and lesbians, and to LGB or LGBT people in general. Aside from the semantic issues concerning bisexuality, in the case of an intersex or transgender partner, an otherwise heterosexual marriage could be classifed either legally or genetically as a same-sex marriage. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Bisexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by aesthetic attraction, romantic love and sexual desire for both males and females. ... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... Transgender (TG) is also a style of fanart. ... Heterosexuality is the scientific name for sexual attraction and/or sexual behaviour between animals of the opposite characteristic sex. ...


The term "same-gender marriage" can be seen to be problematic when gender and characteristic sex diverge. For example, a transman is considered legally a woman in certain countries or jurisdictions. Thus if he married a man, it would be considered an "opposite sex marriage" in those jurisdictions, though he and his partner would be the same gender. In other countries or jurisdictions he would be considered a man, so his marriage would be a same-sex marriage. In a variety of different contexts, gender refers to the masculinity or femininity of words, persons, organisms, or characteristics. ... Look up Sex on Wiktionary, the free dictionary A sex is one of two specimen categories of species that recombine their genetic material in order to reproduce, a process called genetic recombination. ... Transmen or trans men are transgender or transsexual people who were assigned female gender at birth (or, in some rare cases of intersexuality, later) and who feel that this is not an accurate or complete description of themselves. ...


Proponents of same-sex marriage may argue that the correct term for same-sex marriage is simply "marriage", though their opponents argue that such conflation of same-sex and opposite-sex marriage is a loaded term, a misunderstanding of the traditional definition of marriage, and therefore a threat to traditional marriages. A language construct, such as a word or a question, is said to be loaded if it carries meaning or implications beyond its strict definition (its denotation). ...


Proponents of traditional marriage believe that such gender confusion is a product of modern society and that the traditional definition of marriage as being between one man and one woman is clear. One solution is to do away with the word "marriage" and refer to all legal marriages (regardless of gender) as civil partnerships. ...


Mixed marriage: the term "mixed marriage" is usually not used in reference to the same sex marriage debate. It does not refer to marriage of two persons of different genders, but rather the marriage of two persons of different religions, cultures or races. Look up Culture on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikinews has news related to this article: Culture and entertainment Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Cultural Development in Antiquity Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Culture and Civilization in Modern Times Classificatory system for cultures and civilizations, by Dr. Sam Vaknin... A race is a population of humans distinguished from other populations. ...


History of same-sex unions

For detailed information, see History of homosexuality and Same-sex marriage timeline. The History of Sexuality is also the title of a book, by Michel Foucault. ... A timeline of significant steps towards legal recognition of same-sex couples worldwide, following by a timeline of notable same-sex marriages. ...


Asia

Same-gender romantic love or sexual desire has been recorded since ancient times in the east. Such desire often took the form of same-sex unions, usually between men, and often included some difference in age (there is far less information available on relationships among women in ancient times. There are a number of possible reasons for this: an attitude that women were not important enough to write about; or that same-sex attraction between women was not valued as it was between men; or that women were not afforded equal status with men, so that, while men were free to pursue sexual and romantic pleasure both within and without marriage, women often were not).


In China, especially in the southern province of Fujian where male love was especially cultivated, men would marry youths in elaborate ceremonies. The marriages would last a number of years, at the end of which the elder partner would help the younger find a (female) wife and settle down to raise a family. Fujian (Chinese: 福建; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal System Pinyin: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the rogueprovinces, which along with Uigher, hopes to leave mainalnd china and become independent like Taiwan. ...


See also:

  • Homosexuality in China
  • Homosexuality in Japan

Young men sipping tea, reading poetry, and making love; Individual panel from a hand scroll on homosexual themes, paint on silk; China, Qing dynasty (18th–19th c. ... Homosexuality, or same-gender romantic love or sexual desire, has been recorded from ancient times in Japan; indeed, at some times in Japanese history love between men was viewed as the purest form of love. ...

Classical Europe

There has been a long history of same-sex unions in the western world. That many early western societies tolerated, and even celebrated, same-sex relationships is well-established, though not necessarily well-known. Evidence of same-sex marriage, however, is less clear, but there exists some evidence, often controversial, of same-sex marriages in ancient Rome and Greece. For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that existed in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East between 753 BC and its downfall in AD 476. ...


In Hellenic Greece, the common pederastic relationships between Greek men (erastes) and youths (eromenos) who had come of age were, it has been argued, analogous to marriage in several aspects. The age of the youth was similar to the age at which women married (the mid-teens), and the relationship could only be undertaken with the consent of the father. This consent, just as in the case of a daughter's marriage, was contingent on the suitor's social standing. The relationship, just like a marriage, consisted of very specific social and religious responsibilities, and also had a sexual component. Greece, formally called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... Pederasty, as idealized by the ancient Greeks, was a relationship and bond between an adolescent boy and an adult man outside of his immediate family. ... Pederastic courtship scene. ...


In ancient Rome, the Emperor Nero is reported to have married, at different times, two other men in wedding ceremonies. Other Roman Emperors, including Diocletian, are reported to have done the same thing. Nero Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37–June 9, 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called (50–54) Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Emperor Diocletian Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (245?-311/12? AD), born Diocles, was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. ...


Increasingly influential Christianity promoted marriage for procreative purposes, combined with the Roman use of sexuality as a form of dominance, as well as a means to conquer a male enemy through rape, have been linked with the increasing intolerance of homosexuality in Rome. Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ...


Christian Europe

Saints Sergius and Bacchus. 7th Century icon. Controversial Yale historian John Boswell considers them an example of an early Christian same-sex union reflective of tolerant early Christians attitudes toward homosexuality based on this icon depicting what some claim is a religious wedding with Jesus as best man and still surviving writings. Most theologians and historians disagree.
Saints Sergius and Bacchus. 7th Century icon. Controversial Yale historian John Boswell considers them an example of an early Christian same-sex union reflective of tolerant early Christians attitudes toward homosexuality based on this icon depicting what some claim is a religious wedding with Jesus as best man and still surviving writings. Most theologians and historians disagree.

In medieval Europe, homosexual relations were much less open or accepted than in the classical world. However, much like the courtly love a knight might bear for his lady, deep, passionate friendship between people of the same sex was not only possible but celebrated. The "love" in such relationships has traditionally been assumed to be Platonic; but modern scholars often question this. As part of the remains of a floor of a Dominican church in Istanbul were found two gravestones marking the resting places of two knights of the royal chamber of Richard II — Sir William Neville and Sir John Clanvowe, who died days apart in October 1391. Each of their shields holds an identical coat of arms both knights' familial arms side-by-side: "impaled," that is to say, like a married couple's. Thus the companionship and formal union associated with marriage are present; the only doubt is whether sex itself was. [1] Saints Sergius and Bacchus. ... Saints Sergius and Bacchus. ... The Saint Sergius in this article is the Fourth Century martyr. ... Yale can refer to: Yale University, one of the United States oldest and most famous universities. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... Jonathan Lovingly Taketh His Leave of David by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld The History of Early Christianity and Homosexuality has been much debated. ... Since its coining, the term homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... // Jesus, or Jesus of Nazareth, also known as Jesus Christ, is Christianitys central figure, both as Messiah and, for most Christians, as God incarnate. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Court of Love in Provence in the 14th Century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). ... Shows the Location of the Province Ä°stanbul Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul; a contraction of Greek εις την πολιν into the city, the former Constantinople, Κωνσταντινούπολις) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... Richard II may refer to: King Richard II of England Richard II, a play by William Shakespeare about the king Richard II of Normandy This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ...


North America

Same-sex marriage has been documented in many societies that were not subject to Christian influence. In North America, among the Native American societies, it has taken the form of two-spirit-type relationships, in which some male members of the tribe, from an early age, heed a calling to take on female gender with all its responsibilities. They are prized as wives by the other men in the tribe, who enter into formal marriages with these two-spirit men. They are also respected as being especially powerful shamans. Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ...


In the United States during the nineteenth century, there was recognition of the relationship of two women making a long-term commitment to each other and cohabitating, referred to at the time as a Boston marriage; however, the general public at the time likely assumed that sexual activities were not part of the relationship. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the 19th century, Boston marriage was a term used for households where two women lived together, independent of any male support. ...


Africa

In Africa, among the Azande of the Congo, men would marry youths for whom they had to pay a bride-price to the father. These marriages likewise were understood to be of a temporary nature. Africa is the worlds second-largest continent and second most populous after Asia. ... The Azande (plural, Bazande) are a people of north central Africa. ...


Current status of same-sex religious marriage

Some churches, such as the Unitarian Universalist Association, advocate marriage rights for gays as well as straights.
Some churches, such as the Unitarian Universalist Association, advocate marriage rights for gays as well as straights.

Most major religions disapprove of (and, therefore, don't bless or endorse in any way) same-sex marriages. In this section, only the exceptions are listed. Photo by Quadell File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo by Quadell File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA), in full the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations in North America, is a liberal religious denomination formed by the merger in 1961 of the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church in America. ...


In Canada, the issue of same-sex marriage has split the religious community, with the United Church of Canada, the country's largest Protestant denomination, and some elements of the Anglican Church of Canada being supportive. However, the Roman Catholic leadership and the most conservative denominations are in opposition. Curiously, a majority of Roman Catholic lay people do support same-sex marriage. St. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Anglican Church of Canada is the Canadian branch of the Anglican Communion. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


In 2002, the Anglican Diocese of New Westminster in British Columbia (which includes Greater Vancouver) began allowing its churches to bless same-sex unions in marriage-like ceremonies. In response, bishops from Africa, Asia and Latin America, representing more than one-third of Anglican Communion members worldwide, cut their relations with the diocese. 2002(MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Diocese of New Westminster is an Anglican Church of Canada diocese in British Columbia, based in Vancouver. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Splendour without diminishment) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Area 944,735 km² (5th) Land 925,186 km² Water 19,549 km² (2. ... Motto: Building a sustainable region Area: 2,878. ... The blessing of same sex unions is a practice in some parishes of the Anglican Church of Canada and the Episcopal Church in the USA. The Diocese of New Westminster and the Episcopal Church (USA) both took synodical action to authorise public Rites for the Blessing of same sex unions. ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ...


Reform Judaism, the largest branch of Judaism outside Israel, allows religious weddings for same-sex couples within their synagogues, provided they are both adherents of the Jewish faith. Reform Judaism is the first modern branch of Judaism; it developed in Germany and is now international, and the largest in North America. ... Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. ...


On July 4, 2005, the General Synod of the United Church of Christ approved a resolution affirming equal marriage rights regardless of gender. The leadership of this denomination made claims like "the 1.3 million member UCC became the largest Christian denomination to approve marriage equality", despite the Synod's lack of authority to speak for the denomination's largely autonomous congregations. The specifics of the resolution did not change any church's religious marriage policies, but advocated for civil marriage equality. In keeping with the polity of that denomination, doctrinal matters like wedding policies remain under the authority of each local congregation. July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... 2005(MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Church of Christ (UCC) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States, generally considered within the Reformed tradition, and formed in 1957 by the merger of two denominations, the Evangelical and Reformed Church and the Congregational Christian Churches. ...


Religious same-sex wedding ceremonies are already performed in Unitarian Universalist churches, some Reform synagogues, some Quaker congregations (mostly associated with unprogrammed meetings; see the main article), and by the Metropolitan Community Church. The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... A synagogue (from Greek synagoge place of assembly literally meeting, assembly,) is a Jewish house of prayer and study. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Quakers around the world have different views on homosexuality ranging from complete acceptance and celebration of same-sex marriages to considering homosexuality to be sinful. ... The Metropolitan Community Church (in full, The Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches or UFMCC) is an international fellowship of Protestant Christian congregations. ...


Current status of same-sex civil marriage

World homosexuality laws
World homosexuality laws

In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, there has been a growing movement in a number of countries to regard civil-marriages as a right which should be extended to all citizens regardless of sexual orientation. Civil-marriages entail a wide range of entitlements, including social security, health insurance, taxation, inheritance and other benefits unavailable to couples unmarried in the eyes of the law. Restricting legal recognition to opposite-sex couples excludes same-sex couples from gaining legal access to these benefits. Similarly, though certain rights extending from marriage can be replicated by legal means (e.g. by drawing up contracts), many cannot; thus same-sex couples may still face insecurity in areas such as inheritance, hospital visitation and immigration. Lack of legal recognition also makes it more difficult for same-sex couples to adopt children. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1339x628, 40 KB) To user:Derekrodgers: Im as excited as you are, but we really should wait for the bill to become law, by passing the Senate and receiving Royal assent, before changing this map. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1339x628, 40 KB) To user:Derekrodgers: Im as excited as you are, but we really should wait for the bill to become law, by passing the Senate and receiving Royal assent, before changing this map. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... In calendars based on the Christian Era or Common Era, such as the Gregorian calendar, the 21st century is the current century, as of this writing. ... Adoption is the legal act of permanently placing a child with a parent or parents other than the birth parents. ...


At present, same-sex marriages are legal nationwide in only four countries: namely the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, and Canada.


Asia

In 2003 the government of the Republic of China (Taiwan) led by the Presidential office proposed legislation granting marriages to same-sex couples under the Human Rights Basic Law; however it faced opposition among cabinet members and has been stalled since. Currently Taiwan does not have any form of same-sex unions. 2003(MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... National motto: None Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Premier Frank Hsieh Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 138th 35,980 km² 2. ...


The National People's Congress, legislature of the People's Republic of China (PRC), proposed legislation allowing same-sex marriages in 2003. During the course of the debate the proposal failed to garner the 30 votes needed for a placement on the agenda. Same-sex marriage supporters have vowed to keep pressing for its passage in the PRC. The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... 2003(MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Communist Party of the Philippines conducted the country’s first same-sex marriage in 2005; however it was not recognized by the government. Within the government there has been fierce debate on the issue of same-sex unions. Generally the Communist Party supports legislation allowing such marriages while the Roman Catholic Church opposes it. In modern usage, a Communist party is a political party which promotes communism, a sociopolitical philosophy based on the particular interpretation of Marxism put forth by Vladimir Lenin. ... 2005(MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian body, with over 1. ...


The King of Cambodia, Norodom Sihanouk, announced in 2004 that he supports legislation granting marriages to same-sex couples. He is hugely revered among Cambodians; however since his proclamation there has been no legislative efforts to allow them. A monarch is a type of ruler or head of state, whose titles and ascent are often inherited, not earned, and who represents a larger monarchical system which has established rules and customs regarding succession, duties, and powers. ... Time in office: April 24, 1941–March 3, 1955; November 20, 1991–October 7, 2004 (King from September 24, 1993) Predecessor: Sisowath Monivong (first time); Chea Sim (second time) Successor: Norodom Suramarit (first time); Norodom Sihamoni (second time) Date of Birth: October 31, 1922 Place of Birth: Phnom Penh His... 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Europe

Status of legal recognition in Europe.
Status of legal recognition in Europe.

Same-sex civil marriages currently are legally recognized nationwide only in the Netherlands, Belgium and Spain. Belgium extends all the rights of marriage minus adoption to same-sex couples. Spain and the Netherlands, on the other hand, make no distinction whatsoever, and therefore, also extend adoption rights to same-sex couples. Download high resolution version (1244x1244, 68 KB)Created by User:Aris Katsaris, based on Image:EU_blank_no_rivers_territories256. ... Download high resolution version (1244x1244, 68 KB)Created by User:Aris Katsaris, based on Image:EU_blank_no_rivers_territories256. ...


In late January 2005, the Swedish government put together a committee of the major political parties to study whether or not the country should allow same-sex marriages. [2].


After being elected in June 2004, Spanish prime minister Zapatero restated his pre-election pledge to push for legalization of same-sex marriage. [3] On 1 October 2004, the Spanish Government approved a bill to legalize same-sex marriage, including adoption rights. The bill received full parliamentary approval on June 30, 2005 and passed into law on July 2. Polls suggest that 62% to 66% of Spain supports same-sex marriage. [4][5][6] For more information see Same-sex marriage in Spain. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (born August 4, 1960) is the Prime Minister of Spain. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining, and the last day of June. ... 2005(MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... In 2004, the new Socialist government of Spain began a process to legalise same-sex marriage in Spain. ...


On 18 November 2004 the United Kingdom Parliament passed the Civil Partnership Act, which will come into force during 2005 and will allow same-sex couples to register their partnership. The Government stressed during the passage of the Bill that it is not same-sex marriage, and some gay activists have criticised the Act for not using the terminology of marriage. However, the rights and duties of partners under this legislation will be almost exactly the same as for married couples. An amendment proposing similar rights for family members living together was rejected. See Civil unions in the United Kingdom. November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years), with 43 remaining. ... 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Civil Partnership Act 2004 is an Act of Parliament passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 2004. ... 2005(MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... There are currently no plans to introduce same-sex marriage in the United Kingdom. ...


In May 2004, the largest opposition party in France, the French Socialist Party, announced its support for same-sex marriage. A 2004 poll by ELLE found that 64% of France supports same-sex marriage and 49% supports adoption by same-sex couples. [7] See Same-sex marriage in France 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Deaths in May • 28 Gerald Anthony • 27 Umberto Agnelli • 22 Richard Biggs • 20 Len Murray • 17 Tony Randall • 17 Ezzedine Salim • 9 Alan King • 9 Akhmad Kadyrov • 8(?) Nick Berg • 7 Waldemar Milewicz Other recent deaths Ongoing... The emblem of the French Socialist Party The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste or PS), founded in 1969, is the main opposition party in France. ... ELLE is a famous, worldwide magazine that focuses on womens fashion, beauty, health, and entertainment. ... The legal status of same-sex marriages in France is unclear. ...


North America

Status of legal recognition in North America. U.S. states not recognizing Civil Unions are colored blue.
Status of legal recognition in North America. U.S. states not recognizing Civil Unions are colored blue.

Map of Same-sex couples recognition in North America. ... Map of Same-sex couples recognition in North America. ...

Canada

Main article: Same-sex marriage in Canada Same-sex marriage was legalized across Canada by the Civil Marriage Act enacted on July 20, 2005. ...


In Canada, court rulings in the provinces of Ontario, British Columbia, Quebec, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan, Newfoundland and Labrador, as well as the Yukon Territory, have found the prohibition of same-sex marriage to be unconstitutional, thus legalizing it in those jurisdictions. On July 20, 2005 the Canadian Parliament passed the Civil Marriage Act defining marriage nationwide as "the lawful union of two persons to the exclusion of all others." Canada is also the only country without a residency requirement for same-sex marriage. Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th) Land 917,741 km² Water 158,654 km² (14. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Splendour without diminishment) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Area 944,735 km² (5th) Land 925,186 km² Water 19,549 km² (2. ... Beginning in 1963, a terrorist group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices and at least two murders by FLQ gunfire and three violent deaths by bombings. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Glorious and free) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Area 647,797 km² (8th) Land 553,556 km² Water 64,241 km² (14. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope was restored) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Bernard Lord (PC) Area 72 908 km² (8th) Land 71 450 km² Water 1 458 km² (2. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (One defends and the other conquers) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant Governor Myra Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Area 55,283 km² (12th) Land 53,338 km² Water 1,946 km² (3. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (From many peoples, strength) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant Governor Lynda M. Haverstock Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Area 651,036 km² (7th) Land 591,670 km² Water 59,366 km² (9. ... Motto: Quaerite Primum Regnum Dei (Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital St. ... Motto: none Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Jack Cable Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Area 482,443 km² (9th) Land 474,391 km² Water 8,052 km² (1. ...


The Supreme Court of Canada has ruled, on a reference question (Re: Same-Sex Marriage, 2004) that the government has the authority to amend the definition of marriage, but did not rule on whether or not such a change is required by the equality provisions of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Court stated that such a ruling is not necessary because the federal government had accepted the rulings of lower courts. The Court also ruled that religious institutions could not be required to perform same-sex marriages. The Supreme Court Building in Ottawa The Supreme Court of Canada is Canadas highest court and is located in the capital city of Ottawa. ... A Reference Question in Canada is a submission by the federal or a provincial government to the Supreme Court of Canada or the provinces respective Court of Appeal in which the submitting government would like the court to answer a legal question regarding the Constitution Acts, the constitutionality of... The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is a constitutionally entrenched bill of rights which forms part of the Constitution of Canada adopted in 1982. ...


The original case that lead to the legalisaton of same-sex marriage in Canada came from the act of Rev. Brent Hawkes of the Metropolitan Community Church of Toronto who married two same sex couples within his congregation and then challenged the authorities to register these marriages. Rev. ... The Metropolitan Community Church (in full, The Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches or UFMCC) is an international fellowship of Protestant Christian congregations. ... }|135px|City of Toronto, Ontario Official Flag]]|Coat Image=[[Image:{{{Coat Image}}}|135px|City of Toronto, Ontario Coat of Arms]]}} {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Diversity Our Strength {{Canadian City/Location Image is:{{{Location Image Type}}}|[[Image:{{{Location Image}}}|thumbnail|center|250px|City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada...


As of November 11th, 2004 the Canadian federal government's immigration department considers same-sex marriages valid for the purposes of sponsoring a spouse to immigrate. See also CIC and Same-sex marriage in Canada Immigration authorities there had previously considered long-term same-sex relationships to be equivalent to similar heterosexual relationships as grounds for sponsorship. Same-sex marriage was legalized across Canada by the Civil Marriage Act enacted on July 20, 2005. ...


The Canadian federal government introduced a bill for a law called the Civil Marriage Act to legalize same-sex marriage nationally. This bill (Bill C-38) was passed by the Canadian House of Commons on June 28, 2005, despite heated and vocal opposition from the Conservative Party of Canada (the official opposition). It was then passed by the Senate on July 19, 2005 and received Royal Assent on July 20, 2005. It is now the law across Canada. The word federal in a general sense refers to the nature of an agreement between or among two or more states, nations, or other groups to merge into a union in which control of common affairs is held by a central authority created by and with the consent of the... The Civil Marriage Act (full title: An Act respecting certain aspects of legal capacity for marriage for civil purposes) was introduced as Bill C-38 in the first session of the 38th Canadian Parliament on February 1, 2005. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, which also includes the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... (Some entries on this page have been duplicated on August 1. ... 2005(MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada) is a right wing political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Senate (French: Sénat) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, which also includes the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, or the Sovereigns representative in Commonwealth Realms, completes the process of the enactment of legislation by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 2005(MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Following the passage of Bill C-38, the government of Prince Edward Island initially refused to grant marriage licenses to same-sex couples on the grounds that the wording on the necessary documents had not yet been updated and that this would not be able to be completed until the fall sitting of the legislature at the earliest [8] [9]. The province did pledge that it would make the necessary changes. However, following complaints charging that the imposed delay was illegal and infringed the legal rights of same-sex couples, the province reversed its position and the first same-sex marriage on Prince Edward Island occurred on August 20, 2005 [10]. The two territories without same-sex marriage had also previously indicated they would comply with federal law. The Alberta government, although strongly opposed, has stated that it will register same-sex marriages, but will work to protect those who oppose it on social, cultural or religious grounds. Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (The small under the protection of the great) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Lieutenant Governor J. Léonce Bernard Premier Pat Binns (PC) Area 5,660 km² (13th) Land 5,660 km² Water 0 km² (0%) Population (2004) Population 137,900... Motto: Fortis et Liber (Strong and free) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Area 661,848 km² (6th) Land 642,317 km² Water 19,531 km² (2. ...


United States

Main article: Same-sex marriage in the United States Same-sex marriage, often referred to as gay marriage, indicates a marriage between two persons of the same sex. ...

Rosie O'Donnell and wife Kelli Carpenter speaking after their wedding on February 26, 2004 in San Francisco.
Rosie O'Donnell and wife Kelli Carpenter speaking after their wedding on February 26, 2004 in San Francisco.

As of September 2005 in the United States, only the state of Massachusetts recognizes same-sex marriage, while California, Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, New Jersey and Vermont grant persons in same-sex unions a similar legal status to those in a civil marriage by domestic partnership, civil union or reciprocal beneficiary laws. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Rosie ODonnell (on right) and wife Kelli Carpenter-ODonnell speaking after their wedding on February 26, 2004 in San Francisco. ... Kelli Carpenter is a former Nickelodeon marketing executive. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The downtown San Francisco skyline, looking east from the central part of the city. ... State nickname: Bay State Other U.S. States Capital Boston Largest city Boston Governor Mitt Romney (R) Official languages English Area 27,360 km² (44th)  - Land 20,317 km²  - Water 7,043 km² (25. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... State nickname: The Constitution State Other U.S. States Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Governor M. Jodi Rell (R) Official languages English Area 14,371 km² (48th)  - Land 12,559 km²  - Water 1,809 km² (12. ... ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle (R) Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... State nickname: The Pine Tree State Other U.S. States Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Governor John Baldacci (D) Official languages None Area 86,542 km² (39th)  - Land 80,005 km²  - Water 11,724 km² (13. ... State nickname: The Garden State Other U.S. States Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Governor Richard Codey (D)Acting Official languages None defined Area 22,608 km² (47th)  - Land 19,231 km²  - Water 3,378 km² (14. ... State nickname: The Green Mountain State Other U.S. States Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Governor Jim Douglas (R) Official languages None Area 24,923 km² (45th)  - Land 23,974 km²  - Water 949 km² (3. ...


Sixteen states have constitutional amendments explicitly barring the recognition of same-sex marriage[11], confining civil marriage to a legal union between a man and a woman. Twenty-seven states have legal statutes defining marriage to two persons of the opposite-sex. A small number of states ban any legal recognition of same-sex unions that would be equivalent to civil marriage.


During the 2004 U.S. Presidential elections the question of whether same-sex unions should be recognized by the government became a paramount wedge issue. A strong faction within the Republican Party, the Christian Right sought a federal amendment banning any recognition of same-sex unions by any name. This position was adopted by the party's platform. Ten of the states with amendments banning same-sex marriage passed during these elections. Wedge issue is a term describing a social or political issue that is used by politicians as a ploy to split an opposing political partys support base and thereby entice voters to shift their support from one party to another. ... Republican Party is a name used by many political parties. ... Christian Right is a term collectively referring to a spectrum of conservative Christian political and social movements and organizations characterized by their strong support of traditional social values in the United States and other western countries. ...


President George W. Bush chose to support the Federal Marriage Amendment banning same-sex marriage while agreeing with the concept of federalism, that states themselves should settle other arrangements such as civil union, domestic partnership and reciprocal beneficiary. The Federal Marriage Amendment failed in the U.S. Senate by a greater than expected number, with several members of the Republican Party defying the party's platform. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States and a former Governor of the State of Texas. ... The silly silly page (FMA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution which would define marriage in the United States as a union of one man and one woman. ... Federalism is a system of government in which power is constitutionally divided between a central authority and constituent political units (like states or provinces). ...


Advocates of same-sex marriage gathered support from African-American associations, feminists, scientists, Jews, Hispanic groups, celebrities, labor unions and the gay rights movement. A few Democratic Party state platforms endorsed same-sex marriage as well. Fourteen states that attempted to ban same-sex marriage by constitutional amendment failed in 2004 and six have failed in 2005. [12] There are many political parties of diverse political orientation called the Democratic Party or similar. ...


Courts in the state of Hawaii in 1993 ruled that same-sex couples were entitled to same rights as married opposite-sex couples under their state’s Equal Protection Clause. Polls at the time indicated that the majority of residents favored allowing same-sex marriage, possibly due to predominantly non-European demographics. After the ruling many traditionalist Christian organizations from the American South poured substantial funds into the state in a public relations blitz attacking the ruling, and in 1998, Hawaiian voters amended their state Constitution to give their legislature the right to restrict marriage rights. The legislature created reciprocal benefits for same-sex couples; however this type of partnership contained substantially less rights than a marriage. State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle (R) Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


In a partial response to the rulings in Hawaii the United States Congress in 1996 passed the Defense of Marriage Act. (Regarding the name of the act, see below.) The Act is meant to prevent the courts from using the Constitution's Full Faith and Credit clause to bring same-sex marriage to states that have rejected it by forcing one state to recognize the marriages of another state. The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The Defense of Marriage Act, or DOMA is a federal law of the United States passed by Congress and signed by President Bill Clinton on September 21, 1996. ... Full faith and credit is mutual understanding between courts of the 50 states of the United States to recognize, honor and enforce each others actions. ...


In Alaska in 1998, a preliminary court ruling required state attorneys to demonstrate a compelling state interest for banning same-sex marriages. Before the court case could proceed, voters approved an amendment to the state constitution prohibiting same-sex unions. State nickname: The Last Frontier, The Land of the Midnight Sun Other U.S. States Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Governor Frank Murkowski (R) Official languages English Area 1,067,653 mi² / 1,717,854 km² (1st)  - Land 1,481,347 km²  - Water 236,507 km² (13. ...


The Vermont Supreme Court in 1999 ruled that their state legislature must establish equal rights for same-sex couples similar to those of married opposite-sex couples. Legislators elected to create state level civil unions as what they argued was a middle-ground; this was signed into law by then-governor Howard Dean. The California legislature in 2003 approved legislation creating an equivalent of marriage on a state level for same-sex couples. Governor Gray Davis signed the domestic partnerships into law and it came into force in 2005. State nickname: The Green Mountain State Other U.S. States Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Governor Jim Douglas (R) Official languages None Area 24,923 km² (45th)  - Land 23,974 km²  - Water 949 km² (3. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday Anno Domini (or the Current Era), and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... A civil union is one of several terms for a civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing homosexual couples access to the benefits enjoyed by married heterosexuals (see also same-sex marriage); it can also be used by couples of differing sexes who do not... Howard Brush Dean III, M.D. (born November 17, 1948) is a prominent American Democratic politician, currently serving as chairman of the Democratic National Committee. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... 2003(MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Graham Davis Jr. ... Domestic partner or domestic partnership identifies the personal relationship between individuals who are living together and sharing a common domestic life together but are not joined in any type of legal partnership, marriage or civil union. ... 2005(MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court on November 18, 2003, ruled in the case of Goodridge v. Department of Public Health that same-sex marriages are allowed under the state’s Equal Protection Clause. The court stayed its ruling until May 17, 2004. Beginning on that date, hundreds of same-sex couples were legally married in Massachusetts. The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court is the highest court in the United States commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years), with 43 remaining. ... 2003(MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Holding The denial of marriage licenses to same-sex couples violated provisions of the state constitution guaranteeing individual liberty and equality, and was not rationally related to a legitimate state interest. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ...


Many municipalities in early 2004 wedded same-sex couples. These marriages took place in the states of California, New York, Oregon, New Mexico and New Jersey. All of them have been halted since and the marriages voided. New Jersey, District of Columbia and Maine legislators in 2004 approved domestic partnership laws granting same-sex couples all the same rights as a marriage on a state level. A Washington Court in 2004 ruled that the state must allow same-sex marriages. The ruling is currently pending an appeal to the state Supreme Court. State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York City Governor George Pataki (R) Official languages None (English is de facto) Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... State nickname: Beaver State Other U.S. States Capital Salem Largest city Portland Governor Ted Kulongoski (D) Official languages None Area 255,026 km² (9th)  - Land 248,849 km²  - Water 6,177 km² (2. ... State nickname: Land of Enchantment Other U.S. States Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Governor Bill Richardson Official languages English and Spanish Area 315,194 km² (5th)  - Land 314,590 km²  - Water 607 km² (0. ... State nickname: The Garden State Other U.S. States Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Governor Richard Codey (D)Acting Official languages None defined Area 22,608 km² (47th)  - Land 19,231 km²  - Water 3,378 km² (14. ... State nickname: The Garden State Other U.S. States Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Governor Richard Codey (D)Acting Official languages None defined Area 22,608 km² (47th)  - Land 19,231 km²  - Water 3,378 km² (14. ... ... State nickname: The Pine Tree State Other U.S. States Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Governor John Baldacci (D) Official languages None Area 86,542 km² (39th)  - Land 80,005 km²  - Water 11,724 km² (13. ... 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... State nickname: The Evergreen State Other U.S. States Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Governor Christine Gregoire (D) Official languages None Area 184,824 km² (18th)  - Land 172,587 km²  - Water 12,237 km² (6. ...


The Native American Cherokee Nation in 2004 issued a moratorium on same-sex marriages while they consider their validity after a lesbian couple applied for a marriage. Due to their tribal sovereignty theoretically if they allowed them the government would have to recognize it. The Tribal Council unanimously approved a Constitutional amendment stating that the Cherokee defines marriage as between one man and one woman. The couple have appealed to the judicial court, on grounds that their union predated the amendment. Alternate meanings: Cherokee (disambiguation) The Cherokee (ah-ni-yv-wi-ya in Cherokee) are a people native to North America who at time of European contact in the 16th century inhabited what is now the eastern and southeastern United States before most were forcefully moved to the Ozark Plateau. ... 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tribal sovereignty is the ability of a tribe to govern itself. ...


On February 4, 2005, a New York state judge ruled that New York had to allow same sex couples to wed. This ruling, which is stayed pending an appeal by New York City's mayor, Michael Bloomberg, would only apply to New York City, although a ruling unfavorable to the state's position by an appellate court would apply to a larger geographic area. See Same-sex marriage in New York. More recently, on March 15, 2005, the San Francisco County Superior Court ruled that California's state constitution forbids discrimination against same-sex couples wishing to be married, stating that there is "no rational purpose" for the ban and comparing it to racial segregation. As in New York, this ruling is stayed pending appeal. See Same-sex marriage in California. State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York City Governor George Pataki (R) Official languages None (English is de facto) Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the United States, the most densely populated major city in North America, and is at the center of international finance, politics, entertainment, and culture. ... Michael Bloomberg Michael Rubens Mike Bloomberg (born February 14, 1942) is a prominent businessman, the founder of Bloomberg L.P., and the 108th and current Mayor of New York City. ... Same-sex marriage has yet to become firmly established in New York state; to date, Jason West of New Paltz has officiated at a number of same-sex weddings in February 2004 whose legal status is uncertain, and more recently (February 2005), a New York state court has struck down... Same-sex marriage in California: On March 14, 2005 San Francisco Superior Court Judge Richard Kramer ruled that gay and lesbian couples in California have a constitutional right to marry. ...


On April 20, 2005, Connecticut became the first state in the Union that legalized same-sex civil unions without a court order. Legislators in Maryland approved a domestic partnership bill in 2005; however on May 22 the Governor vetoed the bill, legislators are now pursuing an override of the veto. April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... State nickname: The Constitution State Other U.S. States Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Governor M. Jodi Rell (R) Official languages English Area 14,371 km² (48th)  - Land 12,559 km²  - Water 1,809 km² (12. ... State nickname: Old Line State; Free State Other U.S. States Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Governor Robert L. Ehrlich (R) Official languages English Area 32,160 km² (42nd)  - Land 25,338 km²  - Water 6,968 km² (21%) Population (2000)  - Population 5,296,486 (19th)  - Density 165 /km² (5th) Admission...


On May 12, 2005, a federal judge in Omaha struck down Nebraska's constitutional ban on same-sex marriages, civil unions, domestic partnerships, and other same-sex relationships. U.S. District Judge Joseph Bataillon ruled that the ban, known as Initiative 416, violates the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... Location in Nebraska Founded  -Incorporated 1854 1857  County Douglas County Mayor Michael Fahey Area  - Total  - Water 1290. ... State nickname: Cornhusker State Other U.S. States Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Governor Dave Heineman (R) Official languages English Area 200,520 km² (16th)  - Land 199,099 km²  - Water 1,247 km² (0. ... The Equal Protection Clause is a part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, providing that no state shall. ... The Fourteenth Amendment may refer to the: Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution - contains the due process and equal protection clauses. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...


Elsewhere in 2005 the Governor of Utah proposed reciprocal benefits for same-sex couples. The measure was defeated and he has promised to revisit the issue in 2006. Legislation creating domestic partnerships is currently pending in Arizona and New Mexico. Civil union bills are pending as well in Montana and Oregon. Courts are considering same-sex marriage in Florida and Maryland. // History Early history Native Americans have lived in Utah for several thousand years; most archeological evidence dates such habitation about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. ... State nickname: The Grand Canyon State, The Copper State Other U.S. States Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Governor Janet Napolitano (D) Official languages English Only State Area 295,254 km² (6th)  - Land 294,312 km²  - Water 942 km² (0. ... State nickname: Land of Enchantment Other U.S. States Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Governor Bill Richardson Official languages English and Spanish Area 315,194 km² (5th)  - Land 314,590 km²  - Water 607 km² (0. ... State nickname: Treasure State Other U.S. States Capital Helena Largest city Billings Governor Brian Schweitzer (D) Official languages English Area 381,156 km² (4th)  - Land 377,295 km²  - Water 3,862 km² (1%) Population (2000)  - Population 902,195 (44th)  - Density 2. ... State nickname: Beaver State Other U.S. States Capital Salem Largest city Portland Governor Ted Kulongoski (D) Official languages None Area 255,026 km² (9th)  - Land 248,849 km²  - Water 6,177 km² (2. ... State nickname: Sunshine State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush (R) Official languages English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ... State nickname: Old Line State; Free State Other U.S. States Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Governor Robert L. Ehrlich (R) Official languages English Area 32,160 km² (42nd)  - Land 25,338 km²  - Water 6,968 km² (21%) Population (2000)  - Population 5,296,486 (19th)  - Density 165 /km² (5th) Admission...


On September 6, 2005, the California State Legislature became the first state legislative body to approve a same sex marriage bill. The legislation passed after an earlier defeat in the State Assembly in June of 2005. The legislation is, however, to be vetoed by California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947 in Thal, Styria, Austria) is an Austrian-American actor, Republican politician, bodybuilder, and businessman, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ...


Potentially serious legal issues arise from the conflict between state domestic partnership/same-sex-marriage laws, and the structure of U.S. Federal law, which, under the Defense of Marriage Act, explicitly does not extend Federal law recognition to those unions. This means that, for example, though they may essentially "married" under the law of some states, partners would not be entitled to spousal "collateral" rights to Social Security, to spouse benefits in the other partner's private employer pension (if that pension is governed by ERISA) and will not be treated as "spouses" for purposes of any Federal tax law.


Australia

Main article: Same-sex marriage in Australia Same-sex marriage is not recognised under Australian federal law. ...


Australia currently recognizes same-sex partnerships in all but two of its states: Victoria and South Australia. South Australia as of 2005 has legislation pending allowing the recognition of same-sex partnerships. Australian Prime Minister John Howard proposed an amendment to the marriage laws banning same-sex marriages, while allowing current domestic partnerships to continue to be determined on a state and territorial level: the same-sex marriage ban passed in 2004. He also barred same-sex couples from adopting children. Motto: United for the Common Wealth Nickname: Festival State Other Australian states and territories Capital Adelaide Government Governor Premier Const. ... A prime minister may be either: the chief or leading member of the cabinet of the top-level government in a country having a parliamentary system of government; or the official, in countries with a semi-presidential system of government, appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939), Australian politician and 25th Prime Minister of Australia, came to office on 11 March 1996 and gained re-election in 1998, 2001 and 2004. ...


It can be argued that the Victorian Statute Law Amendment (Relationships) Act 2001 recognises domestic partnerships as being a couple who live together on a genuine domestic basis irrespective of gender. Whilst this is not explicit recognition of same-sex partnerships, the approach ensures equality of not only heterosexual and homosexual defacto or common law relationships, but other possible permutations which may or may not be based upon a sexual relationship.


Nevertheless, since other relationship issues such as compulsory Superannuation are governed federally, discrimination against gays remains and is unlikely to change in the near future.


Other forms of same-sex partnership

The movement towards the legal recognition of same-sex marriages has resulted in changes in the law in many jurisdictions, though the extent of the changes have varied:

Even in jurisdictions where they are not legally recognized, many gay and lesbian couples choose to have weddings (also called "commitment ceremonies" in this context) to celebrate and affirm their relationship, fulfilling the social aspect of a marriage. Such ceremonies have no legal validity, however, and as such do not deal with issues such as inheritance, property rights or social security. A civil union is one of several terms for a civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing same-sex couples access to the benefits enjoyed by married opposite-sex couples (see also same-sex marriage); it can also be used by opposite-sex couples who... A U.S. state is any one of the fifty states (four of which officially favor the term commonwealth) which, together with the District of Columbia and Palmyra Atoll (an uninhabited incorporated unorganized territory), form the United States of America. ... State nickname: The Green Mountain State Other U.S. States Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Governor Jim Douglas (R) Official languages None Area 24,923 km² (45th)  - Land 23,974 km²  - Water 949 km² (3. ... State nickname: The Constitution State Other U.S. States Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Governor M. Jodi Rell (R) Official languages English Area 14,371 km² (48th)  - Land 12,559 km²  - Water 1,809 km² (12. ... Beginning in 1963, a terrorist group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices and at least two murders by FLQ gunfire and three violent deaths by bombings. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (One defends and the other conquers) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant Governor Myra Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Area 55,283 km² (12th) Land 53,338 km² Water 1,946 km² (3. ... The Australian states and territories comprise the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... Motto: Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites (Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine) Nickname: First State, Premier State Other Australian states and territories Capital Sydney Government Governor Premier Const. ... Motto: Cygnis Insignis (Distinguished by its swans) Nickname: Wildflower State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Governor Premier Const. ... Motto: Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Nickname: The Apple Isle Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Governor Premier Const. ... Motto: Pro Rege, Lege et Grege (For the Queen, the Law and the People) Nickname: (none) Other Australian states and territories Capital Canberra Government Administrator Chief Minister Const. ... Buenos Aires (Good Airs in Spanish, originally meaning Fair Winds) is the capital of Argentina and its largest city and port, as well as one of the largest cities in South America. ... Domestic partner or domestic partnership identifies the personal relationship between individuals who are living together and sharing a common domestic life together but are not joined in any type of legal partnership, marriage or civil union. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A lesbian is a homosexual woman. ... Nubian wedding with some international modern touches, near Aswan, Egypt A wedding is a civil or religious ceremony at which the beginning of a marriage is celebrated. ...


Some writers have advanced the idea that the term "marriage" should be restricted to a religious context and that state and federal governments should not be involved in a religious rite. Some regard this as a governmental intrusion into religion; they believe that all statutes involving domestic contracts should replace the word "marriage" with "domestic partnership" and thus bypass the controversy of gender. This would then allow a domestic contract between any two individuals who have attained their majority.


Conservative critics like National Review's Jennifer Morse respond that the conflation of marriage with contractual agreements is itself a threat to marriage that "has undermined more heterosexual marriages than anything, with the possible exception of adultery." [13] National Review (NR) is a conservative political magazine founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ...


Controversy

The moral legitimacy of marriage between two people of the same sex hinges on how the authoritative definition of marriage is derived. If marriage is to have a religious foundation, the interpretation of religious texts and traditions will be key; if marriage is a social institution, legal agreement, or even a purely economic coupling, then pragmatic arguments will have more force (though moral issues will no doubt still arise). Gay rights advocates assert that marriage is a right since it is a legal agreement on the governmental level which should not be restricted to opposite-sex couples. Their opponents assert that same-sex "marriage" is not itself a right and should not be allowed on moral and/or religious grounds, or on the grounds that it will lead to a breakdown of the definition of marriage or of civil society. A moral in basically me doing your mom. ... Marriage is a legal, social, and religious relationship between individuals which has formed the foundation of the family for most societies. ... A social institution is any institution in a socity that works to socialize the groups or people in it. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also...


Most of the controversy centers around the government definition of marriage, rather than the blessing of same sex unions by individual religious organizations, which may or may not be recognized as civil marriages. The blessing of same sex unions is a practice in some parishes of the Anglican Church of Canada and the Episcopal Church in the USA. The Diocese of New Westminster and the Episcopal Church (USA) both took synodical action to authorise public Rites for the Blessing of same sex unions. ... Marriage is a relationship that plays a key role in the definition of many people who (usually) are in a sexual relationship. ...


The debate is often perceived as being same sex marriage advocates vs. religious (especially fundamentalist) or moral opponents. However, corporations and other groups sometimes give opposition or support to same-sex marriage not on any religious or moral grounds but instead with the aim aquiring some material benefit for their position.


Those in favour of same-sex marriage argue that homosexuals contribute as much as heterosexuals to the funding for private and public family coverage even when they have no access to it, and that discrimination decreases productivity. They support the equalization of male-male, female-female, and male-female relationships, and being able to marry whomever one chooses is seen as a civil right that should not be abridged by the government.


Opponents answer that this view of marriage reduces marriage to little more than a means test for social benefits. They also see that same-sex and male-female arrangements are inherently unequal, citing the fact that nothing less than humanity itself relies fully on the latter and not at all on the former, and trying to "equalize" such arrangements through force of law will only create gross social distortions to accommodate the gulf between such law and the observable facts of human nature.


Some countries and states/provinces have judicial rulings that set precedence for same sex marriage. However, popular majorities in some places continue to assert that the traditional concept of marriage cannot exist outside of a heterosexual relationship. To them, the male-female relationship has unique capacities and qualities that marriage was meant to recognize and foster that are not adequately acknowledged by the above definition.


Religious arguments

Some opponents object to same-sex marriage on religious grounds, arguing that extending marriage to same-sex couples undercuts the conventional meaning of marriage in various traditions or goes against the word of God, does not fulfill any procreational role, or sanctions a partnership centered around "aberrant" or "immoral" sexual acts. For example, James Dobson, in Marriage Under Fire and elsewhere, argues that legalization or even tolerance of same-sex "marriage" would redefine the family and lead to confusion in youths about their sexual identities[14]. // Overview Religious views of homosexuality have varied widely. ... Dr. James Dobson Dr. James Clayton Dobson (born April 21, 1936) is a conservative Christian psychologist who presents a daily radio program called Focus on the Family on over 6,000 stations worldwide in more than a dozen languages. ... Marriage Under Fire: Why We Must Win This Battle is a book by Dr. James Dobson, published by Multnomah Publishers, Inc. ...


Proponents suggest that, under the principles of religious pluralism and the separation of church and state, religious arguments should not be used to constitute the law. Religious pluralism is the belief that one can overcome religious differences between different religions, and denominational conflicts within the same religion. ... The separation of church and state is a concept and philosophy in modern thought and practice, whereby the structures of state or national government are proposed as needing to be separate from those of religious institutions. ...


It should be noted that not all religious people oppose gay marriage. Reverend F. Russell Baker, of the United Church of Christ, who personally experienced discrimination because of his interracial marriage with an African-American woman shortly after the repeal of anti-miscegenation laws in the U.S., argues that The United Church of Christ (UCC) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States, generally considered within the Reformed tradition, and formed in 1957 by the merger of two denominations, the Evangelical and Reformed Church and the Congregational Christian Churches. ... An interracial couple is a romantic couple or marriage in which the partners are of differing races. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans, Black Americans, or simply blacks are an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to West and Central Africa. ... Miscegenation is a pejorative describing sexual/romantic relations, intermarriage, and/or the production of offspring between members of different races (sometimes religion). ...

Some of the same segregationists of the past are now the enthusiastic proponents of these new anti–gay marriage laws... [I]f one listens carefully to the gay and lesbian community, one discovers that often after much turmoil, a person comes to the conclusion that they were created this way... No one ever said understanding God’s will for us would be easy... Jesus said we need to accept others, care for others, and love others just as God accepts, cares for, and loves

He concludes "There will come a time when we will look back upon [banning gay marriage in eleven states] for the shame it is. I hope it will be soon."[15]


A fundamental concern of some people is that the legalization of same-sex marriage will lead to a direct attack via lawsuits against religions to force them to perform marriage ceremonies of which they do not approve, and additionally that established churches could be bankrupted by these types of lawsuits. This may be a realistic fear only in jurisdictions which restrict freedom of religion. Freedom of religion is a modern legal concept of being free as a matter of right, while freedom of worship is based upon the free expression of that right. ...


Societal arguments

Those who advocate that marriage should be defined exclusively as the union of one man and one woman argue that only a heterosexual union can provide the procreative foundation of the family unit that they see as the chief social building block of civilization. They argue that the definition proposed by same-sex marriage advocates changes the social importance of marriage from morality to mere custom, and may refer to themselves as "defenders" of traditional marriage. As any customary relationship may be considered "marriage", some argue that this then leads to undue legislative burden and an affront to the social value and responsibility of parenting one's own children. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Custom: a common practice among people, especially depending on country, culture, time and religion. ...


Some other people object to same-sex marriage on the grounds that the purpose of marriage is a procreative partnership and that the same-sex partnership is inherently sterile. Some who hold this view see marriage as the social codification of an evolved long-term mating strategy, with economic and legal benefits to facilitate family growth and stability. These people generally do not carry over their objections to sterile heterosexual couples.


Some same-sex marriage proponents, such as Andrew Sullivan, argue that same-sex marriage retains enough moral underpinning to support the familial role marriage plays in society despite the absence of a direct (that is, unassisted by medical or social agencies) procreative element. Also that the institution of marriage would be strengthened by making it available to more people, and argue further that same-sex marriage would encourage gays and lesbians to settle down with one partner and raise families. Others argue that marriage no longer retains a procreative function of the government since many governments offer child tax-credits and assistance regardless of marital status. Andrew Sullivan Andrew Sullivan (born August 10, 1963) is a British-American blogger and journalist, known both for his heterodox personal-political identity (HIV-positive, gay, libertarian/conservative and Catholic) and for his pioneering efforts in the field of weblog journalism. ...


Some libertarians object to same-sex marriage because they are opposed to any form of state-sanctioned marriage, including opposite-sex unions. They are not necessarily opposed to the idea of a same-sex wedding itself, only that the government should not have any role in the event, nor for that matter should government approval be sought for opposite-sex marriages. See Libertarian perspectives on gay rights. This article is about libertarianism, a liberal individualist philosophy favoring private property (the most common meaning of the term today in the US, Canada, the UK and most other English-speaking countries). ... The libertarian perspective on gay rights has been a topic of debate among libertarians, especially US-Americans. ...


Arguments about tradition

There have been many ritual homosexual unions practiced historically that provide many of the same benefits entitled traditionally to marriages. Some cultures have considered a set of strictly defined and regulated homosexual qualities to denote a gender that transcended both male and female. As possessors of a third gender, such people could marry either men or women. Some people in the position to write the law for their country indulged themselves in calling some of their same-gender relationships a marriage, though they assumed no familial attachment. Calling a heterosexual union the same legal term as a homosexual union for a whole state or society is only a recent occurrence.


With some notable exceptions, most societies have utilized a definition of marriage that included at least one man and one woman. Some societies have from ancient times permitted spouses to have multiple concurrent marriages (polygamy). In polygamous marriages one person, a man (polygyny) or a woman (polyandry), takes many spouses of the opposite sex; these spouses are not married to each other, but are all married to the same person. Group marriages in which three or more people all marry each other have been very rare. Many societies discourage the practice of polygamy nowadays. The term polygamy (literally much marriage in late Greek) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ... The term polygyny (neo-Greek: poly+gyne woman) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ... In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly many, andros man) means a female forming a stable sexual union with more than one male. ... Group marriage or Circle Marriage is a form of marriage in which more than one man and more than one woman form a family unit, and all members of the marriage share parental responsibility for any children arising from the marriage. ...


Proponents of same-sex marriage point out that so-called "traditional" concepts of marriage in actuality have already undergone significant change (see History of Civil Marriage in the U.S.). Besides the abolition of polygamy in most modern societies, for example, married women are also no longer considered the property of their husbands (see the legal rights of women), divorce is legal, contraception within wedlock is allowed (Griswold v. Connecticut in U.S.), and anti-miscegenation laws forbidding interracial marriage have been eliminated. Civil marriage has undergone significant changes in the United States since the countrys inception: 1830 - Right of married woman to own property in her own name (instead of all property being owned exclusively by the husband) in Mississippi. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage, which can be contrasted with an annulment which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody and distribution of property. ... Estelle Griswold, in front of the New Haven, Connecticut Planned Parenthood Holding A Connecticut law criminalizing the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. ... Miscegenation is a pejorative describing sexual/romantic relations, intermarriage, and/or the production of offspring between members of different races (sometimes religion). ... An interracial couple is a romantic couple or marriage in which the partners are of differing races. ...


The fact that changes in the customs and protocols of marriage often occur gives rise to the argument that marriage is dynamic, and same-gender acceptance is only the latest evolution of the institution.


Arguments about inability to prohibit certain kinds of sex

Some [16] have made the parallel that equality in marriage would lead to an inability to ban certain kinds of sex, such as sodomy, even if it applied to both heterosexuals and homosexuals. In Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), the Court said that banning contraception violated "the right of marital privacy." In Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972), it extended the same privacy rights to unmarried people. Sodomy is a term of religious origin to characterise certain sexual acts. ... Estelle Griswold, in front of the New Haven, Connecticut Planned Parenthood Holding A Connecticut law criminalizing the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. ... Holding A Massachusetts law criminalizing the use of contraceptives by singal people violated the right to equal protection. ...


As the argument goes, if marriage is extended to homosexuals, then "the right of marital privacy" would mandate that sodomy must be permitted even if the state wishes to prohibit it for health reasons. Some claim that this argument is now moot due to the 2003 case titled Lawrence v. Texas. Sodomy is a term of religious origin to characterise certain sexual acts. ... Holding A Texas law prohibiting homosexual sodomy violated the liberty under the Fourteenth Amendment of adults to engage in private intimate conduct. ...


Some opponents also claim that allowing same-sex marriage will blur other common law precedents and lead to the legalization of various other perceived undesirable marriages including:

  • incestuous marriages: The counter-argument is that allowing same-sex couples to marry does not alter the restriction on consanguinous relationships.
  • marriages of convenience for tax or other reasons: The counter-argument is that these are already legal between people of the opposite sex.
  • marriages between humans and animals. Non-human animals, however, do not have the legal standing to consent into a marriage contract. This argument is not taken seriously by most commentators, and may be often considered insulting in comparing homosexual humans with animals.
  • polygamous/group marriages. The counter-argument is that allowing same-sex couples to marry does not change the restriction on the number of people who may contract a marriage. Furthermore, because of the reciprocal nature of many spousal rights and responsibilities, it would not be possible to give three-person groups equal rights and responsibilities as two-person groups. For example, if a government gives medical coverage to spouses of service members, then a service member with thirty spouses would either receive benefits far more valuable than one with only one spouse would or not all that service member's spouses would receive coverage.

Supporters of same-sex marriage state that, in the jurisdictions that have afforded legal recognition of same-sex unions, the dire consequences foretold by opponents have not come to pass. Incest is the sexual activity or marriage between very close family members (and sometimes friends in some societies). ... A marriage of convenience (plural marriages of convenience) is a marriage contracted for reasons other than the traditional reasons of love or family, that is, with a particular end in mind. ... Leda and the Swan, a 16th century copy after a lost painting by Michelangelo, 1530 (National Gallery, London) Zoophilia (from the Greek Zoon, animal, and Philia, friendship or love) is a paraphilia, defined as an affinity or sexual attraction by a human to non-human animals. ... Poly relationship (from polygamy, polyamory et al. ...


Some object on the grounds that same-sex couples should not be allowed to adopt or raise children or to have access to reproductive technologies, and that same-sex marriage would make such adoptions easier. Others simply do not recognize any pressing need for same-sex marriages.


Many people, while tolerant towards the sexual behaviour of others, see no reason to alter their society or government's traditional attitudes towards marriage and family. This could be considered an application of the precautionary principle. The precautionary principle, a phrase first used in English circa 1988, is the idea that if the consequences of an action are unknown, but are judged to have some potential for major or irreversible negative consequences, then it is better to avoid that action. ...


Arguments concerning equality

In the United States, proponents of marriage equality point out that there are over 1,049 federal laws in which "rights, benefits, and privileges are contingent on marital status" (United States General Accounting Office). See Rights and responsibilities of marriages in the United States for a partial list. A denial of rights or benefits without substantive due process, assert the proponents of marriage equality, directly contradicts the 14th Amendment of the US Constitution which provides for equal protection of all citizens. According to the United States Government Accountability Office, there are slightly over one thousand federal laws that treat married people differently from single people. ... Due process of law is a legal concept that ensures the government will respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights, when the government deprives a person of life, liberty, or property. ... Amendment XIV (the Fourteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution is one of the post-Civil War amendments and includes the due process and equal protection clauses (Section 1). ... The Equal Protection Clause is a part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, providing that no state shall make or enforce any law which shall. ...


In a 2003 case titled Lawrence v. Texas, the Supreme Court held that the right to private consensual sexual conduct was protected under the Fourteenth Amendment. Both supporters and detractors of same-sex marriage have noted that this ruling paved the way for subsequent decisions invalidating state laws prohibiting same-sex marriage. U.S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia noted as such in his dissenting opinion to Lawrence. Holding A Texas law prohibiting homosexual sodomy violated the liberty under the Fourteenth Amendment of adults to engage in private intimate conduct. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... Justice Antonin Scalia Justice Antonin Scalia (born March 11, 1936) has been a U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice since 1986. ...


Some opponents of extending marriage to same-sex couples claim that equality can be achieved with civil unions or other forms of legal recognition that don't go as far as to use the word "marriage" that's used for opposite-sex couples. An opposing argument, used by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in Goodridge v. Dept. of Public Health, is the following: "the dissimilitude between the terms "civil marriage" and "civil union" is not innocuous; it is a considered choice of language that reflects a demonstrable assigning of same-sex, largely homosexual, couples to second-class status" and also that "The history of our nation has demonstrated that separate is seldom, if ever, equal." A civil union is one of several terms for a civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing same-sex couples access to the benefits enjoyed by married opposite-sex couples (see also same-sex marriage); it can also be used by opposite-sex couples who... The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court is the highest court in the United States commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Holding The denial of marriage licenses to same-sex couples violated provisions of the state constitution guaranteeing individual liberty and equality, and was not rationally related to a legitimate state interest. ...


Some proponents of Same-sex marriage make a comparison between racial segregation and segregation of homosexual and heteresexual marriage classifications in civil law. They argue that dividing the concept of same sex marriage and differrent sex marriage is tantamount to "separate but equal" policies (like that overturned in the US Supreme Court case Brown Vs Board of Education, or anti-miscegenation laws (that were also overturned). It has been suggested that Apartheid outside South Africa be merged into this article or section. ... Separate but equal was a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African Americans and Americans of European descent would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc. ... Miscegenation is an archaic term invented in 1863 to describe people of different human races (usually one European and one African) producing offspring; the use of this term is invariably restricted to those who believe that the category race is meaningful when applied to human beings. ...


A brief presented by Cardinal Marc Ouellet, archbishop of Quebec, opposing the legal recognition of same-sex couples, argued that the decision to give such legal recognition is based on a false understanding of the meaning of equality between persons, as well as human dignity, and that "The equality and dignity of persons do not depend on race, religion, sex, sexual orientation or marital status. Their dignity and equality are based on the simple fact that they are members of the human race. To respect their dignity, neither the state nor society is obliged to legally accept their 'lifestyle' that has no reason to be publicly recognized as a social value." [17] A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official in the Roman Catholic Church, ranking just below the Pope and appointed by him as a member of the College of Cardinals during a consistory. ... Cardinal Ouellet His Eminence Marc Cardinal Ouellet (born June 8, 1944) is a Roman Catholic cardinal, Archbishop of Quebec and Primate of Canada. ... Beginning in 1963, a terrorist group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade of bombings, robberies and attacks on government offices and at least two murders by FLQ gunfire and three violent deaths by bombings. ...


One fundamental problem for any law banning same-sex marriage is defining the terms "man" and "woman". If defined genetically, both transsexuals and intersexed individuals would be prohibited from marrying partners of the "opposite" sex and therefore from heterosexual marriage. Just as recent same-sex marriages have been quickly overturned as null and void, so too could extant, long term marriages. More than one in one hundred newborns are to some degree physically aberrant from their genetic sex, with most of them undergoing some degree of surgical alteration. Making allowances for "medical circumstances" would prove difficult, as homosexuality is certainly to some extent biological and probably genetically influenced. In the United Kingdom, recent legislation allows transsexual persons to be officially recognized in their new gender, but this has the effect of annulling any previous marriage. However the couple will now be able to register a civil partnership, to come into force immediately on the dissolution of their marriage.


Further, in the final chapter of "Same- Sex Marriage? A Christian Ethical Analysis", [18] liberal Pastor Marvin Ellison advocates that "marriage" should not just be limited to two people (regardless of gender) because this sets up inequalities in rights for people involved in polyamorous relationships. Polyamory is the practice of having more than one loving relationship at the same time, with the full knowledge and consent of all partners involved. ...


Miscellaneous

The Etiquette of addressing same-sex couples is often questioned. Some people with friends who are in a same-sex marriage are unsure as to how to address them, since in English and other languages, married people may use a different form of address from single ones. Etiquette writer Judith Martin (Miss Manners) counsels that where the spouses have taken one name, they may be addressed as The Messrs. John and Richard Doe or Mmes. Alice and Carol Roe; otherwise, they may be addressed individually, as is done for other married couples with different surnames. [19] Etiquette is the code that governs the expectations of social behavior, the conventional norm. ... Etiquette is the code that governs the expectations of social behavior, the conventional norm. ... Judith Martin (born Judith Perlman on September 13, 1938), better known by the pen name Miss Manners, is an American writer and etiquette authority. ... Mr. ... Mrs. ...


Marriage organizers see legalization as a business opportunity, and claim that homosexual couples are interested in sophisticated ceremonies, both due to lack of established traditions and because of the enthusiasm that they have been building for years.


In a 2005 episode of The Simpsons ("There's Something About Marrying"), Springfield legalized gay marriage to attract the pink dollar. Homer, a safety inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, is a generally well-meaning buffoon whose short attention span often draws him into outrageous schemes and adventures. ... Theres Something About Marrying is an episode from the sixteenth season of The Simpsons. ... Springfield is the fictional city where the TV series The Simpsons is set, founded by Jebediah Springfield, located near Shelbyville. ...


See also

Commons
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The blessing of same sex unions is a practice in some parishes of the Anglican Church of Canada and the Episcopal Church in the USA. The Diocese of New Westminster and the Episcopal Church (USA) both took synodical action to authorise public Rites for the Blessing of same sex unions. ... The Freedom to Marry Coalition is a gay and non-gay partnership working to win marriage equality nationwide. ... A Log Cabin Republican poster, with the typical use of Abraham Lincoln The Log Cabin Republicans is a political organization in the United States, consisting of gay, lesbian and bisexual supporters of the Republican Party. ... The Marriage Protection Act is a bill considered by the U.S. Congress and passed by the House of Representatives in 2004, and reintroduced in the House in 2005, that sought to divest the power of the federal courts to hear cases related to the Marriage Protection Act itself, as... Marriage is a legal, social, and religious relationship between individuals which has formed the foundation of the family for most societies. ... Something most often seen in massively multiplayer online role-playing games, Online Weddings date all the way back to the beginning of online communities. ... // Overview Religious views of homosexuality have varied widely. ... Special rights is a political term used primarily by conservatives in the United States to refer to laws that prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation. ... Legal status of gay adoption in Europe. ...

Bibliography

Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952. ... Marriage Under Fire: Why We Must Win This Battle is a book by Dr. James Dobson, published by Multnomah Publishers, Inc. ... Dr. James Dobson Dr. James Clayton Dobson (born April 21, 1936) is a conservative Christian psychologist who presents a daily radio program called Focus on the Family on over 6,000 stations worldwide in more than a dozen languages. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

External links

General

New Scientist cover - 18 December 2004 New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 46 days remaining. ... The London Review of Books (or LRB) is a twice-monthly British literary magazine. ... 2 June is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... Sexual orientation refers to the sex or gender of people who are the focus of a persons amorous or erotic desires, fantasies, and spontaneous feelings, the gender(s) toward which one is primarily oriented. The alternative terms sexual preference and sexual inclination have similar meanings. ...

Specific country/state


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