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Encyclopedia > Gay Liberation

Gay Liberation (or Gay Lib) is the name used to describe the radical lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. The phrase is somewhat synonymous with the contemporary "gay rights movement" and broader LGBT movements, but following the academic use, this article is about movements of a particular historical period in the that shared similar goals and strategies. Gay Lib is also known for its links to the counterculture of the time, and for the Gay Liberationists' intent to transform fundamental institutions of society such as gender and the family. In order to achieve such liberation, consciousness raising and direct action were employed. By the late 1970s, the radicalism of Gay Liberation was eclipsed by a return to a more formal movement that espoused gay and lesbian civil rights. A lesbian is a woman who is romantically and sexually attracted only to other women. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... In human sexuality, bisexuality describes a man or woman having a sexual orientation to persons of either or both sexes (a man or woman who sexually likes both sexes; people who are sexually and/or romantically attracted to both males and females). ... Transgender is generally used as a catch-all umbrella term for a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups centered around the full or partial reversal of gender roles; however, compare other definitions below. ... LGBT movements is a collective term for a number of social movements that share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality and/or gender variance. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... A family in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by analogous or comparable relationships — including domestic partnership, cohabitation, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the... Look up Liberation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Consciousness-raising is process, as by group therapy, of achieving greater awareness of ones needs in order to fulfill ones potential as a person ... Direct action is a form of political activism which seeks immediate remedy for perceived ills, as opposed to indirect actions such as electing representatives who promise to provide remedy at some later date. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ...

Contents

Terminology

Specifically, the word 'gay' was preferred to previous designations such as homosexual or homophile; some saw 'gay' as a rejection of the false dichotomy heterosexual/homosexual. Lesbians and gays were urged to "come out", publicly revealing their sexuality to family, friends and colleagues as a form of activism, and to counter shame with gay pride. Coming out and Pride parades have remained an important part of modern LGBT movements, and the visibility of lesbian and gay communities has continued to grow. Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ... The logical fallacy of false dilemma, also known as fallacy of the excluded middle, false dichotomy, either/or dilemma or bifurcation, is to set up two alternative points of view as if they were the only options, when they are not. ... Coming out of the closet (very often shortened to coming out in winking reference to the public introduction of debutantes) describes the voluntary public announcement of ones (often homosexual or bisexual) sexual orientation or gender identity. ... The gay pride or simply pride campaign has three main premises: that people should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity, that sexual diversity is a gift, and that sexual orientation and gender identity are inherent and cannot be intentionally altered. ... Baton twirlers perform in the 2002 Divers/Cité pride parade in downtown Montreal A pride parade is part of a festival or ceremony held by the LGBT community of a city to commemorate the struggle for gay liberation, gay rights, and gay pride. ...


Origins and history of movement

Although the Stonewall riots in 1969 in New York are popularly remembered as the spark that produced a new movement, the origins of Gay Liberation predate this iconic event. Certainly, militant resistance to police bar-raids was nothing new — as early as 1725, customers fought off a police raid at a London homosexual/transgender molly house. Organised movements for LGBT rights, particularly in Western Europe, have been active since the 19th century, producing publications, forming social groups and campaigning for social and legal reform. The movements of the period immediately preceding Gay Lib, from the end of World War II to the late 1960s, are known collectively as the Homophile movement. The homophile movement has been described as "politically conservative", although their calls for social acceptance of same-sex love and transsexuality were seen as radical fringe views by the dominant culture of the time. By 1965, Dick Leitsch, the president of the Mattachine Society, advocated direct action, and the group staged the first public homosexual demonstrations and picket lines in the 1960s. By the late 1967, a New York group called the Homophile Youth Movement in Neighborhoods (HYMN) was already espousing the slogans "Gay Power" and "Gay is Good" in its publication HYMNAL. LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence This box:      The Stonewall riots were a series of violent conflicts between New York City police officers and groups of gay and transgendered people that began on June 28... In the eighteenth century, homosexuality in England was illegal, punishable by execution. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... // Homophile Movement The Homophile Movement is a complex group of lesbian, Gay and Transgender organizations whose roots predate Stonewall by decades. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Direct action is a form of political activism which seeks immediate remedy for perceived ills, as opposed to indirect actions such as electing representatives who promise to provide remedy at some later date. ... A man carries a sign at the September 24, 2005 anti-war protest, a demonstration in Washington, D.C. American Civil Rights March on Washington, leaders marching from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial, August 28, 1963. ...


The 1960s

The 1960s was a time of social upheaval in the West, and the sexual revolution and counterculture contributed to the growing homosexual subculture, which in the U.S. included bookshops, publicly sold magazines and a community center. These emerging social possibilities, combined with the new social movements such as Black Power, Women's Liberation, and the student insurrection of May 1968 in France, heralded a new era of radicalism. Many within Gay Liberation saw themselves as stemming from the New Left rather than the established homophile groups of the time. The words "Gay Liberation" echoed "Women's Liberation"; the Gay Liberation Front consciously took its name from the National Liberation Fronts of Vietnam and Algeria; and the slogan "Gay Power", as a defiant answer to the rights-oriented homophile movement, was inspired by Black Power, which was a response to the civil rights movement. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term new social movements (NSM) refers to a plethora of social movements that have come up in various western societies roughly since the mid-1960s (i. ... Tommie Smith (gold medal) and John Carlos (bronze medal) famously performed the Black Power salute on the 200 m winners podium at the 1968 Olympics. ... Feminism is a body of social theory and political movement primarily based on and motivated by the experiences of women. ... A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with stereotypical silhouette of General de Gaulle. ... The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Gay Liberation Front Poster, New York 1970 Gay Liberation Front (GLF) was the name of a number of Gay Liberation groups, the first of which was formed in New York City in 1969, immediately after the Stonewall riots. ... National Liberation Front is a common name for guerrilla organisations fighting to free their country from foreign rule, or at least claiming to be such an organisation. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


1969

On March 28 1969 in San Francisco, Leo Laurence (the editor of Vector, magazine of the United States' largest homophile organization, the Society for Individual Rights) called for "the Homosexual Revolution of 1969," exhorting gay men and lesbians to Join the Black Panthers and other left-wing groups and to "come out" en masse. Laurence was expelled from the organization in May for characterizing members as "timid" and "middle-class, uptight, bitchy old queens." He then co-founded a militant group, the Committee for Homosexual Freedom, with Gale Whittington--a young man who had been fired from States Steamship Company for being openly gay, after his photo appeared in the Berkley Barb, next to the headline "HOMOS, DON'T HIDE IT!", the revolutionary article by Leo Laurence. The same month Carl Wittman, a member of CHF, began writing Refugees from Amerika: A Gay Manifesto, which would later be described as "the bible of Gay Liberation". It was first published in the San Francisco Free Press and distributed nation-wide, all the way to New York City, as was the Berkeley Barb with Leo's stories on CHF's Gay Guerilla militant initiatives. Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a revolutionary Black nationalist organization in the United States that formed in the late 1960s and grew to national prominence before falling apart due to factional rivalries stirred up by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ...


In June of 1969, when a group of patrons of the Stonewall Inn (led by black and Hispanic transpeople) resisted a police raid, the ensuing rebellion was just the flashpoint that gay activists were looking for. Weeks after the event, on July 31, the Gay Liberation Front was formed, and the name of their magazine, "Come Out!", was an indication of their political program. By the end of the year, there were over a dozen like-minded groups around the United States. Their broad agenda included opposition to consumerism, militarism, racism, and sexism, but was primarily focused on "sexual liberation". The GLF's statement of purpose explained: LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence This box:      The Stonewall Inn in January 2003 The Stonewall Inn was the site of the famous Stonewall riots of 1969, which have come to symbolize the beginning of... Gay Liberation Front Poster, New York 1970 Gay Liberation Front (GLF) was the name of a number of Gay Liberation groups, the first of which was formed in New York City in 1969, immediately after the Stonewall riots. ... Consumerist redirects here. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · The Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Blood libel · Black Legend Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Ku Klux Klan National Party (South Africa) American Nazi Party Kahanism · Supremacism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children...

"We are a revolutionary group of men and women formed with the realization that complete sexual liberation for all people cannot come about unless existing social institutions are abolished. We reject society's attempt to impose sexual roles and definitions of our nature."

GLF activist Martha Shelley wrote, "We are women and men who, from the time of our earliest memories, have been in revolt against the sex-role structure and nuclear family structure."[1]


1970

By the summer of 1970, groups in at least eight American cities were sufficiently organized to schedule simultaneous events commemorating the Stonewall riots for the last Sunday in June. The events varied from a highly political march of three to five thousand in New York and thousands more at parades in Los Angeles, San Francisco and Chicago. Groups with a "Gay Lib" approach began to spring up around the world, such as Campaign Against Moral Persecution (CAMP, Inc.) in Australia and the British Gay Liberation Front. The lesbian group Lavender Menace was also formed in the U.S in response to both the male domination of other Gay Lib groups and the anti-lesbian sentiment in the Women's Movement. Lesbianism was advocated as a feminist choice for women, and the first currents of lesbian separatism began to emerge. The Lavender Menace is a group of radical lesbians formed in New York in 1970. ... Lesbian separatism refers to a range of extreme positions within the feminist and gay liberation movements. ...


In August of the same year, Huey Newton, the leader of the Black Panthers, publicly expressed his support for the Gay Liberation and Women's Liberation movements. Huey P. Newton (February 17, 1942 - August 22, 1989) was co-founder and inspirational leader of the Black Panther Party, a militant African-American activist group. ...


1971

Although a short-lived group, the Comite Pederastique de la Sorbonne, had meetings during the student uprising of May 1968, the real public debut of the modern gay liberation movement in France occurred on 10 March 1971, when a group of lesbians from the Front Homosexuel d'Action Révolutionnaire (FHAR) disrupted a live radio broadcast entitled “Homosexuality, This Painful Problem”.[2] The expert guests, including a Catholic priest, were suddenly interrupted by a group of lesbians from the audience, yelling, "It's not true, we're not suffering! Down with the heterocops!" The protesters stormed the stage, one young woman taking hold of the priest’s head and pounding it repeatedly against the table. The control room quickly cut off the microphones and switched to recorded music. A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with stereotypical silhouette of General de Gaulle. ... Gay Liberation (or Gay Lib) is the name used to describe the radical lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. ...


References

  1. ^ Shelley, Martha, 1970. Gay is Good.
  2. ^ Sibalis, Michael. 2005. Gay Liberation Comes to France: The Front Homosexuel d’Action Révolutionnaire (FHAR), Published in 'French History and Civilization. Papers from the George Rudé Seminar. Volume 1.' PDF link
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